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filled the surrounding countries in 1848 seem to took the name of Innocent XIII., but being far adhave taught them the blessings of peace and union. vanced in years, lived a very short time, dying on

Of the condition of VENICE during the eighteenth the 3d of March, 1724; and on the 29th of May folcentury, much may be collected from what has

lowing, Cardinal Ursini, Benedict XIII., was chosen been already said. She lost the Morea in 1718, but his successor. During his papacy, Commachio, acquired, in exchange, some towns in Albania and which had been lost to the Roman see in the time Dalmatia, which, however, were a very inadequate of Clement XI., was recovered. Benedict was zealcompensation. Some ecclesiastical reforms took ous for the honor of the bull unigenitus, and, in place in the middle of the last century, at which conjunction with Cardinal Fleury, succeeded in period many convents were suppressed and the procuring the Cardinal de Noailles, one of the most Jesuits expelled. Venice endeavored to remain respectable and zealous opposers of it in France, to neuter during the first movements of the French subscribe it. He had a disposition to unite the

. Revolution, but was soon drawn into the vortex Roman, Greek, Lutheran, and Reformed churches, when Bonaparte assumed the command of the but could not succeed. He died in 1730, more adFrench army. By the Treaty of Campo Formio, mired for his virtues and talents, than praised for 1797, her doom was sealed, and this celebrated re- his wisdom in the management of affairs. public entirely overthrown. As a portion of the Benedict XIII. was succeeded by Clement XII., Italian dominions of Austria, the Venetians were Laurence Corsini, a Florentine, whose public acts among those whose hopes of independence were were of little importance. He had disputes with disappointed in the contest of 1848.

the king of Sardinia, the republic of Venice, with In Rome, since the close of the eighteenth cen- the Empire and Spain; but much of his pontificate tury, there has been a succession of many popes, was passed in tranquillity. He died on the 6th of though some have filled the papal chair longer than February, 1740. He made considerable and valumight be expected, in a sovereignty where the elec- able additions to the Vatican Library. On his tion is generally made from persons advanced in death, a struggle arose between the Albani and years. Little more than the “ magni nominis Corsini families, and the conclave was much agiumbraremained to the popes at the beginning of tated. The former prevailed, and succeeded in the eighteenth century, of that temporal power, elevating Cardinal Prosper Lambertini to the papal which, at one time or other, had shaken every chair, who took the title of Benedict XIV. His throne in Europe. The clergy of France, in par- government of the church was extremely mild, and ticular, had effectually asserted that the kings and he was regarded as no favorer of the Jesuits, who, princes, in temporal concerns, were independent of during his pontificate, fell into disrepute in Portuecclesiastical authority. Clement XI., who was of gal, the first symptom of their decline and fall. the family of the Albani, and assumed the tiara in This pope was a man of most amiable manners, a the year 1700, opposed the erection of Prussia into great writer, and possessed of considerable learning; a kingdom; an extraordinary measure of interpo- he appears, indeed, to have been one of the most sition, which had so little weight as almost to ex- universally beloved of all the popes. He corrected pose his court to ridicule. IIe espoused the French several abuses, particularly such as had arisen out interests in the contest concerning the Spanish suc- of the privileges of asylum. He carefully encession, though in 1708 he was compelled, by the deavored to keep clear of disputes and contests, vigorous proceedings of the emperor, to acknowls thinking the times unfavorable to the papal authoredge Charles III. king of Spain. From this pope ity. He died in the year 1758. the famous bull unigenitus was extorted by the The cardinal Rezzonico succeeeded Benedict Jesuits, to the great disturbance of France, and the XIV., and took the title of Clement XIII. His whole Romish church; and the consequences of pontificate is memorable for being the era of the which, indeed, may be traced in all the following expulsion of the order of Jesuits (in some instances state and circumstances of Europe.

under circumstances of very unjustifiable precipiPope Clement XI. died in 1721, and was suc- tation) from Portugal, France, Spain, Naples, ceeded by the cardinal Michael Angelo Conti, who Sicily, Parma, Venice, and Corsica, notwithstanding the utmost efforts of the pope to uphold them. and intentions of most of the members of the conMany of them were actually landed from Spain, clave, a circumstance not unlikely to happen Portugal, Naples, and Sicily on the pope's terri- amidst such a contrariety of interests and complitories, as though it belonged to him to maintain cated forms of proceeding. As he had thus risen them when abandoned by the Catholic sovereigns. to supreme power, he acted afterwards more indeThe pope remonstrated, but with little effect. The pendently of the cardinals than any of his preFrench seized upon Avignon, and the Neapolitans decessors. upon Benevento, to induce him to abandon the He had taken the name of Pius VI., in acknowlorder, but he would not. Clement XIII. died sud- edged defiance of a prevailing superstition, exdenly, on February 2, 1769, and was succeeded by pressed in the following verses, and applied to the celebrated Ganganelli, who, in compliment to Alexander VI., particularly, if not to others. his predecessor and patron, took the title of Clem

“ Sextus Tarquinius, Sextus Nero, sextus et iste, ent XIV. This enlightened pontiff was sensible of

Semper sub sextis, perdita Roma fuit." the decline of the papal authority, and of the prudence of conciliating, if not of humoring, the sov- He is known to have, in his troubles, reflected on ereigns of Europe, against whom he was accustomed this rather singular circumstance with sorrow and to observe, the Alps and the Pyrenees were not dismay. Certainly no pope had greater indignities sufficient protection. It was in consequence of this to sustain, nor could any have greater cause to leaning towards the temporal princes, that he se- apply to themselves the ominous prestiges conveyed cured their concurrence to his being made pope,

his in the lines just cited; for in the year 1798 his govfreedom of thought and manners being otherwise ernment was overthrown, and Rome lost. The obnoxious to the court of Rome. The conclave by French took possession of it, and proclaimed the which he was elected was tumultuous; but at restoration of the Roman republic. length the Cardinal de Bernis succeeded in procur- The pope's troubles began in 1796, when he was ing him to be chosen pope, May, 1769. It is well compelled to cede to Bonaparte the cities of Boknown that this accomplished pontiff, in the year logna, Urbino, Ferrara, and Ancona, to pay twenty1773, after much deliberation, suppressed the order one millions of francs, and deliver to the French of Jesuits; and, dying in the next year, suspicions commissioners, sent for the purpose, pictures, busts, were raised that he had been poisoned.

statues, and vases to a large amount. He aftering his body, however, in the presence of the wards endeavored to raise an army to recover what French and Spanish ministers, enemies to the Jes- he had lost; but he had formed a very wrong estiuits, it was pronounced otherwise. There is little mate of the power of his opponent. He was soon doubt that he regretted, as head of the Church, the compelled, February 12, 1797, to sue for peace, and step he had been compelled to take; it procured submit to further sacrifices at the will of Bonafor him, indeed, the restitution of Avignon and parte, whom he had certainly very incautiously Benevento, which had been taken from his prede- provoked. By the Peace of Tolentino, he re


, cessor; but in consenting to the dissolution of an nounced all right to Avignon and the Vanaissin, order so essential to the papal dominion, he must, Bologna, Ferrara, and the Romagna. On the enin all probability, have yielded to the power of trance of the French in 1798, the Vatican and irresistible circumstances. He was of an amiable Quirinal palaces, and private mansions of the obdisposition, much given to literature, indefatigable noxious amongst the nobility, were stripped of all in business, and highly respected by foreign na- their ornaments and riches. The people who had tions, plain and simple in his manners, and very invited the French fancied themselves free, but disinterested.

had very little cause to thank their deliverers. The Early in the year 1775, Angiolo Braschi, a de- pope was forcibly removed from Rome, at the age scendant of the noble family of Cesena, was chosen of eighty, and, by order of the French Directory, to fill the chair vacated by the death of Ganganelli. transferred from place to place, as the course of The new pope took the title of Pius VI. He is events dictated, from Rome to Florence, from Florsaid to have been elected contrary to the wishes ence to Briançon, and from Briançon to Valence.

On open

Another removal to Dijon is said to have been in lege reserved to the pope, and every possible encontemplation, had not the decline of his health couragement being, at the same time, given to the become too visible to render it necessary. He died Protestant churches, Lutheran and Calvinistic. at the latter place, August 29, 1799, in the eighty- It was very soon discovered that the new head of second year of his age, and twenty-fourth of his the Roman Church was to be made to bow as low pontificate.

to the authority of Bonaparte as his predecessor. Pius VI. was correct in his manners, and a pa- In 1804, Pius VII. was summoned to Paris to tron of genius, particularly of the fine arts. He officiate at the coronation of the French emperor; spent mucii money on buildings, notwithstanding and though in the year following he declined atthe distressed state of the finances, and devoted tending a similar ceremony at Milan, as has been large sums to the draining of the Pontine marshes, already shown, it seems only to have exposed him to in which almost impracticable undertaking he greater sacrifices. In 1808, he was deprived of partly succeeded. He endeavored to correct the Urbino, Ancona, Macerata, and Camerino, and soon abuses of sanctuary, which had been carried so far after, his temporal sovereignty being formally disas to give impunity to hired assassins, much to the solved, the papal territories were annexed to France. infamy of those who protected them. It deserves Rome was declared to be a free and impartial city; to be recorded of him, that he displayed great the court of Inquisition, the temporal jurisdiction magnanimity, as well as pious resignation, when of the clergy, the right of asylum, and other privdragged from his dominions; and though he felt ileges, were abolished, and the title of King of severely the wrongs that had been committed Rome was appropriated to the heir of the French against him by the French and the infatuated Ro- empire. Pius was conveyed first to Grenoble, mans, he died tranquilly and serenely.

afterwards to Savona, and, finally, in 1812, to FonIt is remarkable that he had scarcely been dead tainebleau, where, for reasons unknown, he was a month, when Rome was delivered from the hands once more acknowledged as a sovereign, till the adof its oppressors, and given up to the British, whose vance of the Allies upon Paris, at last, procured him fleet, under Commodore Trowbridge, had blocked his liberty; and in 1814 he was reinstated. He up the port of Civita Vecchia. Those who had fav- made his solemn entrance into Rome on the 24th ored the republican cause were permitted to retire, of May; and in 1815, by the arrangements of the and the French garrison marched out with the Congress of Vienna, his forfeited estates were rehonors of war.

annexed to the papal dominions. His restoration of In the month of March, 1800, a conclave of the order of Jesuits and of the court of Inquisition, cardinals, under the protection of the emperor and on his return, occasioned sone concern to the greater other Catholic powers, met at Venice to elect a suc- part of Europe; but his holiness had generally the cessor to Pius VI., and was not long in fixing upon credit of being a man of sense, prudence, and the cardinal Chiaremonte, bishop of Tivoli, Pope moderation. Pius VII. In a few weeks after his election, he set For upwards of thirty years after the Treaty of out for his new dominions, and arrived at Rome on Vienna no event of importance affected the governJuly 9th.

In the month of September, 1801, he ment and court of Rome. In 1823, Annibale della had the satisfaction of concluding a concordatum Genga became pope, as Leo XII.

He was sucwith the French republic, by which, under the aus- ceeded in 1829 by Castiglione, as Pius VIII., and pices of Bonaparte, then First Consul, the Roman Capellari was chosen in 1831, as Gregory XVI. . On Catholic religion was re-established there. Not only his death in 1846, he was succeeded by one doomed heresy, but infidelity and atheism, had been so to have a more eventful existence, John Maria, of openly encouraged and avowed by the French revo- Mastai Ferretti, well known as Pio Nono or Pius lutionists, that Pius appears to have thought no IX. He surprised Europe by the phenomenon of concessions too great to accomplish this end; for a reforming pope, giving liberty to the press, imthe terms of the agreement undoubtedly subjected proving the administration of justice, affording a the Gallican church entirely to the civil government, liberal municipality to the city, and projecting a canonical institution being almost the only privi- | confederation of the Italian states. Instead, how

ever, of deriving favorable hopes of permanent amelioration from such a ruler, the restless Italians seemed to feel the removal of tyranny and restraint as the opportunity for turbulence; and during the revolutionary storm of 1848, tumults arose in Rome, in which the minister Rossi was assassinated. The pope fled to Gaëta, leaving the city to those who could command it. It was in the meantime kept in

discipline by a triumvirate, at the head of whom was Mazzini, the leader of the revolutionary party in Italy. They held rule for several months, and when, in 1849, a French army marched to reinstate the pope, they vigorously defended the city. The French took it after a siege terminating in July, 1849, and, restoring the pope, established a French garrison in his capital.


HE acquiescence of the Catholics to bear conjointly the charges of the pre-union exthe measure of Union had been


It was arranged that for the ensuing gained by promises of emancipa- twenty years the expenditure of the United Kingtion, and the assurance that on this dom should be defrayed in the proportions of fifsubject the ministers were unani- teen parts to Great Britain to two of Ireland, and

mous; but the more powerful ad- that after that time a fresh arrangement should be herence of the Protestants was bought with some- made, and the proportions from time to time thing more substantial than words, and the passing revised until such time as the national debt of of the Union added an enormous sum to the national Ireland should bear the proportions of two to debt of Ireland. The borough owners received fifteen parts of the debt of Great Britain. This £15,000 ($75,000) compensation for each borough, consummation was arrived at in 1817, for whereas and this alone cost £1,275,000 (86,375,000) of during the sixteen years of union the British which Lord Shannon and the Marquess of Ely re- debt had not doubled, the Irish had increased ceived each £45,000 ($225,000), and Lord Clan- fourfold, and already exceeded the proportion of morres £23,000 ($115,000). The price of an Union .

two to fifteen. Nor was this all that Ireland vote was £8,000 ($40,000) down, or in instances had to complain of, for in defiance of the where ready money would not be accepted, an hon- seventh article of the Union, which provided orable or profitable office. Indeed, the list of sup- that the surplus revenue should be expended porters of the Union shows us that, of the one hun- for the benefit of each country in the propordred and forty members who voted for the measure, tion of their contributions, the surplus due to only eleven were neither place holders nor received Ireland, and amounting in some years to three or rewards for their votes.

four millions, was not so expended. The Rebellion and the Union had cost Ireland The sixth article places the two kingdoms on dear, for her national debt, which in '97 had equal commercial footing, and prescribes that neiamounted only to £4,000,000 ($20,000,000) had ther shall impose a duty on the imports or exports during four years increased more than seven-fold, of the other; but this commercial equality was no and at the beginning of 1801 stood at £28,545,134, benefit to Ireland; the English industries were in or close on $143,000,000; nearly one-sixteenth of possession of the market, the commercial current that of England, which then amounted to £450,- flowed in her direction, and want of capital and 504,984. Ireland sought to protect herself from the complicated system of rings, exclusive and rethe charge of the English pre-union debt by the ciprocal trading, placed insuperable barriers in the seventh article of the Union, which prescribes that way of Irish commerce. Thaï the Union did not the sinking fund for the reduction of the principal improve Irish trade is easily seen by a glance at the of the debt incurred in either kingdom shall be de- returns of her imports and exports, which, though frayed by separate taxation; but this article has not they increased with her increasing population, rose been complied with, and the two kingdoms now much less rapidly than they had done in the years

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