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opposed it earnestly. Colonel Fennell, who had already betrayed the pass at Killaloe, completed his perfidy by seizing St. John's Gate and Tower, and admitting Ireton's men by night. On the following day the invader was able to dictate his own terms. Two thousand five hundred soldiers laid down their arms in St. Mary's Church, and marched out of the city, many dropping dead on their road of the fearful pestilence. Twenty-four persons were exempted from quarter. Amongst the number was Dr. Terence O'Brien, bishop of Emly. Ere the bishop was dragged to the gibbet, he turned to Ireton, summoning him, in- stern and prophetic tones, to answer at God's judgment-seat for the evils he had done. The bishop was executed on the eve of All Saints, Oct. 31, 1651. On the 26th of November Ireton was a corpse. He caught the plague eight days after he had been summoned to the tribunal of eternal justice; and he died raving wildly of the men whom he had murdered, and accusing everyone but himself of the crime he had committed.

Galway was the last city to surrender. The majority of the Catholic nobility and gentry were banished; the remainder of the nation, thus more than decimated, were sent to "Hell or Connaught." On the 26th of September, 1653, all the property of the Irish people was declared to belong to the English army and adventurers, "and it was announced that the parliament had assigned Connaught for the habitation of the Irish nation, whither they must transplant, with their wives, and daughters, and children, before 1st May following, under the penalty of death, if found on this side of the Shannon after that day."

Connaught was selected for two reasons: first, because it was the most wasted province of Ireland; and secondly, because it could be, and in fact was, most easily converted into a national prison, by erecting a cordon militaire across the country, from sea to sea. To make the imprisonment more complete, a belt four miles wide, commencing one mile to the west of Sligo, and thence running along the coast and the Shannon, was to be given to the soldiery to plant. Thus, any Irishman who attempted to escape, would be sure of instant capture and execution. It is calculated that between 1651 and 1654, 34,000 Irishmen left for the continent, where they took service under foreign governments. "Trans

planting" began with a vengeance, for the lands on the right side of "Hell or Connaght" were required for Cromwell's soldiery, and persons failing to transplant were occasionally hanged" to encourage others," as was Mr. Edward Hetherington, who was gibbeted in Dublin, April 3, 1655, with placards on his breast and back, on which were written, "For not Transplanting." Slavery in Barbaboes was the inevitable lot of non-transplanters, the Bristol sugar merchants gladly trading in them.

A court was established for the punishment of "rebels and malignants;" the former consisting of persons who refused to surrender their houses and lands, and the latter being those who would not act contrary to their conscientious convictions in relig ious matters. These courts were called "Cromwell's Slaughter-houses." Donnellan, who had acted as solicitor to the regicides, at the trial of Charles I., held the first court at Kilkenny, October 4, 1652. Lord Louther held a court in Dublin, in February, 1653, for the special purpose of trying "all massacres and murders committed since the first day of October, 1641."

The country had become depopulated, and rewards were offered for three beasts, a wolf, a priest, and a Tory, at the respective sums of £5, £10, and £20. Wolves had increased so rapidly that no dogs were permitted to leave the country; and the parting between exiles and their noble wolf-dogs were among the saddest sights of those terrible times.

In 1660 the Irish sent over a contribution of 15,000 bullocks to relieve the distress in London consequent upon the Great Fire. This caused the passage of an Act in which the importation of Irish cattle was forbidden, and termed a "nuisance," since it was a mere pretence to keep up the cattle trade with England. The Duke of Buckingham, whose farming interests were in England, declared "that none could oppose the bill, except such as had Irish estates or Irish understandings." Lord Ossory protested that "such virulence became none but one of Cromwell's counsellors; " and he being the eldest son of the Duke of Ormond, and having Irish interests, opposed it. Several noble lords attempted to draw their swords. Ossory challenged Buckingham; Buckingham declined the challege. Ossory was sent to the Tower; the word "nuisance" remained; and the Irish trade was crushed.

Ormond was withdrawn, and Lord Berkley was

sent over, and to him succeeded the Earl of Essex as viceroy. The Titus Oates' plot was reputed to have its supporters in Ireland. Archbishop Talbot was selected as the first victim. Although in a dying state, he was removed from his bed and borne to the castle of Dublin, where he died. He was the last distinguished captive destined to end his days in that celebrated state prison, which has since been generally dedicated to the peaceful purposes of reflected royalty.

The next victim was Oliver Plunkett, archbishop of Armagh, a member of the noble family of Fingall, who was "more respected for his virtues and his office than for his rank." He was accused of being in correspondence with the French. Jones, the Protestant bishop of Meath, was, unfortunately for himself, influenced by fanaticism. He had served in Cromwell's army, and had all that rancorous hatred of the Catholic Church so characteristic of the low class from whom the Puritan soldiery were drawn. He was determined that the archbishop should be condemned; and as men could not be found to condemn him in Ireland, he induced Lord Shaftesbury to have him taken to London. The archbishop was removed to Newgate, about the close of October, 1680, and so closely confined, that none of his friends could have access to him. He was hanged at Tyburn, July 11, 1681.

The first Dublin newspaper was published in this -century, by Robert Thornton, bookseller, at the sign of the Leather Bottle, in Skinner's-row, 1685. It consisted of a single leaf of small folio size, printed on both sides, and written in the form of a letter, each number being dated, and commencing with the word "sir."

The following is a description of the fare used by the upper classes at this period, from the journal of one Captain Bodley: "There was a large and beautiful collar of brawn, with its accompaniments, to wit, mustard and Muscatel wine; there were well stuffed geese (such as the lord bishop is wont to eat at Ardbraccan), the legs of which Captain Caulfield always laid hold of for himself; there were pies of venison, and various kinds of game; pasties also, some of marrow, with innumerable plums; others of it with coagulated milk, such as the lord mayor and aldermen of London almost always have at their feasts; others, which they call tarts, of divers shapes, materials, and colors, made of beef, mutton, and veal."

Then he relates the amusements. After dinner they rode, and in the evening they played cards, and had, "amongst other things, that Indian tobacco, of which I shall never be able to make sufficient mention." Later in the evening "maskers" came to entertain them; and on one occasion, their host gave them up his own "good and soft bed, and threw himself upon a pallet in the same chamber."

The courtiers of Charles II. compensated themselves for the stern restraints of Puritanism, by giving way to the wildest excesses in dress and manners, which were of course imported into Ireland. Enormous periwigs were introduced, and it became the fashion for a man of ton to be seen combing them on the mall or at the theatre. The hat was worn with a broad brim, ornamented with feathers; a falling band of the richest lace adorned the neck; the short cloak was edged deeply with gold lace; the doublet was ornamented in a similar manner-it was long, and swelled out from the waist, but the "petticoat breeches" were the glory of the outer man, and sums of money were spent on ribbon and lace to add to their attractions.

The ladies' costume was more simple, at least at this period; they compensated themselves, however, for any plainness in dress, by additional extravagances in their head-dresses, and wore "heart-breakers," or artificial curls, which were set out on wires at the sides of the face. Patching and painting became common, and many a nonconformist divine lifted up his voice in vain against these vanities. The dress of the peasant is thus described: "The cloak was composed of soft brown cloth; the coat of the same material, but of finer texture. The buttons are ingeniously formed of the cloth. The trowsers consists of two distinct parts, of different colors and textures; the upper part is thick, coarse, yellowishbrown cloth; the lower, a brown and yellow plaid.

"The diet of these people is milk, sweet and sour, thick and thin: but tobacco, taken in short pipes. seldom burned, seems the pleasure of their lives. Their food is bread in cakes, whereof a penny serves a week for each; potatoes from August till May; muscles, cockles, and oysters, near the sea; eggs and butter, made very rancid by keeping in bogs. As for flesh they seldom eat it. Their fuel is turf in most places." The potato, the cause of so many national calamities, had been then some years in the country, but its use was not yet general.

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ALLENSTEIN is the name that now emblazons the page of Germany's history. Albert of Waldstein, known in history under the name of Wallenstein, was born at Hermanric, in Bohemia, of an ancient family in that country. His ancestor, Lord Waldstein of Dux, joined King Ottocar's army at the head of his four and twenty mail-clad sons in 1583. As a boy he displayed the wildest and most unruly temper; and at the age of sixteen was banished from the university of Altorf, near Nuremberg, for breaches of discipline. He now entered the service of the Count of Burgau, as page; and having one day fallen asleep on a balcony of the castle of Innsbruck, he fell from a height of three stories, but almost miraculously escaped without injury. This accident had a wonderful effect on his future life. He became all at once thoughtful, taciturn, and visionary. He ascribed his preservation to the special interposition of the Virgin; and renouncing the Protestant faith in which he had been educated, turned Roman Catholic. In his youth he travelled much in Spain, France, England, the Netherlands, and Italy. In the last-mentioned country he devoted his attention to the study of astrology, to which his turn of mind naturally led him; and under Professor Argoli of Padua made great advances in a science which, he believed, would enable him to read his destiny in the stars. He retained his fondness for this study throughout his life, and was always accompanied by an old astrologer named Seni. On his return from Padua he entered the imperial army, and distinguished himself in Hungary in a campaign against the

Turks. After the peace, he returned to Bohemia in 1606; where he improved his slender means by marrying an old, but exceedingly rich widow. Her death, which speedily ensued, put him in possession of enormous wealth.

Wallenstein now found himself able to raise a troop of two hundred horse at his own expense; but declining to mix himself up in the fraternal war between the Emperor Rodolph and Matthias, he joined the Archduke Ferdinand of Grätz, then engaged in a war with Venice. In this expedition Wallenstein gained by his bravery and generosity the favor of Ferdinand, and the love of the soldiers. Returning home with the rank of colonel, he formed a second marriage with the young and beautiful Isabella von Harrach, daughter of Ferdinand's privy councillor and favorite.

When the Bohemians revolted in 1618, they offered Wallenstein a command; but he remained faithful to the emperor, for whom he did good service at the head of a regiment of cuirassiers raised by his own funds. The enraged Bohemians confiscated all his estates, but this only served to bind him the closer to Ferdinand. Afterwards he distinguished himself in several affairs with Bethlehem Gabor. On the conclusion of peace with Bohemia and Hungary, Wallenstein was restored to all his possessions, and received in addition the estate of Friedland, with the title of duke. He now remained for some time idle in Bohemia. He offered his services to the Duke of Bavaria; but Tilly, who dreaded the proximity of so formidable a rival, persuaded Maximilian to decline them. This was the origin of the bitter hatred which subsequently prevailed between Wallenstein on the one side, and

But Wallenstein

Tilly and his master on the other. could not remain long inactive, and when Ferdinand proposed to him to raise a force of 20,000 men, he at once declared that he was willing to bring 50,000 into the field. "Twenty thousand men," said he, "will starve; fifty thousand will be able to support themselves." What a picture of the times a whole host to be sustained by the robbery and plunder of their fellow-countrymen! The proposal was eagerly embraced by the emperor, who nominated him generalissimo of the imperial forces. In a few months Wallenstein, by dint of profuse gifts and still more liberal promises, collected an army of adventurers from all the countries of Europe. The discipline of this ill-assorted body was suited to the character of those who composed it. To increase his influence over these wild mercenaries, Wallenstein affected a mysterious adoration of the goddess Fortune, whose name he adopted as the watchword of his army. Wallenstein's object in assuming this command was to restore the imperial power in its fullest extent. "We want no princes," he was wont to say, "but a single master, as in France and Spain." With these designs he marched in the autumn of 1625 towards the north of Germany, at the head of 60,000 men.

Christian IV. of Denmark, influenced by the crafty diplomacy of Cardinal Richelieu, now at the head of affairs in France, as well as by the more substantial assistance of England and Holland, had already invaded the German territory. The march of Wallenstein was opposed by Mansfeld, whom Wallenstein defeated at Dessau, and pursued through Silesia and Hungary. Meanwhile, Tilly had completely overthrown the Danes at Lutter, August 27, 1626, and when Wallenstein again turned his face to the north, but little remained to be done. In conjunction with Tilly, he marched into Holstein, and having compelled the king of Denmark to sign an ignominious peace, appeared with his army before the strongly fortified town of Stralsund, which would have surrendered at the first summons, had not the burghers, disgusted at the cowardice of their magistrates, taken the matter into their own hands, and prepared for an obstinate resistance. Irritated at this disappointment, Wallenstein swore that he would take the place, though it were bound to heaven with chains of iron; but the brave citizens, reinforced by 2,000 Swedes, and a


body of Scotch mercenaries in the pay of Denmark, made so obstinate a defence, that he was compelled to raise the siege after losing 12,000 men. check decided for the present the fate of Europe. Wallenstein, no longer deemed invincible, and violently opposed by the Jesuits, fell into disgrace, and being formally deprived of his command, retired to Prague in 1630. His army was partly disbanded, and partly incorporated with the troops of Tilly, who proceeded to invest Magdeburg, where the people had successfully resisted an edict of the emperor for the suppression of Protestant worship.

The celebrated military adventurer Count Mansfeld, was the illegitimate son of Peter Ernest, count Mansfeld, and a Mechlin beauty, with whom in his old age the count had fallen in love. Of ancient race, but small possessions, the counts of Mansfeld had long been soldiers of fortune; and the one of whom we speak, though his birth deprived him of the family honors, was early destined for the same profession. profession. He was brought up in the Roman Catholic faith, and in his first campaigns did good service for the Spanish crown in the Netherlands, and subsequently for the Emperor Rodolph II., by whom he was legitimated. But as, in spite of this, his father's estates were still withheld from him, he swore revenge against the house of Hapsburg, and in the year 1610 went over to the Protestants. Small and mean in person, Mansfeld possessed a soul of iron, which no reverses could subdue. Without a foot of land, he supported his troops by plunder; and so great was the fear which his arms inspired, that he was called the German Attila. death was characteristic, though savoring somewhat of bravado. Being seized at Urakowicz in Bosnia with a mortal sickness, and feeling his end approaching, he caused himself to be clothed in full armor, and, supported on his feet by two of his officers, awaited, like a soldier, the stroke of death.


From Holland to the Carinthian Mountains, and from Prussia to the Alps of Berne, wherever the German tongue was spoken, Luther and Calvin's doctrines had penetrated. With the exception of Bavaria and the Tyrol, every district of Germany had at one time or other fought for liberty of conscience; yet there now remained no vestige of it except in the single city of Magdeburg, where brave defenders still held out against the assaults of Tilly. In the midst of this melancholy prospect, 1630, a

new ray of hope broke through the clouds which hovered over Protestant Germany.

The throne of Sweden was at this time occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, a zealous and sincere supporter of the Reformation, who had long witnessed with grief the sufferings of his brethren in Germany, but had hitherto been debarred from rendering them any assistance by the wars in which he was engaged with Denmark and Poland. Yet these wars had given him that unrivalled military knowledge which afterwards produced such glorious results. His Swedes were the best and most formidable soldiers of that day, warlike by nature, hardened by their severe climate, thoroughly disciplined, experienced in the field, full of confidence, and more than all, inspired by a strong religious conviction that the cause for which they drew their swords was favored by the Almighty. As soon, therefore, as Gustavus had secured an honorable peace with Denmark and Poland, he had both leisure to undertake, and thousands of brave spirits ready to aid him in accomplishing, the defence of his brethren in Germany. Besides his zeal for the common cause, the Swedish king had also private injuries to avenge-Austrians had fought against him in the ranks of the Polish army, and Wallenstein had insulted his ambassador, without his having been able in either case to obtain satisfaction.

A general impression prevailed in Sweden that, sooner or later, a war with the emperor was inevitable. Many, however, and among them Gustavus's celebrated chancellor Oxenstiern, were of opinion that Sweden should not be the aggressor. But the king himself thought otherwise, and deemed it more advantageous to attack the enemy on the other side of the Baltic, than to wait till he invaded the Swedish coast. On the 20th of May, 1630, Gustavus Adolphus entered the senate-house at Stockholm, to take a solemn farewell of the states of his kingdom. He had already made the necessary arrangements for the administration of public affairs during his absence, and set his house in order, as one who was about to go forth to death. Taking his little daughter Christina in his arms, he presented her to the states as his successor, and caused them to swear fidelity to her, in the event of his never returning. He then read a paper, in which his wishes respecting the government of the country during his absence, or in case of his

death, during the minority of his daughter, were distinctly explained. The whole assembly melted into tears, and the king himself was so deeply affected, that some minutes elapsed before he could summon sufficient firmness to pronounce his farewell address. On the 24th of June, the hundredth anniversary of the Augsburg Confession, Gustavus Adolphus landed at Usedom in the midst of a violent thunder storm. As soon as he touched the German soil, he fell on his knees, and called God to witness that this campaign was undertaken, not for his own honor, but in the cause of the Gospel. His army at this time consisted only of 16,000 men, among whom were thirty-eight companies of Germans, and a regiment or two of Scotch and Irish, who had been in the service of the king of Denmark, and now joined Gustavus. So little sensation did his landing produce, that the people of Vienna called him in derision the "Snow King," who would melt away as he approached the south; and when the emperor was informed of it, he exclaimed with a shrug of his shoulders, "We have got another little enemy on hand." The Protestants, on the other side, looked to him as their deliverer, and named him the "Lion of the North." Gustavus was of gigantic height, with an open countenance, large blue eyes, and a mild but majestic bearing; presenting in his whole appearance a remarkable contrast to the gloomy Wallenstein, and the ferocious Tilly. At the time of Gustavus's landing, the army of Wallenstein, as we have seen, had just been disbanded, and Tilly was occupied at Magdeburg. An Italian general, Conti, who had formerly been in Wallenstein's service, and who now occupied Pomerania with 16,000 imperialists, was therefore left to grapple with Gustavus singlehanded, but he did not think it worth his while to stir from his camp before Stettin to oppose his landing. On the approach of Gustavus, Conti, after an ineffectual attempt to surprise Stettin, drew off his army towards Auclam. Bogislaus, duke of Pomerania, who in his heart was secretly inclined towards the Swedes, now admitted them into Stettin; and Gustavus, leaving Horn with a considerable force in his place, penetrated farther into Pomerania. The adventures of a Scotch regiment (Mackey's), under Colonel Monro, in endearoring to join him there, deserve to be recorded. The Scots had been posted near Königsberg, and

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