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that affects Thee? Jesus answered them thus, I fear not this cross, nor am I yet affected with the ague, but I tremble before my Heavenly Father, in contemplating what He prepares for those who shall crucify Me; and for a truth to you I speak, that whatsoever man shall hear the words I say, and shall believe them, and shall do all that I have commanded therein, prostrating himself before his Heavenly Father, he shall never suffer from the ague, nor shall he have any fear. And now, O Lord Jesus Christ, grant that of thy mercy, the ague may not afflict or trouble thy servant, and the servant of God the Father from Heaven, neither now at present, nor at any other time during his life and existence in this world, in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. So be it. Ever Amen.


§ 810. Take an egg layed on Thursday, in the house in which the sick man dwells, and write the following thereon: FGOGY LQY S, and put it in a safe place, outside the house. On the following morning break the egg, if blood comes out of it, he will die, if not, he will live.


§ 811. Rub young swallows with saffron, and in a short time the old swallows will bring them a stone; with this stone the patient will be cured of the hydrops.


$ 812. Whosoever is bled in the right arm on the eighteenth day of March, and the 20th day of the month of April, in the left arm, will never be blind, for it has been often proved.


§ 813. Wash the warts with the water from a font in which the seventh son of the same man and wife is baptized.


§ 814. Take the gall of a cat, and a hen's fat, mixing them together. Put this in your eyes, and you will see things which are invisible to others.


§ 815. Take marsh mallows, and the white of two eggs, anoint your hands therewith, mixed together; then cover your hands with powdered alum, and you may handle fire without harm, or hold fire and hot iron in your hand without fear.


The following are the twelve characteristics of a snake's skin, which Alphibam testifies of, and states to be true and effectual to those that use it. I have translated them out of the Arabic to Latin, and from Latin to Cymraeg also.

When the moon is in her first increase, under the sign called Aries, or the Ram, which falls about the middle of the month of March, on the third day of the Calends of April, when the first seed under this sign are formed, then burn the skin of a snake, which has been cast in the time of harvest. Take the ashes, and keep them carefully, for they are the most precious application which any human tongue can order. Let the first instance at hand suffice: whosoever has a fresh wound, let him cover it with a little of this ash, and it will heal it in three days.

Here follows a list of the names of the herbs, fruits, and vegetable substances, which every Physician ought to know and use, in order to heal wounds and diseases in the human body.*

The above herbs and plants, that is to say, as many as possible of them, ought to be grown by every Physician in his garden and orchards, in a plot of good land, sheltered, and facing the sun, that they might be at hand when there is need and occasion for them.

* As the names are also given in Latin, and the English Synonymes are not properly translations of the Welsh terms, it has not been considered necessary to insert the list in this place. The reader is referred to page 281.


The following exhibits the weights and measures, which every Physician should employ, so that he may know certainly what proportions to use, when necessary.

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Four cupfulls make one quart. Four quarts make one gallon. Four gallons make one pailful. Four pailfulls make one grenn.† Four grenns make one mydd. Four mydds make one myddi (or hogshead.)

Even so are fluid and liquid measures arranged.

The following are other measures
noted by Physicians :-
Two eggshellfulls make half a pan.
Two halfpans, a pan.
Two pans, a phioled.
Two phioleds, a cupful.
Two cupfulls, a quart.

All the measures of solids and
fluids should be of warranted
weight and measure, so that they
formation, in order that the me-
may afford warranted and just in-
dicines administered to the sick
may neither be ineffective nor
poisonous, and that every dose
may be of the proportion intended.
The following are conjectural
measures, dependent upon the
Physician's judgment.
Four grains of wheat, one pea.
Four peas, one acorn.
Four acorns, one pigeon's egg.
Four pigeon's eggs, one hen's egg.
Four hen's eggs, one goose's egg.
Four goose's eggs, one swan's


Grain gr.
Ounce 3. Pound lb.

Scruple . Dram 3.

"A large earthen vessel." W. O. P.

These proportions cannot be warranted farther than the Physician's judgment.

There are four principal exciting causes of fever and disease in the human body, even :

i. Fever, excited by an

of heat or cold.


ij. Eruptive poison in the blood or humors, produced by irregularities in eating and drinking.

iij. Obstructions in the stomach,

veins, or other hollow vessels of the body, so that the food, drink, blood or humors, cannot pass on as usual.

iiij. A boil, carbuncle, or plague, and they are occasioned by the entrance of poison into the system. From these four proceed all fevers and diseases incident to the human body, and by the aid of active remedies are they cured.


The following are things useful to be known by every Physician, and head of a family even :

INFUSION. Pouring water or other

fluid in a boiling state upon herbs, or whatever other ingredient that may be required. DECOCTION. Boiling the herbs or ingredients in the water or fluid required. POTTAGE OR PORRIDGE. Pouring boiling or cold water, or other fluid such as may be required upon the herbs or other ingredients, leaving them to stand, then straining under a press. SOAKAGE. Pouring cold or boiling

water, or other fluid on any substance capable of being influenced thereby, so as to become incorporated with what is poured thereupon. CONFECTION. Fluids mixed with powders or other substances capable of being administered as a draught.

POTION. A draught or fluid prepared according to art.

ESSENCE. An amorphous or odoriferous substance, which may be taken in a draught by mouth, or injected into the nostrils, head,* rectum, or other part.

ELECTUARY. Substances incorporated into a dough so as to be eaten. CONTSITUTION.

The disposition

which is in a man, or other living being, or herb, or other matter; being their virtue, inPILLS. Incorporated medical subherent property, or nature.

stances, formed into small balls so as to be taken at a gulp.

BATH.† An infusion or decoction in which the patient or his limb is to be put. FOMENTATION. To be applied as a wash to a hurt, whether hot or cold, as may be wanted. REGIMEN. The food and drink as regulated by medical advice.

*External ear.

+ This word (ennaint) is improperly rendered "ointment in the Mabinogi

of Geraint ab Erbin.


These things should be in the possession of a Physician : and then follow the characteristics which should distinguish him, which are called the Essentials of a Physician.

i. A lancet to bleed or open an abscess, also a knife somewhat larger.

ij. A steel or silver spatula to spread plaster.

iij. A pipe and bladder in order to inject to the urinary organs or


iiij. His plasters, his ointments, his pills, his powders, his potions, carefully preserved to meet any demand and occasion.

1. A garden of trees and herbs, where such herbs, shrubs, and trees, as do not everywhere grow naturally, may be kept cultivated, and where foreign trees and plants, which require shelter and culture before they will thrive in Wales, may be grown.

j. He should also have his dry herbs, roots, seeds, and barks kept at hand, so that they may be had in winter, and other times when they are not to be obtained growing, or above ground.

uij. He should also have at hand, his honey, his wax, his pitch, his rosin, his gums, his oil, his tallow, his grease, his lard, his marble slab, his ale, his wine, his mead, his distillations, and other articles as may be required.

uiij. He should also have at hand his mortars, his strainer, his press, his stone ware, his glass ware, his wooden vessels, his fire utensils, and his vessels for keeping articles, whether of glass, earthen, or silver, with good covers, so that the drugs may not become inert, or poisonous from want of keeping, carelessness, or ignorance.

ir. He should also have weights and balances at hand, either of silver or tin, so that nothing deleterious might get into the drugs. All his liquid or fluid measures should also be made of silver or tin, for the same reason. Likewise his surgical instruments generally, with the exception of lancets, cutting scalpels, and probing needles.

1. All his weights and measures, whether of solids or of liquids, should be of warranted weight and capacity, that he may be certain of the proportions of all ingredients, so that he may neither exceed or come short of the quantity required, as this would render the remedy either inert or poisonous.

1. He should also have his warranted Books of Art authorized by a master, so that he may be cunning in the judgment and science of the wise and skilful Physicians who have preceded him, and who have written with authority in the Cymraeg, the Latin, and the Arabic.

Tij. He should be also declared competent to practice by authority of the wise and learned masters of the art.

riij. He should be a kind man, gentle, mild, meek, intelligent, wise, and gentlemanly in act and deed, in word and conduct, being careful not to shame those whom he has to examine, particularly when he has to examine women.

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