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serted their liberty and independence. If the Moors Nicholas I. proclaimed to the whole world his par. were unlucky in the north, they were singularly amount judgment in appeal from the sentences of fortunate in the southern parts of that kingdom. all spiritual judicatories; his power of assembling Abdalrahman, the last heir of the family of the councils of the Church, and of regulating it by the Ommiades—the Abassidæ now enjoying the Caliph- canons of those councils; the right of exercising his ate—was recognized as the true representative of authority by legates in all the kingdoms of Europe, the ancient line of the southern Moors. He fixed and the control of the pope over all princes and the seat of his government at Cordova, which from governors; and, in order to extend and consolidate that date for two centuries was the capital of a the papal power, missionaries were despatched in splendid monarchy. This period, from the middle all directions to found new churches: as Austin had of the eighth to the middle of the tenth century, been sent into Britain by Gregory; St. Patrick into is the most brilliant era of Arabian magnificence. Ireland, and Boniface to Germany. Whoever were Whilst Haroun Alraschid made Bagdad illustrious chosen for such missions by the court of Rome were by the splendor of the arts and sciences, the Moors naturally careful to exalt the prerogatives of the of Cordova vied with their brethren in Asia in the Holy See, and to impress their converts with a deep same honorable pursuits, and were undoubtedly, at sense of the supremacy of its bishops. Literary this age, the most enlightened of the peoples of imposture gave its support to these pretences: the Europe. Under a succession of able princes, they forgery of the epistles of Isidorus was not comearned the highest reputation, both in arts and pletely exposed till the sixteenth century. Among arms, of all the nations of the West.

the prerogatives of the popes was the regulation of The Saracens at this time were extending their the marriages of all crowned heads by the extreme conquests in almost every quarter of the globe. The extension of the prohibitions of the canon law, with Mahometan religion was professed over a great part which they alone had the power of dispensing. It of India, and all along the eastern and Mediterra- is upon record that one king of France, Henry the nean coast of Africa. The African Saracens in- First, third of the Capetian race, in order to avoid vaded Sicily, and projected the conquest of Italy.

the vexatious embarrassments of consanguinity which They actually laid siege to Rome, which was nobly had involved his predecessor in a contention with the defended by Pope Leo IV., a Roman by birth, who see of Rome, sent even to Russia for a consort. displayed at once the courage of the early ages of

While the Church was thus gradually extending the Republic, and the moderation of a Christian its influence, and its head arrogating the control minister. The infidel enemy was repulsed, A.D. over sovereign princes, these, by a singular inter848, his ships shattered by storm, and his army lit- change of character, seem in those ages to have erally cut to pieces. Had the Saracens but ac- fixed their chief attention on spiritual concerns. knowledged one head, they might have risen to emi- Kings, dukes, and counts, neglecting their temporal nence and solid power; but their states were always duties, shut themselves up in cloisters, and spent disunited. Egypt, Morocco, Nubia, Libya, Spain, their lives in prayers and penances. Ecclesiastics and India had all their separate sovereigns, who,

were employed in all the departments of secular though they continued to respect the Caliph of government; and these alone conducted all public Bagdad, as the successor of the Prophet, acknowl- measures and state negotiations, which, of course, edged no temporal subjection to his government. they directed to the great objects of advancing the

interests of the Church, and establishing the para

mount authority of the Holy See. STATE OF THE CHURCH IN THE EIGHTH

At this period, however, when the popedom AND NINTH CENTURIES.

seemed to have attained its highest ascendancy, it The popes had begun to acquire a temporal au- suffered a severe wound in that remarkable schism thority under Pepin le Bref and Charlemagne, from which separated the patriarchates of Rome and the donations of territory made by those princes, Constantinople, or the Greek and Latin Churches. and they were now gradually extending a spirit- The Roman pontiff had hitherto claimed the right ual jurisdiction over all the Christian kingdoms. of nominating the patriarch of Constantinople. The emperor Michael III. denied this right; and tributary to the Imperial Crown, annexed the crown deposing the pope's patriarch, Ignatius, appointed of Bohemia to his own dominions, and aimed at the celebrated Photius in his stead. Pope Nicho- governing entire Europe. In Pope John XII. he las I. resented this affront with a high spirit, and had a most formidable enemy, whom he tried and deposed and excommunicated Photius, A.D. 863, deposed; but the moment his back was turned, who, in his turn, pronounced a similar sentence John, by the aid of his party, displaced Leo VIII. against the pope. The Church was divided, each Otho returned, and took exemplary vengeance on patriarch being supported by many bishops and his enemies by hanging at least one-half of the sentheir dependent clergy. The Greek and Latin ate. Calling together the Lateran Council, he crebishops had long differed in many points of practice ated a new pope, and obtained from the assembled and discipline, as the celibacy of the clergy, the bishops an acknowledgment of the absolute right of shaving their beards, etc.; but, in reality, the prime the emperor to elect to the papacy, to give investsource of division was the ambition of the rival pon- ures to the crown of Italy, and to nominate to all tiffs, and the jealousy of the Greek emperors, vacant bishoprics. unwilling to admit the control of Rome, and obsti- In 1024, the Saxon dynasty came to an end; and nately asserting every prerogative which they con- in the person of Conrad the Second, the Empire ceived to be annexed to the capital of the Roman passed to the Franconian line. Conrad was an able, empire. As neither party would yield its preten- active, and spirited prince, anxious to uphold the sions, the division of the Greek and Latin Churches royal authority, though his reign was too short to became from this time permanent.

admit of his completing the plans he had in view. Amid these ambitious contests for ecclesiastical The emperors continued to assert their sovereignty power and pre-eminence, the Christian religion it- over Italy and the papacy, though with a constant self was disgraced, both by the practice and by the resistance on the part of the Romans, and of principles of its teachers. Worldly ambition, gross the popes. The emperor, Henry III., strenuously voluptuousness, and grosser ignorance, character- vindicated his right to place his nominee in the ized all ranks of the clergy; and the open sale of pontifical chair, and created three popes without benefices placed them often in the hands of the opposition: Clement II., 1046; Damasus II., 1048; basest and most profligate of men. Yet the char- and Leo IX., 1049. The latter having in 1053 led acter of Photius forms an illustrious exception. an army in person against the Normans, who had Though bred a statesman and a soldier, and in both taken possession of the southern provinces of Italy, these respects of great reputation, he attained, by was defeated and taken prisoner; but, as it haphis singular abilities, learning, and worth, the high-pened, much to the advantage of the Holy See; for, est dignity of the Church. His Bibliotheca is a being treated with respect by his enemies, who monument of the most various knowledge, erudi- were keenly aware of the advantages they might tion, and critical judgment; but is mortifying to gain by his friendship, he formally granted them the present age, as bearing testimony to the exist- the investure of Puglia, Calabria, and Sicily, as ence of various works of the classical writers of an- fiefs of the Holy See; and, his example being tiquity; now, in all probability, lost to the world. followed by his successors, the Normans were

converted from that time into powerful auxili

aries in favor of the court of Rome, against the EMPIRE OF THE WEST AND ITALY IN

emperors. TENTH AND ELEVENTH CENTURIES.

THE FEUDAL SYSTEM.

Henry I. (The Fowler), after the assassination of Berengarius of Tivoli, ascended the throne, and being a prince of great ability, introduced order and good government into the Empire. IIenry's son, Otho (the Great), who succeeded him, again united Italy to the Empire, A.D. 961. He made Denmark

The system that prevailed during the period from the ninth to the thirteenth century, by which social and political relations, including particularly the rights of property, were regulated in nearly all the

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countries of Europe, was called the “Feudal System," a feudal proprietor being a person who held his lands from another, on condition of certain services, which be, as a “vassal," was bound to perform for the other as “suzerain” or “superior.” With the exception of the duty of military service to their superiors, the vassals of a king practically were invested with sovereign power within their own dominions, having vassals in various degrees beneath them; and living in their fortified castles, often by means of pillage, while the peasantry were bound as serfs, or slaves, to the soil. The feudal nobles and gentlemen fought on horseback, and were protected by a close-fitting armor of steel, often ornamented with gold and silver. Their prin

cipal weapons of offence were long lances, with which they rode fiercely against each other; and clubs, maces, or swords for hand-to-hand conflicts when their lances were broken, or when the combatants became unhorsed. The common soldiers fought on foot, were unprovided with protective armor, and used bows and arrows--either long bows or cross-bows. The Normans were skilled in the use of every species of arms, but especially in the cross-bow; and after the Norman invasion, the English became the most expert archers in the world, Cannon came into use in the middle of the . fourteenth century.

The influences that gradually eat away the feudal system will appear later in this History.

BRITXIND

T is surmised that the original popula- peace for nearly a century; but, in the reign of

tion of the British Isles came from Claudius, the conquest of the island was deterthe Celtæ of Gaul. The authentic mined. The emperor landed in Briton, and comhistory of Britain commences with pelled the submission of the south-eastern provinces. the first Roman invasion, and we Ostorius Scapula defeated Caractacus, who was sent

learn from Cæsar and Tacitus that prisoner to Rome. Suetonius Paulinus, the general the country was at that period in a state very re- of Nero, destroyed Mona (Isle of Man), the centre mote from barbarism.

of Druidical superstition. The Iceni, the inhabiIt was divided into a number of small indepen- tants of Norfolk and Suffolk, under their queen, dent sovereignties, each prince having a regular Boadicea, attacked several of the Roman settlearmy, and a fixed revenue. The manners, lan- ments. London, with its Roman garrison, was guage, and religion of the people were the same burnt to ashes. But in A.D. 61 a decisive battle with those of the Gallic Celtæ. The last was the took place, in which 80,000 Britons fell on the field, Druidical system, whose influence pervaded every and Boadicea, unwilling to survive the liberties of department of the government; and, by its power her country, ended her life by poison. Not for over the minds of the people, supplied the imperfec- thirty years afterwards, in the reign of Titus, was tion of laws.

the island subjugated. The great general who perJulius Cæsar, after the conquest of Gaul, turned formed this notable feat was Julius Agricola, whose his eyes towards Britain. He landed, B.c. 55, on the deeds have been commemorated by his son-in-law, southern coast of the island, and meeting with the Tacitus. He was the first general to carry Roman most obstinate resistance, he was compelled to with- armies into Scotland. After securing the Roman draw into Gaul for winter quarters. He returned province against invasion from the Caledonians by in the following summer with a great increase of walls and garrisons between the Firths of Forth force, an army of 20,000 foot, a competent body of and Clyde, he reconciled the southern inhabitants horse, and a fleet of 800 sail. The independent to the government of their conquerors by the introchiefs of the Britons united their forces under Cas- duction of Roman arts and improvements. Adrian sivelaunus, king of the Trinobantes, and encoun- contracted the limits fixed upon by Agricola by tering the legions with great resolution, displayed building a second wall between Newcastle and Carall the ability of practiced warriors. But the con- lisle: but under Severus the Roman province was test was vain. Cæsar advanced into the country, again far extended into the north of Scotland, and burned Verulanium, the present town of St. Albans, secured by walls and fortresses built of more durathe capital of Cassivelaunus; and, after forcing the ble materials than those of either Agricola or Britons into articles of submission, returned to Adrian. With the decline of the Roman power in Gaul.

the West, the southern Britons recovered their libThe domestic disorders of Italy proved of consid- erty; but it was only to become the object of inceserable benefit to the Britons, since they gave them sant predatory invasion from their brethren of the

1

North. The Romans, after rebuilding the wall of dread of danger among the fierce Saxon heathens, Severus, finally bade adieu to Britain, very early in Augustine landed in Kent in 597. the fifth century, about 410, and it was now the turn He found Ethelbert favorably disposed, owing to of the Picts and Caledonians to burst down upon the his marriage with the Christian princess, Bertha, South, to pillage, ravage, and destroy. After re- daughter of Caribert, king of Paris.

The king aspeated applications to Rome for aid, without suc- signed him a residence in the Isle of Thanet, and cess, her legions being hotly engaged in other parts, received him to a conference; and in a short time, the Britons solicited the Saxons of Germany for suc- Ethelbert and many of his subjects were baptized. cor and protection. The Saxons received the appli- Augustine was made by Gregory archbishop of cation with great satisfaction, and to the number of Canterbury, and Metropolitan of all the British 1,600 landed, under the command of Hengist and churches. Augustine also founded the see of RochHorsa, A.D. 450. Joining the South Britons they ester. Soon after Sebert, king of Essex, the nephew soon compelled the Scots to retire to “Caledonia, of Ethelbert, received the faith from Mellitus, who stern and wild.” They next turned their attention became the first bishop of London. The cathedral to the absolute reduction of the Britons, and after of St. Paul's was erected on the site of a temple bitter and obstinate fighting for over one hundred to Diana, and another church was dedicated to St. and fifty years succeeded in reducing the whole of Peter on Thorney Island, an islet formed by a England to the Saxon government, many of the na- small tributary of the Thames, now the site of tions taking refuge in Wales, the remote county of Westminster Abbey. In 627 Edwin, king of Cornwall, and in Armorica in France, subsequently Northumbria, was converted by Palinus, a bishop called, on this account, the province of Bretagne. who was introduced by his queen Ethelburga, Seven distinct provinces became as many king- the daughter of Ethelbert. He was baptized in doms.

a temporary church dedicated to St. Peter, soon Among the Saxon kingdoms there were continual replaced by a cathedral which became the seat of conflicts, and each chieftain aspired to the dignity the archbishopric of York, and the centre whence of Bretwalda, or supreme being. This rank seems Christianity spread over the north. to have arisen out of the need for a common leader The obscurity and confusion of the Saxon Hepagainst the Britons, Picts, and Scots; and it was tarchy renders it colorless and uninteresting. It is probably elective. The first Bretwalda was Ella, sufficient for the purpose of this History to mark the king of Sussex; the second Ceawlin, grandson of duration of the several kingdoms till their union Cerdic of Wessex; the third was Ethelbert, king of under Egbert. Kent began in 455, and lasted, Kent, in whose reign Christianity was introduced under seventeen princes, till 827, when it was subamong the Anglo-Saxons.

dued by the West Saxons. In Ethelbert's reign, one Three Anglo-Saxon youths were exposed for sale of its kings, the Saxons were converted to Christianin the market-place at Rome, when Gregory (after- ity by the monk Augustine. Northumberland bewards Pope Gregory the Great) was passing by. gan in 597, and lasted, under twenty-three kings, Struck by their fair and open countenances, he till 792. East Anglia began in 575 and ended in asked of what nation they were. “Angles," was 793. Mercia subsisted from 582 to 827. Essex had the answer. “Say rather Angels," replied he, "if fourteen princes, from 527 to 747; Sussex only five, they were only Christians. But of what province ?" before its reduction beneath the dominion of the Deira.” “De ira,” said he; "yes, they are called

West Saxons, about 600. Wessex, which finally from the wrath of God to his mercy. And who is subdued and united the whole of the Heptarchy, their king?” “His name is Ella or Alla." * Alle- began in 519, and had not subsisted above eighty lujah,” he exclaimed; "the praises of God must be years when Cadualla, its king, conquered and ansung in their country." He at once undertook the nexed Sussex to its dominions. As there was no mission, but the Romans retained him at home; rule for fixed succession, it was the policy of the and on his accession to the Papacy, he sent to Brit- Saxon princes to put to death all the rivals of their ain a Roman monk, Augustine, at the head of forty intended succession. From this cause, and from missionaries. After some delay in Gaul, from the .

the passion for celibacy, the royal families were

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