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often associated: the training of the heart aright will do it, for God and goodness are one.

If you wish, then, to be truly manly, be truly godly, and this, blessed be God ! you may be, through abiding union with, and continual imitation of “the Man Christ Jesus."

J. CRAWFORD TROTTER.

THE EARLY LIFE OF ST. PAUL.

BY W. R. BURGESS.

(Concluded from page 245.) AND now that the young en- of the seven who alone amongst thusiastic Jew is come into the the Jewish doctors have been land of his forefathers, and is honoured with the title of Rabboni, about to receive his education in the highest distinction conferred the schools of the Holy City, we upon teachers of the Law. It is a may give some brief account of the saying of the Talmud, that “since method and circumstances of that Rabboni Gamaliel died, the glory education.

of the Law has ceased.” He was The Apostolic age was remark- a Pharisee ; but anecdotes are told able for the growth of learned of him which show that he was not Rabbinical schools, some of the trammelled by the narrow bigotry most famous of which were those of that sect. He had no antipathy of the Pharisees. Of these the to the Greek learning; he rose most eminent were those of Hillel above the prejudices of his party; and Schammai. The former upheld candour and wisdom seem to have Tradition as even superior to the been the chief features of his Law; the latter despised Tradition character. St. Luke says that he when it clashed with Moses. was “had in reputation among all Between these two the antagonism the people.” He was President of was irreconcileable.

What one

the Sanhedrim. permitted the other was sure to Let us look at the place where, prohibit. Both bad

and the mode in which, the adherents. The school of Hillel, instruction was conveyed. The however, attracted the majority. synagogues often consisted of two The most distinguished ornament of apartments, one for prayer, preachthat school was Gamaliel, who is ing and the offices of public worsupposed to have been the grandson ship; the other for the meetings of Hillel its founder, and the son of learned men, for discussions of that Simeon who took the infant concerning religion and discipline, Jesus in his arms. He pleaded and for purposes of education. the cause of St. Peter and the There the teacher was seated on an other Apostles. (Acts v.) His elevated platform, and the pupils learning was so eminent and his around him on low seats, or on the character so revered, that he is one floor. This posture seems to have

numerous

THE EARLY LIFE OF ST. PAUL.

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been regarded as a mark of respect elaborate argumentation and apt to the teachers, according to the illustration which are exhibited in maxim of the Jews, “ Place thyself the writings of St. Paul. at the feet of the wise." Therefore The method of conveying instrucwhen St. Paul says he was “brought tion was something of this kind : up at the feet of Gamaliel,” At the meetings of the learned men refers to this position of the body. some passage of the Old Testament So Mary is said to have sat at was taken as a text; or some topic Jesus' feet and heard His word. of discussion started. Here, then, in this low posture, made the subject of commentary; the future Apostle would sit, “ both various interpretations were given, hearing and asking questions” of aphorisms were propounded, allethat great master under whom he gories suggested, and the opinions had been placed.

of ancient doctors quoted and disThe objects sought in these cussed. At these discussions the Rabbinical schools were :

younger students were present to To rouse, develop and strengthen listen or to inquire, for in these the powers of thought, by mutual schools the pupil was encouraged instruction, communication, criti- to catechise the teacher. All were cism and controversy :

at liberty to express their opinions To hear public teachers, coun- with the utmost freedom. These sellors and leaders of the people : free and public discussions tended

To save from oblivion the sayings to promote a high degree of general and speeches of ancient times, by intelligence among the people; the collecting them in proper order: and students were trained in an ex

To rear from among them cellent system of dialectics; they teachers and writers for the public. learned to express themselves in

The subjects treated of comprised a rapid, pithy and forceful style, everything that might appear im- often with much poetic feeling, and portant to the philosophers of those acquired an admirable aquaintance times and of that country, and more with the words of the ancient especially songs of praise to Jehovah, Scriptures. The students were observations on man and nature, subjected to half-yearly examinaexhortations to morality and virtue, tions, in February and August; the warnings against idolatry, and best scholars were promoted, the enmity towards their fellow-citizens worst punished by confinement, and the like. All that pertained flogging and expulsion. to Judaism and the Law was in- We can readily imagine that pressed upon them, the Scriptures under such a system of instruction were daily expounded, and applied the naturally quick and vigorous to the various relations of life, and faculties of the young student a thorough knowledge of them would be stirred into lively exercise, enforced. The memory was cul- and that he would be trained to tivated and the mind trained to carry out in his daily life the logical acuteness. The consequences principles and practices of the of this training appear in that “ straitest sect” of the Pharisees,

mascus.

and that he would be prepared civil, social and religious aspects of for that strenuous and unsparing the country in which he dwelt, he defence of the Law and Tradition would be made ready for the parts which marked his conduct until which he afterwards enacted, first that memorable journey to Da- as the defender, and then as the

most vigorous assailant of that Thus by birth and ancestry; by ancient and much-loved faith home influence and more advanced which, in the fulness of time now training; by disposition and op

come, was to be superseded by the portunity; by creed and circum- brighter and more blessed dispenstance; by the hopes and desires sation of the grace of God, as of his parents, and by his own revealed in His Son, Jesus Christ, aspirations and ambitions; by the

our Lord.

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SCHOOL SKETCHES.
MY FIRST CLASS.

but frequently during the week I saw

them, and listened to their chatter of (Concluded from page 249.)

“mother” and “ baby.” Any especial I OFTEN wonder, in looking back occurrence, whether of joy or sorrow, upon the past, that I managed my was treasured up to“ tell teacher,” and class as well even as I did. I was so I was quite learned in children's young, and had none of the wisdom

games. which comes with experience. Fortu- I was often amused by the comical nately my little charge was upon the little pieces of information brought me whole docile, tractable, obedient and on Sunday mornings. affectionate. I could hold out no worse “ Teacher ! we're going to hare threat than that I should be grieved plum-pudding for dinner to-day!” with them if they were naughty; and would be Abby's abrupt announcement, the most severe punishment I ever as she rushed into school with eyes inflicted was to send the offender to brimful of anticipation. Of course I the corner next the door, there to stand was expected to enter into her delight. in solitary misery until she could come A new frock or hat was quite an event and say she was truly sorry.

in the life of the little possessor, and I think my success was owing in a not only “teacher," but the whole class great measure to my being the first must look and admire. A child's life teacher the children had ever known. is made up of seeming trifles. Little They had not been scholars in the things make this world appear a school before, and knew nothing of the Paradise, and little things with equal change of rule and discipline conse- ease destroy the charm and dispel the quent upon a change of teachers. I illusion. taught them in my own way, and had How often do we see the rough hand no former custom and habit to fight of indifference, as well as that of against.

unkindness, dash all the glowing Another thing which gave me a colours from the picture which the strong hold upon them was the intimate innocent child-eyes are gazing upon knowledge I had of their homes and with eager delight! How often does every-day life. Not only on Sundays, an unnecessary harsh word or even

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gesture, chase the sunshine from the happy little face, and call up the heavy tears from wells that ought to be left for God's hand to reach. Bitter grief must come to all; it is so ordained. The little ones will have their share when their time comes, and surely it is not our place to bring clouds where God intended sunshine.

I did not always find teaching easy work. As was to be expected, I made mistakes, and had to reap the consequences. Sometimes I was too indul. gent, and advantage was taken of it by the quick-sighted children. Sometimes I drew the rein perhaps a little too tightly, and they grew restive. Little children, such as composed my first class, must be allowed a certain liberty. It is absolute cruelty to endeavour to keep the active little limbs in perfect stillness for nearly an hour, and yet this is often done.

Sometimes I was puzzled how to act: peculiar circumstances called for peculiar action, and I knew not what to do. One of the children, a bright, nice little girl, about four or five years old, gave me much trouble. She was perfectly obedient and very affectionate, but had one great fault-she could not keep her little hands from taking what did not belong to her. The first time I detected her in a theft I could have cried with sorrow and disappointment. She was one of my especial pets, such a dear little thing, and in my eyes the offence was very great. I am not sure that I did not with the eyes of my imagination see in the dim future the heavy gates of a prison opening to receive poor little Trissie.

The worst of it was I could not get her to see the sinfulness of stealing. It was only a packet of sweets from one of the other children that she had taken, and she evidently thought I was making a great fuss about a very little thing.

I took for the subject of the after

noon's lesson the commandment, “Thou shalt not steal,” and endeavoured to make it as plain as possible to the children. All eyes were of course turned upon Trissie at once, as if the lesson concerned her, and no one else. The poor child began to look very uncomfortable and unhappy, and at last the hot tears came rolling slowly down her face. I took no notice of this, but diverted the children's attention from her by telling them the well-known little story of the boy who was kept from stealing by seeing the star shining above him, and by remembering the words, “ Thou God seest me."

I made them repeat the two short texts after me till they knew them, and in the interest of the Lesson they forgot Trissie, who was furtively brushing away her tears, and trying to look as if she didn't care a bit.

When school was over I detained her a few minutes; but though she said she was sorry for taking the sweets, I could plainly see that her sorrow was owing to the consequences of the fault, not the fault itself, However, I thought it would be a lesson to her, and little expected, a few Sundays after, to hear the complaint, Teacher, Trissie has taken my apple,” with which Nellie greeted my entrance into school.

“ I haven't," exclaimed Trissie, trying to look innocent.

I never allowed eating during school-time: when the children brought apples or sweets with them, they were confiscated till after Lesson - time. Knowing this, Nellie, who had had the little rosy apple given to her on her way to school, had put it in the usual place, the corner of the windowsill. On turning to look at it a few minutes after, she found it was gone; and though no one had seen Trissie touch it, the theft was at once laid to her charge.

" Have

soon

you

taken the apple, “ Which shall it be?” I asked. Trissie ?” I asked, after hearing the “ Shall I punish Trissie, or shall I rather confused statements volunteered forgive her this time?" by the children.

“Forgive her this time, teacher," No, teacher," was the reply. was the universal answer; so Trissie A general chorus of “O, Trissie !" was forgiven. I was rather doubtful

In vain I talked, persuaded, urged as to how this plan would answer, and her to confess; she persisted in her watched the child anxiously for the denial, and I began to think there was next few weeks. It was, however, some mistake. Of her own free will many months before I heard any more she turned out her pocket to show me complaints of her, and then she conthat the apple was not there, and I fessed almost as

as she was was about to tell her to sit down, accused. Poor little Trissie! it was when Abby cried out, “ Teacher, it's hard work for her to overcome this down her frock."

unhappy propensity, but she did try The quick flush which rose to the very hard, and I think succeeded at conscious little face told me that this last. suggestion was correct, and finding It is with very mixed feelings I further denial useless, Trissie put her look back upon my first class : feelings hand just inside the top of her frock of pleasure and pain. So it must ever and took out the apple.

be in this world; failures intermingled “0, Trissie!” I exclaimed, sur- with successes, joys with sorrows. I prised and grieved, " what am I to do can see now where I made mistakes, to you?”

and I can also see that the success I “ Whip me, teacher," sobbed the met with was owing to the real, true little thing, holding out her hand. love I had for the little ones under “No, I shall not whip you, Trissie.

my care. The very first lesson that a Children, what shall I do to make Sunday-school teacher must learn is Trissie remember that it is very, very love. Without this all else will be wrong to take what belongs to other useless. people ?"

RUTH ELLIOTT. “Give her a good whipping, teacher," cried two or three, who were evidently accustomed to that style of punish

" LIKE JESUS." ment. I shook my head. “ Make her stand in the corner, teacher.”

“ It is no use trying to be a Chris. her home, teacher.” “Tell the Super- tian," said Emma N

to a young intendent. Don't give her any tickets, companion, “ my dreadful temper teacher.”

makes it impossible.” But Alice, my naughty, troublesome “I don't see that, Emma," was the little Alice, my black lamb as I some- reply; “ you think too much about it; times called her, came close up to me. you are just quick, but it is over in a “Tell her not to do it again, and then minute." forgive her, teacher,” she whispered. “ But it is so unlike Jesus; and you

Trissie gave one quick glance, and know, Fanny, that to be a Christian I then looked down again, while the must be like Him." other children stood round in silence. “ Well, Emma,” said Fanny, “I am Well, I thought I would try Alice's sure there are plenty of Christian plan, but resolved to put it to the people who are cross-grained enough vote, being pretty sure of the result. for anything !”

“ Send

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