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ism and functions of the skin in Chaps. VII. and VIII., with a view to illustrate the action of the Bath on the internal economy through its medium. But we now desire to draw attention more particularly to the absolute necessity of attending to skin cleanliness, as essential to personal purity and health. We do not mean mere surface washing with soap and water, cold or warm, by which the external surface may be made to wear the appearance of cleanliness, but the thorough flushing of the pores -the perfectly healthy action of the whole organism, by which alone internal and external purity can be preserved. We will explain.

Independently of the perspiratory apparatus of the skin, there is another apparatus physiologically known as the "sebacious system," which is composed of numerous follicles spread over the greater portion of the body, the function of which is to secrete a peculiar oily matter for the purpose of keeping the surface of the skin in a soft and healthy condition. "The apparatus for keeping the surface of the skin bedewed with an oily fluid," observes Erasmus Wilson, in his Practical Treatise, "resembles, in general particulars of structure and economy, that of the perspiratory system. It consists of minute tubes, which traverse the scarf and sensitive skin, and enter the substance of the corium, where they terminate in small glands."-Page 56.

According to the same authority, and there is none higher on the subject, it is the healthy action of the sebacious system which is peculiarly and injuriously affected by the "sedentary and irregular habits of refined society." Its functions are not properly performed; the secreting process is irregularly effected, and its organism torpid; the contents of the oil cells get solid and dense, and are either imperfectly or not at all exuded. In this state they are either thrown out on the surface of the skin in a mass, or, if too solid and dry, to be so ejected, they accumulate in the tube of the gland which they unnaturally distend, and cause an irritation which frequently is manifested by extensive inflammation.

In this foul state of the sebacious system the parasite first

observed by a German physiologist, Dr. Simon, makes its appearance in the oil tubes, and multiplies rapidly. "The animalcule of the skin is found in the oil tubes whenever there exists any disposition to the unnatural accumulation of their contents; it is found in numbers, varying in one to twenty, in the interior of the little groved cylinder, which is squeezed out by the pressure of the fingers."-Ibid, p. 62. This parasite Mr. Wilson calls entozoon folliculorum, and it unites the characters of the higher annelida or worm-tribe, of the lower arachnida or spider-tribe, and of the lower crustacea or crab-tribe, to such a degree that the scientific zoologist is puzzled in which class to include it.

But it appears it abounds in all town populations. "As in the majority of mankind, and certainly in all the inhabitants of cities and large towns, the skin is more of less torpid in its functions, so the presence of this animal in the skin is the rule, its absence the exception. I have found it in all ages, from youth to old age, more numerously, it is true, in the latter than in the former period, and in great and remarkable numbers during sickness."-Ibid, p. 62.

Not only is it to be found in all ages, but also in all ranks of society; and the British and Foreign Medical Review ob

serves:

"The delicate town bred lady of fashion, in descending from her carriage, shrinks instinctively from the mass of rags, filth, and vermin, which is brought in contiguity with her precious person by some pertinacious beggar; ignorant all the while that her sebacious follicles give board and lodging to a host of parasites, whose numbers may equal that of the various kinds of 'small deer' that nestle in the matted hair and tattered garments of the fellow being whom she regards with such loathing. Where ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be wise, but we consider that such knowledge ought not to be withheld from deference to fastidious delicacy, for it supplies an immediate inducement to the adoption of such habits as may free the sebacious system of those unwelcome inhabitants.”—Vol. xxi.,

p. 202.

Now, a sufficient quantity of habitual exercise in pure air will effect the desired purpose. But an occasional “constitutional walk" will not have the effect; and, failing such exercise as will cause free perspiration, relieve the torpidity of the skin,

and restore its normal action, no amount of mere surface washing, nor any quantity of poisonous lotions can be of any avail. Even warm water bathing will not free the system from these disagreeable lodgers, and, in fact, failing proper healthy exercise, there is no means that can be commanded equal to the Bath. Hot Air, and not Hot Water, is the sole remedy, and this is one great reason why there should be Hot-air Baths in every town, and why every one who, lacking the necessary exercise, desires to preserve personal purity-thorough integrity of the skin organism internally and externally-without which there cannot be perfect health-should consider it a moral duty to habitually take the Bath.

CHAPTER XXII.

The effect of Drug treatment in Cholera-Its universal failure— The Hydropathic treatment-The disease popularly known as "The Black Death"-The Drug treatment of it on the Continent-The mal-practice of Irish Physicians despite of all experience-Effects of Temperature.

CHOLERA is one of the many diseases which, in a marked degree, has baffled all the skill and resources of drug-practitioners. No medical man, pretending to character, will now presume to possess any control over this disease by his drugs. Physic is not one whit advanced in this respect, but is just now as ignorant and as powerless as in 1832; and yet how book shelves do groan under the weight of choleraic literature-an accumulation of pretentious volumes filled with wild theories and wilder remedies, conjectures and modes of treatment all in as endless a variety as the reflections in a kaleidoscope, yet all founded on drugging, and all pretending to cure by drugs!" There is no known cure for Cholera," says Dr. Johnson, Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in King's College, London, and, he adds, "there probably never will be." This probability may be taken for an absolute certainty as far as the Physic School is concerned, but not so as regards Hydropathic practice, as we will explain.

All the authentic information that has been obtained concerning Cholera, shows that it is a very simple form of disease, and that there is nothing necessarily incurable about it. In the "Report of the Cholera Epidemic of 1865, in the Malteso Islands," by Surgeons Adams and Welch, published by the Army Medical Department, there is a great deal of valuable

information concerning the disease in all its forms, and the conclusions arrived at may be briefly stated—

First-Cholera is contagious, which some theorists have doubted. This is proved by the influence exerted by human intercourse in the diffusion of the disease throughout the Maltese Islands. This, indeed, is now the general opinion, and it isalways the safest to act on.

Second-Three varieties of diarrhoea were observed during the epidemic, having very marked distinctive characteristics. One was the ordinary summer diarrhoea, which was more common than generally, among both the military and the civil population, but this was attributed to excess in eating fruit, which was cheap, as the rich would not purchase any, and to irregular and drunken habits among the soldiers. This form, however, was very tractable, and did not appear to have any tendency to develop into cholera. The second form exhibited every degree of intensity, and when severe was classed under choleraic diarrhoea," but, "although intractable, it evinced no tendency to pass beyond a certain point, or to assume a more malignant form." The third form was so completely intractable that in sixty-one cases, where every possible attempt was made to check it, in none did it succeed, but it was invariably followed by full development of cholera. The medical reporters say that this form "was clearly an early stage of cholera, and it may be fairly questioned whether a single case was prevented developing itself into cholera by treatment directed towards the suppression of intestinal flux." And it is further positively declared that what is called generally "premonitory diarrhoea tending towards cholera, but easily checked," was not met with during the epidemic, but, on the contrary, the conclusion arrived at is, "that the diarrhoea which appeared to yield to treatment would have stopped without it, while that form of diarrhoea which tended to pass into cholera, continued its fatal course in spite of every repressive means."

Third-When the treatment was repressive of Nature's efforts to obtain relief, when to that end all the appliances of

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