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sion in this article are, 1st, In what elude with some account of the Wahamanner were the people of this coun- bees of Arabia, chiefly taken from the try, who are now idle, formerly em Travels of Ali Bey. ployed? The substance of the answer 8. The Statesman's Manual ; or the is, that foreign trade was “ the source Bible the Best Guide to Political Skill from which employment flowed to and Foresight; a Lay Sermon, adall classes of her industrious inhabi- dressed to the higher classes of Society; tants.”—2d, By what means were they with an Appendix. By S. T. COLEdeprived of this employment? The RIDGE, Esq.—This article abounds in answer is, that this commerce was ridicule and metaphor as well as in arsuddenly pent up, partly by a train of gument. If any one delights in seeill-concerted measures at home, and ing a poor author cut up, he must be partly by the policy of the enemy amply gratified by this indignant and abroad, within the narrow bounds of scornful performance. the British territory.

We sought

9. Letters from St Helena. By to ruin the enemy's trade, and we WILLIAM WARDEN, Surgeon on board have succeeded in ruining our own. the Northumberland.The Reviewers And 3d, Whether there is any pro- point out some mistakes in Mr Warbability that it (employment) ever will den's historical recollections, but obbe regained ? This is the most import- serve, “ that there is an air of plainant question. “We have no proof," the ness and sincerity in his account of Reviewer says, “ that the consumption what he saw 'and heard, that recomof our manufactures, either in Europe mends it strongly to the confidence of or in America, has fallen off.” Our error his readers.” Only a small portion of has been in overstocking these markets; the article is devoted to Mr Warden's but the goods will be consumed, and book. The greater part is occupied trade revive.-The most important of “ with a short and general view of the the other causes of the distress which public and political life of Napoleon, prevails are, the decline of agriculture, with such facts and anecdotes interand the increase of taxation.

spersed, as have been furnished to us, 6. The Works of Henry Howard, on good authority, from persons faEarl of Surrey, and of Sir Thomas miliarly connected with him at differWyatt the Elder. Edited by George ent periods of his fortune, or obtained FREDERICK Nott, D.D.F.S.A. late from some of our countrymen, who Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.— saw and conversed with him during For one of these quartos, that which his residence in the isle of Elba.” This contains the works of the Earl of Sur- delectable compilation would have done rey, the Reviewers are inclined to make honour to M. Bertrand himself. It every allowance, and to muster up every is distinguished throughout by an exthing favourable ; but Sir Thomas aggerated representation of what is Wyatt was in no true sense of the praise-worthy in the character and word a poet;" and as their object is to conduct of Napoleon, and, what is inconsider poets and poetry, they take finitely worse, by a palpable anxiety to leave of him at once. This article con- apologize for his greatest enormities. tains a summary of the Life of the 10. Della Patria di Cristoforo CoEarl of Surrey, and a critique on his lombo. Dissertazione pubblicato nelle poetry. We see not the slightest Memorie dell'Accademia Imperiale ground," say the Reviewers, “ for de- delle Scienze di Torino. Restampata priving Chaucer, in any one respect, con Quinte, Documenti, Lettere diverse, of his title of Father of English Poe- &c. and Regionamento nel Quale si con

we are heartily ready to forma ľ Opinion Generale intorno alla allow, that Surrey well deserves that of Patria di Cristoforo Colombo,—Prethe eldest son, however much he was sentato all'Accademia delle Scienze, surpassed by the brothers that imme- Lettere, e Arti di Genova, -Nell Adiately followed him."

dunanza del di 16. Decembre 1312, 7. Narrative of a Journey in Egypt, dagli Accademici Serra, Carrega e Pin and the Country beyond the Cataracts. aggio.—The object of the first of these By Thomas Legh, Esq. M.P.-The works is to prove that Columbus was Reviewers speak well of this work. a Piedmontese, and of the latter, that, After accompanying Mr Legh on his as has been generally held, he was a journey, and extracting a very inter- Genoese. The Reviewers are of this esting part of the narrative, they con- last opinion. To this discussion is

try," and

66 The hope

subjoined a most interesting letter, second £400. The second prize was written by Columbus upon his return assigned to Mr Sumner, of whose Treafrom the first voyage in which he dis- tise the Reviewers present a pretty full, covered the New World, and despatch- and apparently an impartial, examinaed from Lisbon, where he landed, to tion in this interesting article. Their one of the Spanish king's council. It observations on the principle of popuhas been almost entirely overlooked by lation lead to conclusions very differhistorians.

ent from those of Mr Malthus, and are, 11. Statements respecting the East we hope, better supported by history India College, with an appeal to facts, in and experience. refutation of the charges lately brought 4. A Voyage round the World, from against it in the Court of Proprietors. 1806 to 1802; in which Japan, KamBy the Rev. T. R. MALThus, &c. schatka, the Aleutian Islands, and the Mr Malthus and the Reviewers, alter Sandwich Islands, were visited, &c. By et idem perhaps, agree in thinking that ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL.-Campbell is some sort of instruction is really de a poor young sailor, who had lost both sirable for the future Judges and feet, and was found by Mr Smith, the Magistrates of India, and this indeed Editor of the volume, in one of the is a point tolerably well proved, though steam-boats that ply on the Clyde, not till after a good deal of time and playing on the violin for the amuselabour has been employed about it. ment of the passengers. But whether the College at Hertford that an account of his voyage might be the very best institution for the pur- be of service to an unfortunate and pose is not quite so clear. The argu- deserving man, and not unacceptable ments in defence of it are of too gene- to those who take pleasure in contemral a nature, and the “ disturbances" plating the progress of mankind in the on which the objection to it rests, too arts of civilization, gave rise to the preslightly noticed, to enable the public sent publication.' The book itself to come to any decided opinion, with- contains much that is curious, and out having access to information of a adds not a little to our still very immore definite and tangible character. perfect knowledge of the remote regions

visited by the author. The QUARTERLY Review. No 31. By ANDREW Becket.-An article full

5. Shakspeare's Himself again! &c. 1. Narrative of a Journey in Egypt of irony and banter, apparently a well and the Country beyond the Cataracts. deserved chastisement of this unforBy Thomas LEGH, Esq. M.P.-" On tunate commentator. the present occasion,” say the Review 6. Tracts on Saving Banks. There ers, we have nothing to find fault with is a great deal of information about but the omissions.” Mr Legh may re those banks collected in this article, joice that he has escaped so well from but the Reviewer is two zealous and the ordeal of these opposite Courts of too sanguine to perceive the inconveCriticism.

niences which must be felt from de 2. Counsellor Phillips's Poems and dopting the plans of Mr Duncan; and, Speeches.--Mr Phillips's sins against while he bestows well-merited praise good taste are not a little aggravated on the benevolent exertions of this genin the eyes of these Reviewers by his tleman, we think that he hardly does political opinions.

justice to some of the other fellow 3. A Treatise on the Records of the labourers. Creation, and on the Moral Attributes

7. Cowper's Poems and Life.-The of the Creator, with particular refer- third volume of the poems, edited by ence to the Jewish History, and to the John Johnson, LL.D., the first work consistency of the principle of Popu- embraced by this Review, is considere lation with the Wisdom and Goodness of ed as decidedly inferior to its predecesthe Deity. By John BIRD SUMNER, sors. The other two treatises are meM.A.-Mr Burnett, a gentleman of moirs, said to be written by Cowper Aberdeenshire, bequeathed a sum to himself, and never before published. be set apart till it should accumulate From what we see of them here, the to £1600, which was then to be given only subject of regret is, that they to the authors of the two best Essays should ever have been published at all. on the subject of Mr Sumner's book, The article contains a general character to the first in merit £1200, and to the of Cowper's poetry and letters.

8. A Sketch of the British fur Trade dead to every emotion of pleasure and in North America, with Observations gratitude, this article must stir up these relative to the North-west Company of feelings in no common degree. The Montreal ; by the EARL of Selkirk: Reviewer displays throughout, not onand Voyage de la Mer Atlantique a ly the powers of a poet and of a critic l'Ocean Pacifique par le Nord-ouest of the highest order, but the delicacy dans la Mer Glaciale ; par le Capic and solicitude of a friend, without, taine Laurent Ferrer Maldonado l'an however, shutting his eyes to the ec1588. Nouvellement traduit, &c.- centricities and misjudged exhibitions Lord Selkirk, some years ago, attempt- of this lugubrious and indignant mised to divert the tide of emigration from anthrope. There are one or two dithe Highlands of Scotland to the Unite gressions in it somewhat curious, for ed States, and turn it to Prince Ed- they may be thought to identify the ward's Island, within the territories of Reviewer,---upon much the same Great Britain. More lately, his views grounds as Childe Harold has been of colonization seem to have become supposed to speak the sentiments of more extensive; and having purchased Lord Byron. In the first, he disputes about a third part of the stock of the the proposition, that rapidity of comHudson's Bay Company, he obtained position and publication endangers the from their governors a grant of a wide fame of an author of great talents. A extent of country, held, or supposed little after it is stated, as an axiom, to be held, under their charter, of that “ every author should, like Lord which he proceeded to take possession. Byron, form to himself, and commuThe settlers on this tract have been nicate to the reader, a precise, defined, molested, it appears, by the servants of and distinct view of the landscape, the North-west Company, between sentiment, or action, which he intends which and the Hudson's Bay Come to describe to the reader.” Lord Bypany there had long subsisted a deadly ron's political opinions, of course, meet feud; and some very extraordinary with no favour ; but his sins of omis proceedings are understood to have sion, as well as commission, though taken place on both sides. According pointed out in forcible language, do to Lord Selkirk, the fur trade is not in not call forth those expressions of conthe best hands, nor carried on in a very tumely and bitterness, which so often honourable manner. The North-west disgrace the subalterns in political hose Company is pointedly accused, indeed, tilities. There is something very , of great violence and injustice, for serious, or, so different are peoples' which, as the law at present stands, it is tastes, perhaps amusing, at the concluextremely difficult, or altogether in- sion of this article. It is impossible possible, to call its servants to account. not to see in it the goodness of the Of the Hudson's Bay Company, the writer's heart, though we make no Reviewers do not think so well as Lord doubt that others may pretend to disSelkirk does.—The rest of this article, cover also a slight infusion of amiable and that which is of a far deeper iné simplicity: For our own parts, we terest, relates to the North-west pass- cannot help suspecting that there is a age. The relation of Maldonado's voy- reasonable portion of affectation in age is held to be a clumsy and audaci some of Lord Byron's dolorous verses; ous forgery. The Reviewers firmly and that to treat him like a spoilt believe, however, that a navigable child will not have much efficacy in passage from the Atlantic to the Paci- removing the complaint. If any one fic, round the northern coast of Ame- should hereafter think it necessary, in rica, does exist, and may be of no order to establish his superiority of tadifficult execution. In support of this lent, to begin with distinguishing himopinion, they proceed to examine the self in the circles of vice and folly, desvarious unsuccessful attempts that have pising the restraints to which ordinary been made at different periods. No mortals have agreed to submit, he may human being, they say, has yet ap- be led to doubt of the certainty of this proached the coast of America on the mode of proving his claim, when he is eastern side, from 660 to 72°, and here assured, that the moral and religious it is thought the passage may be found. regimen, here prescribed to Lord By

9. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Can- ron, has been very faithfully observed, to III. ; and the Prisoner of Chillon, both in the jurivate and public life ot' and other Poems. By LORD Byron. Several of the most distinguished writ-If the heart of Lord Byron be not ers of the present age.

ers.

10. Warden's Letters "Mr.Ware well informed men. None but the den's pretences and falsehoods," say most ignorant can expect, and none the Reviewers, “ if not detected on but the most wrongheaded, or unprinthe spot, and at the moment when the cipled, will teach the people to expect means of detection happen to be at any relief, under the present distresses hand, might hereafter tend to deceive of the country, from universal sufa other writers, and poison the sources of frage and annual parliaments. But the history.The motive of the Reviewers Reviewer does not confine himself to is therefore a very laudable one, and topics in the discussion of which he the detection' will no doubt be very would have carried along with him the satisfactory to a certain class of read- approbation of all those whose appro

But the historian! Sources of bation is of any value. Unfortunatehistory! If the historian and philo- ly, we think, for the cause of which sopher should sit down to this, and the he is so able an advocate, he has introcorresponding article in the Edinburgh duced a great deal of extraneous matReview, about a hundred years hence, ter, concerning which men of the what must he think of the political clearest heads and purest intentions parties, and of the state of literature, cannot be brought to agree. He has in Britain in the year 1816 ? Mr War- also counteracted the effects which the den is a “ blundering, presumptuous, soundness of his judgment, and the and falsifying scribbler ;” and the powers of his eloquence, might have proof is, that he actually brought the otherwise produced upon misguided materials of this book from St Helena or unthinking reformers, by indulging in the shape of notes, instead of hav- in a strain of violent exaggeration and ing really despatched letters from sea, reproach. So wide a departure from and from St Helena, to a correspond- the Roman poet's maxim of suaviter in ent in England !

modo, fortiter in re, brings him too 11. Parliamentary Reform.-That near to the style of the orators and part of this article which corresponds authors whom he so justly exposes, with its title, contains sentiments, am and is inconsistent with the respect bout the justness of which there will which so able a writer owes to himself be little difference of opinion among and to his readers.

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

DR CLARKE, the celebrated traveller, silica,-were melted into glass, slag, or en. who is now professor of mineralogy at Cam. amel. Dr Clarke has since stated, however, bridge, has lately been employed in the that plumbago has also yielded to the power performance of some very curious and im- of this instrument; and from the following portant experiments with a blowpipe, of a quotation from the doctor's communicapower far exceeding that of any similar in- tion, in the Annals of Philosophy for strument which has formerly been used. March, it will be seen that he considers This instrument is in reality the invention charcoal itself as not decidedly refractory of Mr Brooke,-although, when Dr Clarke when the fusing power is in all its perfecemployed it in his first experiments, he ap- tion :-" As far,” says the doctor, “ as pears to have considered it as the invention mineral substances are concerned, the charof Mr Newman, who was the only artist acter of infusibility is forever annihilated. employed in making it, and from whose Every mineral substance, not excepting hands Dr Clarke had probably received it. plumbago, has been fused. There remains This mistake, however, the doctor has now therefore, only one substance, namely charbeen careful to correct. The instrument coal, to maintain this character; and if I consists essentially of a close box, in which have leisure for a subsequent dissertation, air is condensed by means of a syringe. I trust I shall be able to shew, that charFrom this box, the air which in the experi- coal itself exhibits some characteristics of a ments of Dr Clarke consisted of two volumes fusible body.”—The most remarkable, howhydrogen, and one volume oxygen gas, high- ever, of all the results obtained during these ly condensed, is allowed to rush upon the brilliant experiments, was the reduction of flame of a lamp or candle ; and by the barytes and strontian to their metallic powerful heat thus produced, Dr Clarke bases :--to these the doctor has since add. found that every substance which he tried, ed a long list of other metallic salts and excepting charcoal and plumbago, were ca ores, which he has been able to reduce to pable of being fused. All the most refrac- their pure metallic state, and of which spetory stones--the earths, namely, lime, ba cimens have repeatedly been transmitted for rytes, strontian, magnesia, alumina, and the inspection of the most illustrious scien

tific characters whom this country contains, in Norfolk, Esq. who married Matilda, The instrument itself, by means of which only surviving daughter of General James all those important results have been ob- Lockhart of Lee and Carnwath, Count of tained, has also received some improvements the Holy Roman empire, grandson of the from the hand of the doctor, by which not author of the Memoirs. This work will be only greater safety is obtained in the use of comprised in two quarto volumes, of six or it, but a very considerable degree both of seven hundred pages each ; it admirably power and of facility has been added to the connects with the Stuart and Culloden pa. energy which it originally possessed ; while pers, and is calculated to excite and reward the splendid scientific results which its em the attention of all lovers of national history ployment has developed, have also been ac and political anecdote. companied by some of the most brilliant A paper has been read to the Royal Sophenomena which chemistry has to exhibit. ciety by Dr Brewster, containing the rel'he combustion of iron has been particularly sults of a very extensive and ingenious sementioned as actually exhibiting a shower of ries of experiments on the action of regufire.

“ The general result of my observa larly crystallized bodies upon light. From tions,” says the author, “ has excited in these experiments Dr Brewster has determy mind a hope that the means I have used mined all the laws by which the phenowill be employed upon a more extended mena are regulated, and has been enabled scale to aid the manufactures of this coun to compose formulæ, by which the tints, try. By increasing the capacity of the re and the direction of the axis of the parti. servoir, and the condensing power of the cles of light, may in every case be calculat, apparatus, the diameter of the jet may be ed a priori. The law of double refraction also enlarged ; and the consequence will investigated by La Place, and the laws of be, that a power of fusion the most extra- the polarising force deduced by M. Biot, are ordinary, as a work of art, 'which the world shewn to be merely simple cases of laws of ever witnessed, may be employed with the much greater extent and generality, being utmost economy both of space and expen applicable only to a few crystals, while those diture, and with the most certain safety." investigated by Dr Brewster are applicable to We hope these splendid anticipations will the vast variety of crystallized bodies which soon be realized : and, upon the whole, we exist in nature. cannot help expressing our satisfaction that We understand that Professor Leslie the employment of this powerful instru has very lately made an important addition ment, in the developement of such striking to his curious and beautiful discovery of arresults, has fallen to the lot of a gentleman tificial congelation. He had found by his who has already rendered such essential early experiments, that decayed whinstone, service to the literature of his country, and or friable mould, reduced to a gross powwhom, from the evidence afforded by his der and dried thoroughly, will exert a power works (for we have not the honour of any of absorbing moisture, scarcely inferior to more intimate acquaintance with him), we that of sulphuric acid itself. But circumare really disposed to regard as not only stances having lately drawn his attention to one of the most accomplished scholars, but this subject, he caused some mouldering one of the best men also, which this country fragments of porphyritic trap, gathered from contains.

the sides of that magnificent road now formThe Lockhart Papers are announced for ing round the Calton Hill, to be pounded publication, consisting of memoirs concern and dried carefully before the fire in a baing the affairs of Scotland, from Queen chelor's oven. This powder, being thrown Anne's aecession to the commencement of into a wine-decanter fitted with a glass stopthe Union ; with commentaries, containing per, was afterwards carried to the College ; an account of public affairs from the Union and, at a lecture a few days since in the to the queen's death. All these papers were Natural Philosophy Class (which he has composed by, and are chiefly in the hand- been teaching this session in the absence of writing of, George Lockhart, Esq. of Carn. Professor Playfair in Italy), he shewed the wath, who was a very able and distinguish- influence of its absorbing power on his hyed member of the Scottish and British Par. grometer, which, enclosed within a small liaments, and an unshaken disinterested receiver of an air-pump, fell from 90° to partizan of the fallen family of Stuart. 320°, the wetted bulb being, consequently, They contain also a register of letters be- cooled about 60° of Fahrenheit's scale. The tween the son of James II. generally called professor, therefore, proposed on the instant the Chevalier de St George, or the old Pre to employ the powder to freeze a small body tender, and George Lockhart; with an ac of water. He poured the powder into a saucer count of public affairs from 1716 to 1728; about 7 inches wide, and placed a shallow and journals, memoirs, and circumstantial cup of porous earthen-ware, 3 inches in diadetails, in detached pieces, of the young meter, at the height of half an inch above, Pretender's expedition to Scotland in 1745; and covered the whole with a low receiver. his progress, defeat, and extraordinary ad- On exhausting this receiver till the gage ventures and escape after the battle of Cul- stood at 2-10ths of an inch, the water in a loden in 1746, by Highland officers in his very few minutes ran into a cake of ice army. All these manuscripts are in the With the same powder an hour afterward possession of Anthony Aufrere of Hoveton he froze a large body of water in three m.

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