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turesque in Holland, and a very grand' tion. Their cleanliness and sobriety one too, which I have never seen men are beyond praise; and their honesty tioned by any traveller. A short time with the exception of coasters and before sunrise, each field and meadow, idle seamen, who proffer their services as far as the eye can reach, is covered in taking you on shore, and who are by an impenetrable mass of the whitest rogues all the world over--I have had mist, resembling a sea of cotton, no reason to doubt. The love of gain through which, like so many beauti- seems their ruling passion; but, exful oazes in the desert, the tops of clusive of Jews, who are very bumérvillages, with the spires of churches ous in this country, I am not aware and tall poplars, are seen in every di- that they employ any mean or dishonrection. These vapours, when about ourable artifices to promote its gratifito be dispersed by the solar beams, cation. assume a variety of forms and colours, Talking of the gentlemen, leads, by and exhibit, through their airy case a natural transition, to the ladies. ments, rich glimpses of the verdant They are in general a handsome race, meadows sparkling with the morning though, I believe, in proportion to dew.

their numbers, there are more beautiI believe there is nothing remark- ful women among the Jews in Holable in Gouda. In it the two Crab land than among the Dutch, properly reths flourished, celebrated as glass. so called. The beauty of the higher painters, I think, in the sixteenth cen- ranks did not appear to me to be in any tury. Some of their works adorn the degree peculiar or national, but admit windows of the principal church. It ted of great variety; as i frequently is also worthy of remembrance as the observed, in the same town, features birthplace of Hartsoeker.

which would have been considered, in From Gouda to Rotterdam, proba the respective countries, as characterbly owing to the nature of the coun- istic of Britain, France, Germany, and trý, there is no direct conveyance by Spain. The Batavian embonpoint is water ; so, after being obliged to sube more frequently exemplified by the mit to an affectionate salute from an men than by the women. old man, with whom I had a good deal In some parts of Holland, particuof conversation in Dutch, (not very larly at Haarlem and Enchuisen, on classical-its chief ingredient, on my the occasion of a birth, a piece of silk, part, being borrowed from a sister with a lace border, four or five inches language, the broad Scotch,) and who in diameter, sometimes round, someinsisted upon treating me to a glass of times squate, is pasted on the outside gin, which, together with the snuff of the lady's door, as an intimation to from his shirt-ruffle, brought tears to the world, that is, the neighbour on my eyes on this most melancholy oc each side of her house, of this importcasion, departed in the diligence, ant event. In our own country, as I and arrived at Rotterdam in good time was informed by an elderly gentleman for breakfast.

in Amsterdam, the same information, Here I fancy myself quite at home, however attempted to be disguised, and from the aspect of a few streets and indeed solemnly denied, were you to canals being familiar to me, in conse assert such a thing, is conveyed by a quence of my former visit. I believe paper, entitled, " Please call at the low I shall not be able to discover any door," as if, the old gentleman added, thing new in Rotterdam, or worthy any gentleman not paid for it, would of note; and shall therefore, in all accept of such an invitation, or call by probability, prepare to-morrow for my à route appropriated exclusively for journey to the Netherlands.

servants, attorneys' clerks, sick-nurses I consider the Dutch to be a civil in long silk cloaks, and square-sterned obliging people, willing enough to ac- femmes sages. Many of our remote commodate travellers, though proba- ancestors, I am credibly assured by bly seldom inclined to sacrifice their several old women and some antiquaown interests for welfare of others. ries, had only it seems one door, and In as far as I have gone, I can say, that sometimes low enough. Even at with truth, that I am not sensible of present, I am told, that some decenthaving been imposed upon by any one, looking people reside at this moment or of having been treated with neglect in many parts of Britain, up sometimes where I had any right to expect atten- one pair of stairs, and sometimes up

half a dozen ; that there they contrive, fied it; but those immense masses,, nobody knows how, actually to have which constitute what are called the children, and that

primary mountains, seem in a great “ Buirdly chiels and clever hizzies, measure to have remained unaltered Are bred in sic a way as this is.” during the subsequent convulsions that

Long before the days of Tristram produced the secondary structure, and Shandy, there must have been some

gave to the universal body its present thing magnificent naturally associated unequal appearance ;-But a smooth with the idea of parturition, I mean and uninterrupted surface was incomamong females ; for as to the male patible with those laws which are sup. animal ebiefly concerned, it has been posed to have been called into action remarked, that on such occasions he in the formation of the earth; and has rather a sober, pitiful, sneaking, though it is not necessary, on the preaspect. Even a hen in an outhouse sent occasion, to enter into the merits cannot drop an egg quietly, Nom of the contending Volcanic and Nepthere is incontinently such a clack and tunian theories, we must still be con. hullyballoo set up in the neighbour, scious, that many series of facts con. hood, in which the cock, too, like a stantly presented to our view on the fool, sometimes joins, as is absolutely exterior, as well as those that have intolerable. A learned friend of mine, been explored in the bowels of the who has studied all languages, particu earth, are consistent with, and may larly that of birds, and who pretends very plausibly be attributed to, the in

he can converse with them, assures Aluence of both powers. me, that all this cackle and

uproar in

For the purpose of exhibiting an the hen-house, is nothing more than object of geology more immediately “ Please call at the low door."

within the reach of our own observaX.Y.Z.

tion, we shall confine our remarks to an extraordinary change to which the beautiful and fertile valley of Strath, earn has anciently been subjected ; and which, though perhaps of less im

portance to the naturalist than the MR EDITOR,

prodigious altitudes, and extensive The wonderful revolutions to which dales of the Alps and Andes, are still the surface of the globe has been sub- worthy of admiration, as this tract jected since its primary formation, possesses a variety of subjects interest have of late years claimed the atten- ing to the student of nature, and to tion of philosophers. Those changes, the lover of her sublime and picturesque almost every where apparent, have beauties. given rise to new theories no less sin The great chain of the Grampian gular than satisfactory, and have ex- mountains, which constitutes the nor. cited a desire in mankind to become thern, as, the Ochil hills do the southacquainted with the causes by which ern, boundary of this valley, are in those extraordinary phenomena have many parts composed of primitive been occasioned, and which, in former matter ; but in several places this for times, either escaped their notice, or mation is surmounted by secondary appeared so mysterious and inscrut- rock of various character and diversity able as to preclude all research. of alternation and position. The por

The human mind cannot now form tion of those mountains in the vicinity any conception of that aspect which of Lochearn, and what forms the im, the surface of the earth originally had mediate limits of that lake, is not assumed, though it cannot be doubted, wholly granitic, their exterior being that, from the various agents employ- covered with wacke, different species ed in the mighty operations of nature, of shistus, lime, and sandstone. Some

exerted in giving form and stabili- beds of trap are also visible in its i ty to our planet, considerable irre- usual linear direction, traversing these gularity must all along have diversi rocks without regard to their stratifi

cation, and always disposed in yertical See Plinius's Nat. Hist. B. 9, C. 491. walls. Cicero de Divinatione, 2. 39. and many

But the most striking features in German works on the language of birds and the district of Strathearn are, the surother animals.

prising changes that the ground has

GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON

STRATHEARN.

undergone by the different courses The efflux of Lochearn, in its then which the river has taken at various extensive form, seems to have been periods. These alterations are very different from the course which the evident in travelling along this exten- river at present follows in leaving the sive tract, from the departure of the plain of Dalginross, and appears to river out of its parent lake to its have passed from Ochtertyre, whose confluence with the Tay, a distance lakes are the remains of the ancient of near thirty miles, as the numerous eastern boundary, along the hollow at channels by which it has run may be the manse of Monivaird, near to which traced with tolerable accuracy. it was joined by the water of Turret. 1. It appears almost certain, that Loch- At the present day, the old and perearn at one time had extended to haps original bed of the river Earn more than double its present magni- can plainly be traced along the west tude, having occupied the whole of side of the town of Crieff, where it the flat from its south-eastern extrem- still intersects two of the streets, ity to Ochtertyre, covering the great sweeping, in a circular direction, the plain on which the village of Comrie, base of the hill on which that town is the remains of the Roman camp of built, and passing eastward, held its Dalginross, the Victoria of Ptolemy, course upwards of 90 feet higher than and many farm-houses now stand. the present river. Pursuing that diThis opinion is strengthened and ren- rection, it appears to have made sevedered satisfactory by an examination ral windings until it reached Aber of the surrounding country, or what cairney, whence it continued its chanoriginally marked the borders of the nel, with little variation from a straight lake, where the soil and banks formed line, nearly due east, running along by the water are visible, and still re the tract of the Powaffery river, now tain their first appearance, although a retrograde stream, over the valley for ages submitted to the operations of where moulder the ruins of the abbey agriculture. The soil over all this of Inchaffery; and, holding the same flat is also of a decisive character, being line, passed below the House of Balcomposed of water, gravel, and als 'gowan and the Castle of Methven, luvion, as almost all the stones that until it joined the Water of Almond have been dug up are round or el- at Pitcairn Green, at that period proliptical, the certain effects of water; bably an arm of the sea, which then and this is particularly the case in the certainly covered large portions of the neighbourhood of Ochtertyre, along flat land along the banks of the Tay the road from Crieff to Comrie. On near Perth. Over the whole of this the south side of the valley, near the ground undoubted proofs of the efe House of Struan, there is a large con- fects of water are evident, by an ex. cretion of breccia, the composition of amination of the debris collected at which is sand, and stones that have different times, which form a variety undergone attrition by the action of of strata, 'and contain boulder stones water, and have been consolidated by of many species, brought from the the admixture of metallic oxide. This mountains by successive floods and species of rock is not commonly to be inundations of the river. met with in the interior of the kingdom, But, after the river had ceased to and in no situation but where consid- flow by the course which it has thus erable bodies of water either now are, been supposed primarily to have taken, or have formerly been. On the west- the valley of Strathearn seems to have ern shores of Scotland it is frequently undergone other considerable revolu

; but we are not acquainted with tions from the changes of its river. its appearance in masses of great mag We have said that Lochearn, acnitude at a distance from the coast, cording to its original expanse, formed nor in situations of very lofty eleva a lake, from its western extremity to tion.

the house of Ochtertyre, of twenty miles

long, but of irregular breadth. The *. It has been supposed, by many learned catastrophe which diminished it to the Antiquaries, that on this spacious plain was fought the celebrated battle of the Gram.

present size, and gave the river a new pians, betwixt the Caledonian and Roman direction, does not seem inexplicable. armies ; and, certainly, the names of many

It is the opinion of many profound geplaces in the neighbourhood go far to sane- ologists, that the western, mainland tion such a belief.

of Scotland, with its numerous islands

seen

MEMORANDUMS OF A VIEW-HUNTER.

and promontories, were anciently unit- stances, a particular description might ed, forming a compact and undivided not be generally interesting. The continent; but that by tremendous deep chasms, however, exhibit some convulsions, produced by general as objects of mineralogical curiosity, and well as by partial earthquakes, a dis, the steep banks expose a series of aljunction of the primary structure was luvial stratification, illustrative of the effected, and occasioned that separation revolutions to which the soil and of islands from the mainland, and on surface of mountainous countries are the mainland that astonishing irregue liable. larity of coast, só indented with arms Having exhausted too much of your of the sea, which renders its navigation time, on a subject of little importance so intricate, but gives to the mineral, perhaps to your readers, we have only ogist an ample field of research, and to observe, that in pursuing similar to the painter an admirable display of objects of inquiry, sources of rational sublime scenery. - To the cause that amusement may be developed, which has produced such wonderful pheno- may ultimately lead to the acquisition mena, do we also attribute the reduce of knowledge and the prosecution of tion of ancient Lochearn.

useful science, while they must direct *The departure of the river from the the mind to the contemplation of that great level plain of Dalginross, the Power whose wisdom has ordered, and former bottom of the lake, is through whose omniscience has regulated, the a-narrow chasm, the sides of which magnificent and wonderful operations appear at one time to have been united, of nature, so constantly under our obas they are composed of the same servation.

DICALEDON. materials, and were disjoined by some Crieff, Aug. 1, 1817. of those convulsions of the earth, which, even of late years, have been so common in that vicinity. This disunion must have been sudden, though, from the very remote period at which

No III. we may believe it took place, no calamitous consequences as to human life could have happened, as the king

Calais. dom was probably not inhabited for Took a very cursory view of the many subsequent ages. By the sud- town, as I meant to return through den separation of this hill, the north it. Not so large as Dover. It has side of which was washed by the lake, very good market-place, or square, of an impetuous and irresistible discharge the country town sort: the streets are of water would be the consequence, tolerably wide and straight, and the which, forcing its way through a dif- houses respectable for a place of its ferent tract of country from the former size. It has an air and cast of the stream, must have carried every op- French towns; but I perceived less posing substance before it, and speedi- Frenchness, both in its buildings and ly have formed a new channel for its in the dress and manners of its inself. But this latter course, from pass- habitants, than in any other town in ing along a more enlarged plain than France. formerly, has produced considerable Indeed, in London, our women, alterations on the face of the country, since the peace, had so entirely abanwhich is evidently broken by deep doned their own simple and natural hollows that have been washed out by mode of graceful dress, and imitated the stream.

the late fantastic French style in so The river in the plain near Comrie burlesque a way, that, on crossing the has taken various channels after the water, I really began to imagine that ground was drained by the breaking simplicity in dress had changed counout of the water that anciently cover tries. I saw ornaments on the French ed it; and when it descends below side, I own, which it would have been Crieff, the whole low land is marked more truly ornamental to have been by the numerous courses it has pur- without; but, contrasting what I saw sued at different periods. To trace with the grotesque habiliments of our these windings is not an arduous un. London belles, I thought I had got dertaking ; but, excepting in a few in- again among a more natural kind of

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