Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub

55

Ventos et varium caeli praediscere morem
Cura sit ac patrios cultusque habitusque locorum,
Et quid quaeque ferat regio, et quid quaeque recuset.
Hic segetes, illic veniunt felicius- uvae;
Arborei fetus alibi, atque iniussa virescunt
Gramina. Nonne vides, croceos ut Tmolus odores,
India mittit ebur, molles sua tura Sabaei,
At Chalybes nudi ferrum, virosaque Pontus
Castorea, Eliadum palmas Epiros equarum ?
Continuo has leges aeternaque foedera certis
Inposuit natura locis, quo tempore primum
Deucalion vacuum lapides iactavit in orbem,
Unde homines nati, durum genus. Ergo age, terrae

60

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

experience shows. It is Nature's law, as derstanding croceos odores' of the pecuold as man's creation.'

liar smell of the Tmolian wine (2.98); but 50.] • At' Palatine MS. • Ac' Med. this seems very unlikely. Rom. The former seems better, as the poet 57.] • Mittit,' sends to Rome.' For the apparently interrupts himself.

indic. see on E. 4. 52. But Med. has 51.] The same question is raised by 'mittat,' which may be right. India pro. Varro at the outset of his work (1. 3. 4), duced the largest elephants (Pliny 8. 11), and also by Columella (1 pref.) who has whence ivory is called 'Indus dens' Catull. Virgil in his mind. Lucr. 1. 296 talks of 62 (64). 48. •Molles sua tura Sabaei :' the facta ac mores' of the winds.

“ odores, Quos tener e terra divite mittit 52.] • Patrios cultus,' as we should say, Arabs,” Tibull. 2. 2. 4. the agricultural antecedents of the spot, 58.] · At' used as in 2. 447, distinguishwhich is spoken of as if it were a person ing one part of an enumeration from another. with ancestors. So morem caeli' and 're- 'Chalybes' (Dict. G.), called oidnpotékcuset'imply personifications. The expres. TOVES Æsch. Prom. 714. “Nudi gives sion then is virtually equivalent to pro- the picture of them as working in the forge, prios cultus,' 2. 35. Cultusque' is the like the Cyclopes A. 8. 425. • Virosa casreading of the best MSS., so that “patrios’ torea' like castoreo gravi,' Lucr. 6. 794, belongs to habitus' as well as cultus.' the epithet referring to the strong smell. Heyne follows others in reading "cultus,' For the fable and the fact about the beaver, understanding patrios cultus' of the mode see Mayor on Juv. 12. 34. The best casof culture practised by the past generation. toreum' was produced in Pontus ; an inThe whole subject is dealt with more at ferior sort in Spain. Strabo 3, p. 163. Cas. large by Virgil, 2. 109 foll.

59.] The palms of the mares of Elis' 54.] Veniunt,' 2. 11.

for the mares which win palms at Elis.' 55.] With Keightley I have recalled the The object of the breed is said to be procomma after . alibi,' so as to make • fetus' duced when the breed itself is produced. and gramina' alike subjects of virescunt,' Thus the expression is not quite parallel to which seems specially appropriate where " tertia palma, Diores,” A. 5. 339, with young trees are spoken of.

which it is commonly compared. With 56.] “Nonne vides,' a favourite Lucre- Epiros' comp. 3. 121, with 'Eliadum,' tian expression. So Aratus opens his Dio- ib. 202. Mares are mentioned as fleeter semeia with oủx opáas. “Tmolus' (Dict. than horses.“ Apta quadrigis equa,” Hor. Geog.) is named by no earlier writer than 2 Od. 16. 35. Virgil as producing saffron, the place most 60.] Continuo' connected with quo famous for which was Cilicia, so that it is tempore.' Foedera' of the laws of nature, possible this may be one of Virgil's geo- as in A. 1. 62, Lucr. 1. 586., 5. 57, 924. graphical inaccuracies. The later writers 62.] “ Lapides Pyrrhae iactos,” E. 6. 41. who support Virgil (Columella, Solinus, 63.] · Durum genus,' because born from and Marcianus Capella) probably only copy the stones. Comp. 2. 341, Lucr. 5. 926. him. Serv. mentions an alternative of un- The connexion seems to be that the restric.

6

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

6

65

Pingue solum primis extemplo a mensibus anni
Fortes invertant tauri, glaebasque iacentis
Pulverulenta coquat maturis solibus aestas;
At si non fuerit tellus fecunda, sub ipsum
Arcturum tenui sat erit suspendere sulco :
Illic, officiant laetis ne frugibus herbae,
Hic, sterilem exiguus ne deserat humor arenam.

Alternis idem tonsas cessare novales,

70

[ocr errors]

6

6

[ocr errors]

tion of certain products to certain soils is quoque inviolatum,” Col. 3. 13, who immepart of the iron rule of the world, which is diately afterwards talks of “vineam in now inhabited by men of rougher mould, summa terra suspendere,” as opposed to doomed to labour, and physically adapted planting deep. The notion seems to be to it. Work then, Virgil goes on to say, that of raising the soil lightly so as to leave man and beast, and accomplish your des- it, as it were, hanging in air. tiny. Contrast the language of E. 4. 39, 41, 69.] • Illic' refers to vv. 64–6, ‘hic' to when all countries shall produce all things, w. 67, 68. 'Laetis,' as the quality of the and the strength of man and beast no more soil would make the corn grow luxuriantly. be put under requisition.

Forb. comp. 2. 251, “Humida maiores 63—70.] ‘Work then, as soon as weather herbas alit, ipsaque iusto Laetior.” allows you: plough with your might in 71-83.] . It is well to let your land lie spring and cross-plough in summer; that fallow every other season: or again you is, where the soil is rich and strong: if it is may change the crops, and so relieve the meagre, a shallow ploughing in September soil at the same time that you turn it to will do.'

some account.' 64.] · Pingue' emphatic, as v. 67 shows. 71.] “ It can hardly be meant that the

65.] Fortes' emphatic, like “ validis land was to be let lie idle an entire year, terram proscinde iuvencis,” 2. 237. The for in that case there would be only one rhythm of the line is obviously intended to crop in three years. What he means is, suit the sense. “Iacentis,' upturned by the that after the corn had been cut in the sumplough and lying exposed to the sun. The mer, the land was to be let to lie and get a word is probably meant to indicate that scurf of weeds till the following spring, when there should be a second ploughing, or they were to be ploughed in.” Keightley, cross-ploughing in summer. See on vv. 47, who, however, on v. 47, quotes a passage 48, and comp. 2. 261, “Ante supinatas from Simond's Travels in Italy and Sicily, Aquiloni ostendere glaebas." • Let the showing that the extreme view of the length clods be exposed for summer to bake them of time allowed to elapse between the crops to dust with its full mellow suns.'

is countenanced by the present practice at 66.] ‘Maturis' of full midsummer heat; Sciacca on the south coast of Sicily. “ When but it seems also to contain the notion of the land is manured, which is rarely the actively ripening.

case, it yields corn every year, otherwise 67.] So Col. 2. 4, “Graciles clivi non once in three years : thus, first year corn sunt aestate arandi, sed circa Septembres (fromento); second year fallow, and the Calendas : quoniam si ante hoc tempus weeds mowed for hay; third, ploughing proscinditur, effeta et sine succo humus several times, and sowing for the fourth aestivo sole peruritur, nullasque virium re- year” (p. 476). Dickson (Husbandry of liquias habet.” This September ploughing the Ancients, vol. i. pp. 444 foll.) concludes is apparently meant to supersede both win- from a study of the agricultural writers that ter and summer ploughing : Col. however fallowing was the general rule in Italy. goes on to say, that the ploughing must be “ When the several authors,” says he, repeated shortly after, so that sowing may “treat of ploughing, and direct at what seatake place at the beginning of the equinoc- sons this operation should be performed; tial rains.

they have the fallow land only in view. The 68.] “Non. Septemb. Arcturus exoritur," seasons of ploughing ... were in the spring Col. 1. 2. Suspendere tellurem,' not and summer, while the crop was on the 'aratrum,' as Forb. takes it. “ Neque enim ground; for the seed-time was in autumn, parum refert suspensissimum esse pastina- and the harvest in the end of summer. The tum [solum], et, si fieri possit, vestigio directions given must therefore relate only

6

75

Et segnem patiere situ durescere campum ;
Aut ibi flava seres mutato sidere farra,
Unde prius laetum siliqua quassante legumen
Aut tenuis fetus viciae tristisque lupini
Sustuleris fragilis calamos silvamque sonantem.
Urit enim lini campum seges, urit avenae,
Urunt Lethaeo perfusa papavera somno:
Sed tamen alternis facilis labor; arida tantum
Ne saturare fimo pingui pudeat sola, neve

80

6

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

to the fallow. It would seem that they 74.] • The pulse which is luxuriant with considered the ploughings given to land that quivering pod'-a description of the bean. had carried a crop the preceding year, and Pliny 18. 21. was immediately to be sown for another, as 75.) • Tenuis viciae :' “ The tare or vetch of so little consequence that it was needless is called slight because its halm is so slender to give any directions about them. From and its seed so small, compared with those this we may conclude that they considered of the bean or pea.” Keightley. “Tristis,' ploughing and sowing immediately after a . bitter,' as in 2. 126. Vetches and lupines crop as bad husbandry, and only to be prac- were supposed actually to enrich the land, tised in a case of necessity; or at least that acting as manure if immediately after they they were of opinion that very little of their had been cut the roots were ploughed in land was so rich as to allow this kind of and not left to dry in the ground. Col. 2. management.” Compare Daubeny's Lec. 13. tures, p. 125. • Alternis,' alternately,' im- 76.] ‘Silvam,' like calamos,' belongs plying no more than that the husbandman to viciae' and lupini,' expressing the instead of sowing every time is to sow every luxuriance of the crop. So aspera silva,' other time. “Idem,' as we should say, 'at v. 152, of burrs and caltrops. the same time,' implying that the rules 77.] The general sense is that the same already given do not exhaust the subject. crop, invariably repeated, will exhaust the “Sapienter idem Contrahes . . . vela,” Hor. soil. Flax, oats, and poppies are specified 2 Od. 10. 22. •Tonsas,” • reaped.' “Colonus merely as instances of this rule, though of agros uberis tondet soli,” Sen. Phoen. 130. course they are chosen as significant inFornovalis, see E. 1. 71, note. Here it stances. Virgil then goes on to say that, apparently means 'fallow-land,' the word though this is the tendency of these crops being used proleptically.

in themselves, it need not be apprehended 72.] ‘Situ :'“Sed nos de agitatione terrae when they are made to alternate with each nunc loquimur, non de situ,” Col. 2. 2. other, if only the soil is renovated after each

Here .situ 'may denote not only re- crop by plentiful manuring. This is subpose, but the scurf that forms on things stantially the interpretation of Wagn., and allowed to lie, as • durescere seems to seems the only satisfactory one. • Lini :' mean the physical effect of exposure to the Tremellius obesse maxime ait solo virus air.

ciceris et lini, alterum quia sit salsae, alte73.] 'Mutato sidere,' because wheat would rum quia sit fervidae naturae," Col. 2. 13, not be sown at the same time of the year as who goes on to quote the present passage. pulse. See vv. 215, 220. Sidere' is used 78.] Comp. A. 5. 854,“ ramum Lethaeo strictly, as in v. 1, as the seasons of the rore madentem Vique soporatum Stygia. year were marked by the constellations. 79.] ‘Labor' of the field. • Rotation Keightley seems right after Voss in suppos- will lighten the strain.' “ Mox et frumen. ing these two crops to be sown in the same tis labor additus,” y. 150. Arida' and year, the pulse in spring, the wheat in • effetos' are emphatic-after the parching autumn. Farra,' properly 'spelt :' here and exhausting effect of each crop. We may probably corn in general. “ The Romans render freely only think of the dried-up soil, seem to have had some glimpses of the doc- and be not afraid to give it its fill of rich trine of the rotation of crops : but it does manure: think of the exhausted field, and not appear that any system of culture founded fling about the grimy ashes broadcast.' upon this knowledge was in general use 80.] • Pudeat, because shame restrains among them,” Daubeny, p. 124.

men from excess in anything. Comp. E.

[ocr errors]

§ 6.

6

6

[ocr errors]

6

85

Effetos cinerem inmundum iactare per agros.
Sic quoque mutatis requiescunt fetibus arva,
Nec nulla interea est inaratae gratia terrae.
Saepe etiam sterilis incendere profuit agros
Atque levem stipulam crepitantibus urere flammis :
Sive inde occultas viris et pabula terrae
Pinguia concipiunt; sive illis omne per ignem
Excoquitur vitium, atque exsudat inutilis humor;
Seu pluris calor ille vias et caeca relaxat
Spiramenta, novas veniat qua sucus in herbas ;
Seu durat magis, et venas adstringit hiantis,
Ne tenues pluviae, rapidive potentia solis
Acrior, aut Boreae penetrabile frigus adurat.

Multum adeo, rastris glaebas qui frangit inertis

90

6

6

6

[ocr errors]

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

venas

а

6

6

6

7. 44, note. “Iactare' in the same way to the modern practice of burning away the seems to imply profuseness.

turf, though Virgil's words would be a good 82.] “Sic quoque' is explained by mu- statement of its salutary effects. tatis fetibus.' . Rest is gained by a change of 88.] · Vitium' as the cold in soils is crops as well as by leaving the land untilled. called sceleratum,' 2. 256.

83.] •Nor is the land meantime, while 90.] Spiramenta,' 4. 39. So 'spiraenjoying its rest, thankless and unfruitful, cula,' Lucr. 6. 493; “spiramina,' Lucan 10. because unploughed.' Gratia' is said of 247. • Qua' follows viis' similarly A. 5. land which repays the labour bestowed on 590. it, and restores the seed committed to it 91.] The object of durat' seems to be with interest. “Siccum, densum, et macrum the land itself rather than the pores, [agri genus]. ...ne tractatum quidem gratiam hiantis. The explanations given are appareferet,” Col. 2. 2, § 7. So Martial uses 'in- rently intended to vary more or less accord. gratus' of a field that does not bear. ' In- ing to the different kinds of soil. aratae terrae,' genitive after “gratia,' the 92.] *Tenues,' subtle,' 'penetrating.' thanklessness of unploughed land the “Tenuisque subibit Halitus,” 2. 349. Pluthanklessness, as it were, of that which has viae' is of course grammatically constructed nothing to be thankful for.

with 'adurant,'supplied from ‘adurat,' which 84-93.] ‘Burning stubble is a good however belongs to it in sense only so far as thing, either as invigorating the soil, or as it contains the general notion of injuring. getting rid of its moisture, or as opening its See on A. 2. 780. Rapidi,' E. 2. 10. pores, or as acting astringently.'

93.] • Penetrabile :' “penetrale frigus," 84.] Saepe' with profuit.' 'Sterilis Lucr. 1. 494. • Adurat:' cold is said to agros is perhaps rightly explained by burn not only by poets (e. g. Ov. M. 14. Keightley of the lands from which the corn 763, “ frigus adurat Poma”), but by prose had been carried, and which therefore have writers, as Tac. A. 13. 35, “ ambusti mulnothing but the stubble on them.

torum artus vi frigoris.” Cerda quotes 85.] 'Levem stipulam,' v. 289. Emm. Aristot. Meteor. 4. 5, káelv léyerai kai Comp. Ον. Μ. 1. 492, «Utque leves sti- θερμαίνειν το ψυχρόν, ουχ ώς το θερμόν, palae demtis adolentur aristis." The most αλλά τη συνάγειν ή αντιπεριστάναι το common mode of reaping was to cut the depuóv. So á nokaísodai is used in Theocorn in the middle of the straw, leaving the phr. and the Geoponica of the effect of inrest in the ground. Varro, R. R. 1. 50. tense cold. The rhythm again is accommodated to the 94-99.] • Harrowing is useful, and so is

cross-ploughing.' 86.] Daubeny (pp. 91 foll.) accepts all 94.] “Our way, after breaking a field, is Virgil's reasons but the last,“ seu durat,' to give it a good tearing up with a heavy &c., remarking that light and sandy soils harrow with iron teeth, drawn by two or are injured by the operation. He adds that more horses. The ancients, who were unthe ancients do not seem to have reached acquainted with this harrow,

used

[ocr errors]

6

6

sense.

6

95

Vimineasque trahit cratis, iuvat arva ; neque illum

;
Flava Ceres alto nequiquam spectat Olympo ;
Et qui, proscisso quae suscitat aequore terga,
Rursus in obliquum verso perrumpit aratro,
Exercetque frequens tellurem, atque inperat arvis.

Humida solstitia atque hiemes orate serenas,
Agricolae ; hiberno laetissima pulvere farra,
Laetus ager: nullo tantum se Mysia cultu

:

100

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

SOW

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6

6

[ocr errors]

to break the clods by manual labour with breaks across.' "Terga,' of the surface prean implement called a "rastrum,' or a sar- sented by the clods, 2. 236. culum :' and then, to pulverize it, the men 99.] 'Exercet :' “ Paterna rura bobus ex[or perhaps oxen) drew over it bush-harrows ercet suis,” Hor. Epod. 2. 3. • Inperat (crates), nearly the same as now in use,' arvis:' “ut fertilibus agris non est inperanKeightley, who explains rastrum' to be a dum, cito enim exhauriet illos non interkind of rake, heavy, with iron teeth, probably missa fecunditas, ita animorum inpetus asfour in number (Cato 10). "Inertis' denotes siduus labor frangit,” Sen. de Tranq. 15, the state of the clods when left to them- which however refers to constant selves, not unlike“ segnem campum,” v. 72. ing (comp. inperare vitibus,' to task vines 95.] · Cratis,' v. 166.

by making them bear, inperare voci,' to 96.] • Flava Ceres,' “rubicunda Ceres," task the voice by exerting it), rather than v. 316, Homer's gavor Anuntnp, the epi- as here to constant breaking up of the thet here seemingly indicating the nature of ground. Cic. De Sen. 15 says of the earth the reward. • Neque-nequiquam,' A. 6. quae nunquam recusat inperium," and so 117. Ceres does not regard him vainly, as the author of the lines prefixed to the if she were an idle spectator, or were unable Aeneid, “ut quamvis avido parerent arva to help. So respicere' of divine aid E. colono." Comp. the use of subigere ' for 1. 28. Virgil may have thought of Hes. thorough cultivation. Works 299, εργάζευ, Πέρση, διον γένος, 100–117.] •Dry winters and wet sumόφρα σε Λιμός 'Εχθαίρη, φιλέη δε σ' εύστε- mers are best for the land. It is well to φανος Δημήτηρ. The spelling 'nequi- irrigate the field after sowing—well, too, to quam,' adopted by Wagn., is supported by let the cattle eat down the young corn, if the general practice of Med., by the Vati- too luxuriant, and to drain off water when can fragment, and by the Canon. MS. It the land is too moist.' Here again there assumes that the word is derived, not from

no great connexion between the quidquam,' but from 'quiquam,' the old various precepts. form of the abl., so that we may compare

100.] Macrobius (Sat. 5. 20) says that nequaquam.'

Virgil has followed the words of a rusticum 97.] Virgil means merely to distinguish canticum,' contained in a volume of verse the processes of harrowing and older than any of the compositions of the ploughing, though he expresses himself as

Latin poets.

“Hiberno pulvere, verno if both were not carried on by the same luto, grandia farra, Camille, metes. • Solindividual, or applied to the same land. He stitium,' properly of either solstice ; when seems to be enumerating the different parts used alone, restricted to the summer. of cultivation without much regard to order, multas hiemes atque octogesima vidit sol. forgetting that he has already recommended stitia,” Juv. 4. 92. cross-ploughing, v. 48. • Proscindere' is 102.] 'Maesia’ was the reading of the the technical term for the first ploughing, old editions ; but · Mysia' is supported by the second being expressed by offringere,' the best MSS., and required by the conthe third by lirare.' * Suscitat' is illus- text, being the region of which Gargarus, trated by 'inertis,' v. 94, and also by 'sus. the top of Mount Ida, forms a part. The pendere,' v. 68. Though in the present fertility of Gargarus (or of the lower lands tense, it must not be understood as implying about it) was proverbial. “Gargara quot that ploughing was to be immediately fol- segetes, quot habet Methymna racemos," lowed by cross-ploughing, as the two took Ov. A. A. 1. 57. The sense then seems place at different times, but merely as de- to be, as Heyne takes it, • Mysia is noting the husbandman's habitual practice. never so much in its pride, and Gargarus • The clods which he turns up he afterwards never so marvellously fertile, as in a dry

seems

6

cross

[ocr errors]

" Sic

6

6

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]
« ForrigeFortsæt »