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BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE.-REMEDY. ANOTHER.

§ 132. To stop bleeding from the nose, take the tops of three nettles, pounding them together. Put this cataplasm on the nape of your neck, and if possible in your nostrils.

Another method is to pound the milfoil with vinegar in a mortar. Plug the nostrils therewith, and it will stay the bleeding.

VOMITING.-STRANGE TREATMENT.

§ 133. For vomiting. Drink milfoil digested in warm wine, till a cure is obtained.

Another plan is to immerse the scrotum in vinegar.

DEAFNESS AFTER FEVER.

§ 134. For deafness succeeding a fever; take a cow's gall, a woman's milk, and honey, putting it in your ears warm. This is a cure that will not fail.

MANIFOLD VIRTUES OF THE LEEK.

§ 135. The following are the virtues of the leek. It is good to drink the juice against vomiting of blood. It is good for women who desire children to eat leeks. It is good to take leeks and wine for the bite of an adder, or other (venomous) beast. It is good to apply a plaster of leeks and wine to ulcers. The juice of leeks and woman's milk is a good remedy for a chronic whooping cough, or pneumonia. The juice of leeks, goat's gall, and honey, mixed in three equal parts, are useful for deafness. It should be put warm in the ears and nostrils. It is good for headache. Leeks are good to promote the union of bones, and maturing of boils. If leeks and salt are applied to ulcers, it will heal them rapidly. If leeks are eaten raw, they will occasion intoxication. They will strengthen men who have suffered from hemorrhage. They will relieve flatulency of the stomach. They

are oppressive to the stomach, whether boiled or raw, as they will destroy the nervous energy thereof, and their fumes rising to the head, injure the sight. They produce terrific dreams. Unless the lettuce or the poppy, or the like are eaten first to temperate them, such is their tendency. They kill the worms that are generated in the stomach or bowels.

VOMITING.-TO STAY.

§ 136. Those that cannot retain food or drink, but vomit it, the milfoil digested in warm wine, should be given them to drink.

ANTIDOTE TO POISON.

§ 137. As an antidote for poison, mix two nuts, three dry figs, and a handful of rue, and thirty grains of salt, giving it to the patient, fasting.

PROUD FLESH.-APPLICATION.

§ 138. The following is useful when proud flesh forms in a wound, namely, white alum, reduced to powder, the same powder being applied thereon.

Another for the same purpose. Take a toad that can scarcely creep, beat it with a rod, till irritated, it smells, and dies. Then put it in an earthen pot, closing the same so that no smoke can come out, or air enter in. Then burn it till it is reduced to ashes, and apply the same to the part.

ANOTHER WAY,

Another plan is to take a mole, (al. raven,) and burn it in the same way, applying the ashes upon the part.

ANOTHER.

In like manner, make ashes of human flesh, taken if possible from a corresponding part of the body to that in which the disease is situated.

PROUD FLESH.-ANOTHER APPLICATION.

In like manner you may take the ashes of the ermine, burnt in the way above mentioned, and apply thereto.

ANOTHER.

Another plan is to take as many as you please of the cloves of garlick, burning them on a clean floor; when they are incinerated, quench (the fire) with drops of honey, make a powder thereof, and apply. Bind it over with a plaster, and in three days afterwards let it be washed. Boil rye meal and a sow's blood together, applying it thereon when it is worked; over that a plaster of boiling honey, and a third part of salt should be applied. Do this daily.

ANOTHER.

Another plan is to take the jaw of a horse, with all the teeth remaining therein. Burn a cupful thereof (in powder,) and mix with pepper and lard: anoint the part with this, tempering with sage. Continue to apply this plaster daily, for a fortnight.

ANOTHER.

Another is to take honey, the yolk of an egg, good milk, and fine confectioner's meal, mix together and apply to the part twice daily. This is proved.

VIRTUES OF MUSTARD.

It

§ 139. Mustard. It is useful to expel cold humors. is good with vinegar for the bite of an adder or toad. It is good for the toothache. It will purify the brain. It will restrain profuse menstruation. It will provoke the appetite, and strengthen digestion. It is good for colic, loss of hair, noise in the ears, and dimness of sight, cutaneous eruptions, palsy, and many other things.

URINAL PATHOLOGY.-FOUR URINARY ELEMENTS.*

§ 140. From the condition of a man's urine, may be distinguished his defects, dangers, fevers (plagues,) and diseases, whether he be present or absent. However, we should first show what is the composition of the urine. It contains four radical elements.

FIRST. The humor of the blood which circulates in the reproductive organs.

*The following is the translation of an extract upon the same subject, purporting to have been made from the Book of "Hywel ddu Feddyg," a descendant of Einion ab Rhiwallon, by "Ieine ap Wm. ap ff," A.D. A thousand,

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"The following are the elementary rules of urinoscopy. If the urine exhibits a yellow colour of a faint golden hue, or if it has the hue of refined gold; it indicates that food and drink are perfectly digested in the stomach.

If of a fiery red, like the sunset in the west-if red like oriental saffron-if a fiery red like a vanishing flame-if red like a portion of consuming fire; these four colours indicate that the food and drink have left the stomach in order that their digestion may be completed.

If urine is deep coloured like human liver, or the hue of (blushing) cheeks, like racked red wine, or greenish like the mane of oxen; these three colours concur in indicating that food and drink are properly digested in the stomach. If water has a leaden hue, or an intensely black colour like black ink, or a dead black, like black horn; these three colours indicate the death of a man. If it has the colour of clear spring water, if an opaline colour like transparent horn, or the colour of plain milk, or the hue of camel hair; these four colours indicate the nondigestion of the food in the stomach.

If it has a greenish blue colour, this indicates that less food and drink should be allowed the patient.

If the colour of ill bled meat, it indicates that the digestion of food has commenced in the stomach.

If a greenish hue like an unripe apple,-if the hue of a ripe apple; these two colours indicate that the food and drink are half digested in the stomach. And thus it terminates."

These extracts as well as the teaching of our "Meddygon" on the same subject, are of but slight value indeed, farther than they show how rude and empiric was the urinary diagnosis and pathology of our fathers. The first writer on urinoscopy was Theophilus, called Philaretus, a monk, who was Physician to Heraclius, who reigned in the first half of the 7th century. His treatise on the urine has little originality, farther than as being the first of a class of writings, distinguished above all others for chicanery and humbug. After him we find a succession of authors (particularly the urinoscopists of the middle ages,) pursuing dreamy speculations to a greater pitch of absurdity than can be readily conceived by those whose curiosity has not led them to pay visits of discovery to the bye paths of medicine. In nothing has modern medical research made greater advances than urinary diagnosis and pathology, thanks to the microscopist and the chemist. Vide "Lilium medicina" of Bernard Gordon-Watson (of New York) on ancient medicine.

SECONDLY. That of the abdominal viscera for the performance of the functions thereof.

THIRDLY. That of the vessels which receive the various fluids of the cholera and fleuma (bile and phlegm).

FOURTHLY. That of the kidneys, supplying those fluids which pass to the bladder. From hence can be discerned all the signs of disease, the fluidity and colour of the urine indicating the evil and good signs.

URINAL DIAGNOSIS.

§ 141. Should urine abound in water, or resemble red, black, or green wine, or oil, or blood, or the urine of beasts, and a skilful person consider the essential causes thereof, attentively studying the same, he will understand which of these humors chiefly predominate, whether the fleuma, the cholera, the sanguis, or the melancholia. It is necessary that the urine be collected in a glass vessel, and left to settle till the second hour, when, by the light of the sun, the physician should judge the indications thereof.

SIGNS IN ORDER.-BLACK URINE.

i. If the urine be black, it will be necessary to renovate that patient's constitution by the most skilful means possible, frequently employing the bath and oil. Then the urine should be again examined, and if it should seem saffron-like and turbid, know that there is a painful disease in the person, produced by heat and dryness.

SINOPLE.

ii. If the patient be attenuated and evidently declining in strength, his veins prominent, or red (transparent,) and the urine similar in colour to sinople, it proceeds from the sanguis. By bleeding the patient in the left arm, he will be restored with little trouble.

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