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Naides, indigno cum Gallus amore peribat ?
Nam neque Parnasi vobis iuga, nam neque Pindi
Ulla moram fecere, neque Aonie Aganippe.
Illum dtiam lauri, etiam flevere myricae ;
Pinifer illum etiam sola sub rupe iacentem
Maenalus et gelidi fleverunt saxa Lycaei.
Stant et oves circum ;-nostri nec poenitet illas,
Nec te poeniteat pecoris, divine poeta :
Et formosus ovis ad flumina pavit Adonis-
Venit et upilio; tardi venere subulci ;

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are naturally mentioned in connection with besides resting on the authority of the best Daphnis, who, according to Id. 7. 92, was MSS., decidedly improves both the language married to a Naiad. Here, as in v. 1, they and the rhythm of the line. seem to play the part of the Muses, and are 14.] Comp. 8. 22. Sola sub rupe :' so consequently associated with Parnassus, Orpheus, G. 4. 508, 509, is said “rupe sub Pindus, and Aganippe. This connects them aeria deserti ad Strymonis undam Flevisse, not only with Gallus, but with Virgil, who et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris.” had just addressed Arethusa, and at the end 15.] • Lycaei,' G. 1. 16. of his song, v. 70, turns to them again. 16.] Nostri,' of us shepherds. The

10.] • Peribat 'is restored by Wagn. for sheep do not regret their connection with * periret' from a correction in the Med., and us, and the best of us need not regret his from one or two other MSS., and seems with them. Keightley takes ‘nostri' of to be required by the grammar, as there is Gallus, which is possible, though he can no logical relation between cum-peribat' hardly be right in attempting (Horace, Exand the principal clause, but merely one of cursus 2) to get rid of all the instances in time. Indigno amore,' 8. 18 note. which nos,' like vos,' borrows the geni

11.] · Ye were not in any of your usual tive sing. of the neuter of its possessive haunts, implying that search had been (Madv. 79, obs. 1). made for them there. The two mountains 17.] · Nec te poeniteat,' 2. 34 note. are mentioned, as Heyne observes, with a Gallus is addressed as if he had been a reference to the springs belonging to each. shepherd, and so doubtless Virgil chooses

12.] Ulla' has the force of ullo modo.' to regard him : but the language here seems Comp. 1. 54 note. Moram fecere :' “fi- intended to meet an objection that the coneret vento mora ne qua ferenti,” A. 3. 473. nexion might disgrace him, so that the • Aonie' is the reading of several MSS. for sense, stripped of metaphor, will be do • Aoniae' or 'Aonia,' and is the natural not regret or think scorn of your association form in a metrical license like this, intended with pastoral poetry.' Divine poeta,' 5. as an imitation of the Greek. So Sil. 14. 45, also of a shepherd. 515, quoted by Wund., has • Ortygie Are- 18.] From Theocr. l. 109, where howthusa.'

ever the connexion is quite different. The 13.] From Theocr. l. 71, 72, where thought here is like that in E. 2. 60. however the mourners are wolves, jackals, 19.] Upilio ' is generally considered a and lions, as in E. 5. 26. The neglect of lengthened form of opilio,' an old word the nymphs is contrasted with the sorrow for a shepherd found in Plaut. Asin. of the trees and shrubs, which were vocal 3. 1. 36, and doubtless connected with as echoing to Gallus' lament, the bays 'ovis.' No authority however is quoted being introduced as in 6. 83, the tamarisks for this lengthening by a change of as in 6. 10. Such an explanation of the vowels, which can scarcely be, as Serv. Image was evidently in Virgil's mind (comp. thinks, a hint taken from the Greek use of 5. 62 note, 8. 22 note), but he does not put oớvoua for ovoua, &c., and the word it forward prominently, as it would interfere 'ovilio,' of which it is supposed to be a with the effect of the rest of the passage, variety (found in Javolenus, Dig. 33. 7. 26, where actual mourners are introduced. The $ 2), would have the second syllable long. text before Heins. had a second “illum' It would seem more probable therefore that before the second . etiam :' but its omission, the word may be really a contraction of

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Uvidus hiberna venit de glande Menalcas.

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Omnes “ Unde amor iste, rogant, tibi ?” Venit Apollo :
Galle, quid insanis ? inquit; tua cura Lycoris
Perque nives alium perque horrida castra secuta est.
Venit et agresti capitis Silvanus honore,
Florentis ferulas et grandia lilia quassans.

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Pan deus Arcadiae venit, quem vidimus ipsi
Sanguineis ebuli bacis minioque rubentem.

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ovipilio' (with wbich we may perhaps com- nonymous with bubsequae,' the former pare oíonólos, and possibly the root pell’ word generally meaning a ploughman, not in compellere,' depellere'), and that there a herdman : and that “tardi’ implies no may have been two forms of the word, 'opi- more than weariness with their day's labour, lio' and 'upilio,' like bobus' and · bubus' which might easily be conceived of a swinefrom' bovibus,' each of them long. Unfortu- berd, even if we had not Eumaeus' comnately the passage in Plautus does not en- plaint of the hardship of the life, Od. 14. able us to determine the quantity : indeed it 415 foll. rather tends to complicate the question 20.] Menalcas is probably a husbandman further, by raising a doubt about the second who has been gathering and steeping acorns, syllable, which there must be scanned as which were the food not only of swine, but, long, unless we admit a hiatus. Thus it is in the winter, of cattle also. Wagn. refers possible that .upilio' may be intended by to Cato 54, “Ubi sementim patraveris, Virgil to be scanned a trisyllable, glandem parari legique oportet et in aquam the lengthening of the first vowel being conjici. Inde semodios singulis bubus in explained as above. The • opilio' is dies dari oportet.” This explains both mentioned by Cato R. R. 10 among the "hiberna' and `uvidus. For the time of staff of farm labourers, one being required year see Introd. for a property of two hundred and forty ju- 21.] Theocr. l. 81 foll. "Apollo ’apgera. • Subulci' is the reading of all the pears as the god both of the poet and the MSS., "bubulci,' which Heyne retained and shepherd. Voss defends, being due to the earlier mo- 22.] • Tua cura,' 1. 58. "She for whom dern critics (Parrhasius, Ursinus, Erythraeus, you care so cares nought for you.' Stephanus, Cerda : see Taubmann's note). 23.] See Introd. The reasons alleged for the change were, the 24.] Silvanus,' G. 1. 20., 2. 494, A. 8. parallel passage in Theocr. 1. 80, where 600. Dict. Biogr. Wund. seems right in swineherds are not named, the absence of replacing the comma, omitted by Heyne, any mention of swineherds elsewhere in the after honore,' so as to make v. 25 epexeEclogues, only cowherds, shepherds, and getical of venit agresti honore. With the goatherds, according to Donatus in his Life construction he comp. Juv. 11. 106, “clipeo of Virgil, coming within the dignity of pas- venientis et hasta.” • Honore' is here toral poetry, the probability that Menalcas • beauty' or ornament,' like decus,' as in from his occupation is himself intended for G. 2. 404, &c. a swineherd, the allusion in two passages of 25.] Imitated from Lucr. 4. 587, “ Pan Appuleius (Flor. p. 761. Apol. p. 416) to Pinea semiferi capitis velamina quassans,' Virgil's 'opiliones' and 'bubsequae,' a quo- a passage which Virgil has more than once tation in Terent. Maur. v. 1191, where how. had before him : see on 2. 24., 6. 27. ever . subulci' has recently been restored on Quassans' here expresses the size and MSS. authority, and the epithet tardi,' length of the fennel and lilies. The use of which is supposed to point to the motion of fennel flowers for garlands is vouched for by cows, and consequently of cowherds. In Pliny, 21. 9, referred to by Voss. reply it is sufficient to say that swine are 26.] Virgil lays stress on his having been elsewhere referred to by Virgil (G. 1. 400., allowed to look on Pan, as he was a fou 2. 72, 520) as belonging to rustic life, while, midable personage (Theocr. 1. 16 foll.), and as Voss admits, there is a distinct propriety the sudden sight of him produced madness, in mentioning them here, as they were bence called "panic' (Eur. Rhes. 36, &c.). plentiful in Arcadia : that the passages in See on 6. 13, 24. Apul. do not prove that he read • bubulci,' 27.] The details vouch for the reality of which indeed would not necessarily be sy- the vision, perhaps in a spirit of rustic sim

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Ecquis erit modus ? inquit; Amor non talia curat;
Nec lacrimis crudelis Amor, nec gramina rivis,
Nec cytiso saturantur apes, nec fronde capellae.
Tristis at ille : Tamen cantabitis, Arcades, inquit,
Montibus haec vestris: soli cantare periti
Arcades. O mihi tum

O mihi tum quam molliter ossa quiescant,
Vestra meos olim si fistula dicat amores!
Atque utinam ex vobis unus, vestrique fuissem

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plicity. Both the Greeks and Romans 31.] Doubts about the pointing of this seem not infrequently to have painted their line existed as early as the time of Serv., gods red (see Plutarch, Qu. Rom. 98, and who rightly decides that “tamen' forms other passages referred to by Voss), espe- part of Gallus' speech. It is more easy to cially perhaps the deities of the country, feel the force of the word here than to desuch as Bacchus and Priapus, which proba- fine it. Wagn. seems right in saying that bly accounts for the trick played on Silenus it naturally introduces a consolatory thought, in 6. 22. In Tibull. 2. 1. 55 the rustic as in A. 4. 329., 10. 509., though he spoils worshipper of Bacchus paints himself with the effect by referring it directly to what vermilion ('minium '): and Pliny tells us goes before : “ licet sciam nullum amoris (33. 36) that the bodies of generals who esse remedium in luctu et lacrimis, iuvat triumphed were coloured with the same tamen indulgere huic dolori, quod meos substance. · The Latin “minium' was the amores non tacebunt Arcadiæ pastores.” sulphate of mercury, the Greek kivváßapi, Serv. shows a truer appreciation : “ licet our cinnabar or vermilion. It came chiefly ego duro amore consumar, tamen erit solafrom Spain, whose quicksilver mines of Al- tium, quia meus amor erit vestra cantilena madea are still prolific.” Keightley. quandoque,” adding, not less justly, “vide

28.] “ Sed quis erit modus?” A. 4. 98. tur enim neque objurgationes neque conso• Amor non talia curat' answers to Theocri- lationes (sc. deorum) recipere obstinate motus' appovtiotos " Epwg. Pan, as Serv. re- riturus : nihil enim ad dicta ab eis responmarks, may be speaking from his own ex- dit.” In English we may perhaps express perience, “bethinking him,” in Keats' it, 'you will sing for me, though, when I words, “how melancholy loath he was to am gone.' • Cantabitis' seems to be used lose fair Syrinx.”

in an imperative sense, as in Hor. 1 Ep. 13. 29, 30.] Pan, as the patron of rural life, 2, &c., the speaker assuming what he dechooses his images from the country. Voss sires. •Quiescant,' v. 33, shows that it can observes that he is elsewhere connected with

carcely be an ordinary future. bees, being called uelloooooos in the An. 32.] Montibus’ seems to be the dative, thology, while honey is offered to him as in 2. 5, “Montibus et silvis studio iac. Theocr. 5. 58. Is it merely by accident tabat inani,” rather than the local ablative. that in the song to Pan, just quoted, in Haec' is explained by meos amores,' v. Keats' Endymion, book 1, yellow-girted 34. "Soli cantare periti Arcades' may

be bees'

are said to foredoom their golden either a vocative in apposition, or a sepahoneycombs' to him ? For gramina rivis' rate sentence, 'none but Arcadians know see 3. 11l., G. 1. 269. Cytiso apes :' how to sing,' which last seems preferable. “ Cytisum in agro esse quam plurimum For the general sense comp. note maxime refert, quod gallinis, apibus, ovibus, 7. 4. capris, bubus quoque et omni generi pecu- 33.] One of the countless variations of dum utilissimus est,” Col. 5. 12. It is not the common formula, "Sit tibi terra levis.' named in G. 4. • Fronde' seems to mean 35.] The feeling is like that of 2. 28 foll., leaves stripped for fodder : otherwise we a comparison of which will show that Gallus should have expected some other tree to be does not wish, as Voss thinks, to be a slave particularized as pendant to‘cytisus.' in Arcadia, as if even the lowest condition

31–43.] . So they: but Gallus replied: there would be bliss, but merely to take Let me be remembered in your songs, part in their simple rustic life. At the Arcadians; would that I only had been same time it is not wrong to bear in mind one of you, living your life and enjoying my that in Italy, at least, such occupations love; even Lycoris might have stayed with would probably imply slavery, as it helps me then.'

us to estimate the reality of the feeling ex

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Aut custos gregis, aut maturae vinitor uvae !
Certe, sive mihi Phyllis, sive esset Amyntas,
Seu quicumque furor,-quid tum, si fuscus Amyntas ?
Et nigrae violae sunt et vaccinia nigra-
Mecum inter salices lenta sub vite iaceret ;
Serta mihi Phyllis legeret, cantaret Amyntas.
Hic gelidi fontes, hic mollia prata, Lycori,
Hic nemus; hic ipso tecum consumerer aevo.
Nunc insanus amor duri me Martis in armis
Tela inter media atque adversos detinet hostis :
Tu procul a patria—nec sit mihi credere tantum !

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pressed in the Eclogues. See the general points out to another a place for singing in. Introduction.

43.] · Here we might grow old together, 36.] · Vinitor uvae’ is a pleonasm (not decaying by mere lapse of time.' * Aevum' unlike the Homeric véktapmiqvoxóci), in- is not old age, here or elsewhere in Virgil, troduced doubtless on account of the epi. but simply time or time of life, the notion thet' maturae' and the picture of the vin- of old age coming from the context. See tage thus presented to the mind.

on A. 2. 435, 509., 8. 307., 11. 85. 37.] In Arcadia he could have found 44—49.] • As it is, I am mad enough to some rustic love, and their mode of life serve in the wars, and you have gone to would have kept them united. The pas- those wintry Alps - may the frost and ice sage is slightly imitated from Theocr. 7.

spare you ! 86 foll. “Certe,' at any rate.' 'I could 44.] Heyne had long ago remarked that have counted on having my love, whoever • Martis ' might be taken either with “amor' it might be with me.' In esset-i

or with armis;' the former view, however, &c. the tense is changed from • fuissem,' has been ignored by most of the editors, exas Gallus is speaking of what, had his lot cept Forb., who quotes two strongly parallel been cast in Arcadia, might then be going passages, “Accendamque animos insani

Martis amore," A. 7. 550 ; “ Saevit amor 38.] •Furor,' like 'cura,' v. 22, ignis,' ferri et scelerata insania belli,” ib. 461, 3. 66.

though he himself would connect • Martis, 39.] Theocr. 10. 28, kai lov uélav not very judiciously, with both. Love can εντί, και α γραπτά υάκινθος. Comp. also have had nothing to do with keeping Gallus E. 2. 16 foll.

in the camp away from Lycoris ; and to say 40.] The association of the willow with with Catrou and Ruaeus that his passion the vine has caused a good deal of per- drove him to the war in despair is to say plexity. Vines, however, seemed to have what Virgil does not say, and no authority been trained on willows in the · Gallicum confirms. On the other hand the connecarbustum,' or rumpotinum,' as Columella tion “insanus amor Martis' is recommended tells us (5. 7), though he himself thinks the by the whole tone of the passage, · Would practice prejudicial to the vine, and only I had been a peaceful shepherd, living my allows it when no other tree can be found. life and loving my love! but military madVoss puts a comma after salices,' making ness has made me a soldier, and my love lenta sub vite mark a different spot, has easily left me.' Heyne read 'te' from which is to a certain extent countenanced a conjecture of Heumann, supposing that by Theocr. 7. 88, UTÒ öpvoiv, Ñ ÚTÒ Lycoris had gone after a soldier lover, leavTetrais, but can hardly stand from the ing Gallus to pastoral poetry and sorrow : harshness of the omission of “aut.' Schra- but see the Introduction. • Nunc,' as der ingeniously proposed “inter calices,' things are, used frequently to contrast an which would answer to 'sub arta Vite actual state with a hypothesis. Forb. comp. bibentem,' Hor. 1 Od. 38. 7.

Tibull. 1. 10. 11 foll. “ Tunc mihi vita 42.] • But why dream of Phyllis and foret ... nunc ad bella trahor," where the Amyntas ? Why might I not be enjoying subject as well as the expression is more or this life with Lycoris?' The line is imitated less similar. from Theocr. 5. 33, where one shepherd 46.] · Tantum’seems best taken as equi

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Alpinas, ah dura, nives et frigora Rheni
Me sine sola vides. Ah, te ne frigora laedant !
Ah, tibi ne teneras glacies secet aspera plantas !
Ibo, et, Chalcidico quae sunt mihi condita versu
Carmina, pastoris Siculi modulabor avena.
Certum est in silvis, inter spelaea ferarum
Malle pati tenerisque meos incidere amores
Arboribus ; crescent illae, crescetis, amores.

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valent to • tantam rem,' the object of said to have been imitated also by Tibullus • credere,' as “credita res' is used A. 2. and Propertius, it seems likely that his 196, of a thing believed. Would that I elegiac poems may have been those most in might find myself unable to believe it!' favour at Rome : and these accordingly may Heyne comp. Tibull. 3. 4. 82, “Ah ego have been the poems which Gallus put into ne possim tanta videre mala !” • Procul a Roman dress (possibly in his elegies to tantum' (6. 16 note) would be out of place Lycoris), and which he now proposes to here, besides the harshness of separating the adapt to the pastoral model of Theocritus. words, and “tantum' with nives vides' (For other conjectures see Heyne's Excurwould be exceedingly weak. Serv. says on sus.) How the adaptation was to be made this line that all these verses are really Gal- is not very easy to see, unless we suppose lus' own, extracted from his poems; but he that Gallus was to speak of himself and his does not say where the extract begins or sufferings in pastoral phraseology, changing ends.

his actual circumstances into the accidents 47.] Humboldt (Cosmos, vol. ii. Sabine's of a shepherd's life, as Virgil has done for trans.) instances the uniform language of the him in this Eclogue. Euphorion was popuRomans about the savageness and physical lar in the time of Cicero, who complains discomforts of the Alps as a proof of their (Tusc. 3. 19) of his being preferred to Eninsensibility to beauty of scenery. So there nius by the taste of the day, and elsewhere is nothing in the Prometheus to show that (Div. 2. 64) speaks of his obscurity, a comAeschylus felt with any distinctness the sub

Alexandrian vice, which, however, limity of the landscape, on which a modern seems to have recommended him to Tibepoet could hardly have failed to dwell. •Fri- rius (Suet. Tib. 70). gora’ is in itself no more than cold weather 51.] Modulabor,' 5. 14.

The image or winter, as in v. 65, but in connexion by which the change is expressed is that of with · Rheni' it may imply that the river setting to tune or playing verses already is frozen. In that case, 'frigora laedant' composed. in the next verse will be the same as “glacies 52.] •Spelaea,' orņlaia, a word which secet aspera plantas,” v. 49.- • Dura :' the seems not to occur again till Claudian (B. same hardness of nature which steeled Ly- Get. v. 354), who doubtless copied Virgil, coris against Gallus' love would lead her to unless we except the author of the Ciris brave the Alpine snows. Comp. such pas- (v. 466). sages as Hor. 1 Od. 3. 9 foll.

53.] • Malle,' rather than live a soldier's 48.] Voss comp. Prop. 1. 8. 7, “ Tu life. * Pati,' absolutely; “ Disce sine armis pedibus teneris positas fulcire pruinas, Tu Posse pati,” Lucan 5. 313. “ Et nescis potes insolitas, Cynthia, ferre nives?” sine rege pati,” Id. 9. 262, quoted by Emm. Emm. comp. Ov. M. ). 508,

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-as we should say, to get through life.' cadas, indignave laedi Crura secent sentes,' • Amores' used as Ovid uses it as the title which seems to show that Virgil here may of his poems. Perhaps it may have been be expressing a caution rather than a wish. the title of Gallus' elegies, as the words of

50-61.] 'I will turn my poems into Serv. (on v. 1) are “amorum suorum de pastorals, and record my love on the barks Cytheride libros scripsit quattuor." With of trees; I will hunt with the nymphs and the whole passage comp. Prop. 1. 18. For the shepherds, in the hope-a vain hope- carving verses on trees see 5. 13. of cure.'

54.] Heyne comp. Ov. Her. 5. 23, “ Et 50.] Gallus had translated or imitated quantum trunci, tantum mea nomina cresEuphorion of Chalcis, whose poems, chiefly cunt. Crescite, et in titulos surgite recta mythological and of the Alexandrine school, meos.” Perhaps Virgil may mean, as Voss are enumerated in Dict. Biog. As he is thinks, not merely that the verses will grow

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