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Sir Thomas's countenance greatly both orderly digested and aptly conrelaxed at this well-timed compliment ceived. We have lived, sir, in those of old Montaigne's. He stepped two great eras,-those commendable meapaces back, arranged his limbs, and surements of the regent of this didrew up his body into something like urnal microcosme,-those exalted pethe first position; after gently strok- riodi, by which the sagacity of the ing its ruffle, he placed his right hand sapient philosophunculi of this rotunon his heart, and moving the left in a dal habitation, hath measured the ungraceful semi-circle towards his head, ceasing rotations of the cælicolary he slowly took off his hat and feather, spheroids,-in those times, seignior, and inclined his stiff trunk into a pro- when the old were respected, and in found reverence. Raising himself then all estimation—the young sweet and with equal gravity, he advanced in judicious—the married women decosolemn silence and kissed me on both rous rather than decorated, grave as cheeks. Upon the conclusion of this well as gravida—the virgins pure and ceremonial, Montaigne, turning to me, pitiful—the youth becomingly silent, exclaimed, Of all things in the world, and more given to listen to the legisI would wish to have some account of lative or literatorie discussions of their the state of manners and society a- elders, than to any cunning tricks or mongst you now-a-days. No doubt you vulpicularie conundrums, to the jeers, have had great changes since our good gibes, mopes, quips, jests, or jerks of old days. The wheel of society and their simiatick companions. Gallanmanners is ever revolving, and, like try, sir, (said he, turning to me) or the fiery wheel of some skilful Pyro- the exalted science of demulceating the technic, each new revolution presents amiable reservedness, and overcoming us with some figure, more strange and the attractive pudicity, of the gentler more wonderful than its predecessor. sex, by the display of rare and excelMan has altered his doublet, and wo lent endowments, was a discipline worman her fardingale, many a time for thy of the accomplished chevaliers of the worse, since I kept court* with my these most memorable eras. sovereign at Rouen. Yet I made but As Sir Thomas had finished this a shabby courtier after all—though I last period, and seemed to be clearing loved those chivalrous days of our an his throat, and arranging his attitude cient monarchy. “ Truly, sieur,”+ for a more detailed exposition upon replied Sir Thomas, “ your observa- the gallantry of the sixteenth century, tions on those antiquated times, as we were interrupted by the approach they are now called by those shallow of one of the little spirits who had anand fidimplicitary coxcombs, who fill nounced themselves, on my first arriour too credulous ears with their quis- val, to be the domestics of the Literary quiliary deblaterations, appear to me Paradise. " That Peri, who approaches

us,” said Montaigne, " has on the JoMontaigne nous apprend qu'il the evening is now

far enough advanc

vian livery, and comes to tell us that n'etoit pas ennemi de l'agitation des cours, et qu'il y avoit passé une partie de sa vie. ed for us to be setting out to Paulus' En effet il se trouva a Rouen, pendant que rout. I hear the old gentleman has le Roi Charles IX. y 'etoit.”—Vie de Mon. spared no pains; his gardens are to be taigne.

illuminated, his fountains in full play; ^ I have attempted here an imitation

we are to assemble in the library to of the extraordinary style of Sir Thomas have a promenade by moonlight, and Urquhart, a man of genius, as none who

to sup in the summer-house of the have perused his inimitable translation of

of Elogia.' part of Rabelais will be disposed to deny, or his extraordinary account of the murder of It immediately struck me, that amid the admirable Crichton, in his tracts (un- all this splendour my appearance would der the one named the Jewel), but in other be more than commonly shabby. I respects of the most ridiculous pretensions, cast a mournful look at my threadbare and these conveyed in the most quaint and habiliments (for I had on that decayunintelligible phraseology, as every one who ed suit which I have appropriated has turned over his Introduction to a Uni. versal Language will most readily allow. solely for home consumption), 1 then Most of the singular words in this speech of partially and slily raised the oldest of Sir Thomas are either sanctioned by his my slippers, and directed a petitioning own authority, or coined according to those look to my Conductross, as much as to rules he seems to have adopted.

say, You, kindest lady, who have had



the power to bring me here, may per- and the air became somewhat warmer. haps have the goodness to order some The wind, however, still continued to of your aerial tailors to furnish me blow with unabated violence. About with a suit worthy of the illustrious five o'clock, P. M. the wind became society to which I am about to be in- less violent, and, in a few hours more, troduced. She immediately gave me was entirely divested of its tempestua smile, which was at once humorous ous force. I myself heard no more and delightful; it played upon her thunder that night, but some in this lip, dimpled in her cheek, and rising village assured me that they heard it in its course, gave a purer lustre and repeatedly during the night. About more renovated beauty to her eyes. Crawford, eight miles east from Lead“ Peri,” said she, “conduct this stran, hills, it was distinctly heard the great ger to the chamber I ordered you to er part of the night. I saw several prepare for him. You and your breth- very vivid flashes of lightning from ren must attend to his toilet, and ac- that quarter about ten o'clock, P. M. company him to the Villa Joviana. I On Sunday, when visiting the same shall meet you there in an hour ; but family in the country, the master of I must rest now for some minutes. the house told me that he was very My extraordinary toilet, and the hu- much alarmed as he was going home mours of Paulus' rout, will form the on Saturday evening, between six and subject of another chapter.

seven o'clock, “ from," as he expressed himself, “his horse's ears being the same as two burning candles, and the edges of his hat being all in a flame.” I wished much I had seen an appear

ance of the kind, and it was not long HILLS, LANARKSHIRE ;

till I had an opportunity of doing so. By Mr JAMES Brain, Surgeon at

Tuesday 18th, in the evening, there Leadhills.

were such flashes of lightning from (Read before the Wernerian Society, 7th minutes, sometimes at shorter inter

the west, repeated every two or three June 1817.)

vals, as appeared to illumine the whole On Saturday, 15th February 1817, heavens ; but I heard no thunder that we had very high wind in this neigh- evening, bourhood. Its direction was souther On Thursday 20th, I was gratified ly, though by no means steady to one for a few minutes with the luminous point:-it also varied very much as to appearance described above. It was force.

about nine o'clock, P. M. I had no At mid-day I had occasion to visit sooner got on horseback than I obserya family six miles down the country, ed the tips of both the horse's ears to which gave me an opportunity of mak- be quite luminous: the edges of my ing the following observations: hat had the same appearance. I was

The wind, as has already been stat soon deprived of these luminaries by a ed, was very unsteady, both as to di- shower of moist snow which immedirection and force. It was so violent ately began to fall. The horse's ears as several times nearly to force me soon became wet and lost their luminfrom my horse, though I was upon my ous appearance ; but the edges of my guard, being afraid it might do so. hat, being longer of getting wet, conAt one time it was so violent as to tinued to give the luminous appearance force my horse, though very stout, se somewhat longer. veral yards off the high-way.

I could observe an immense numThere were many dark-coloured ber of minute sparks darting towards clouds floating in the atmosphere in the horse's ears and the margin of my all directions. I observed several of hat, which produced a very beautiful these clouds rush suddenly towards appearance, and I was sorry to be so others and unite, and I think with the soon deprived of it. same velocity, though some of them The atmosphere in this neighbourcontrary to the direction of the wind. hood appeared to be very highly elecThe air felt excessively cold. Almost trified for eight or ten days about this immediately after the union of these time. Thunder was heard occasione clouds, there was a very loud clap of ally from 15th to 23d, during which dhunder, followed by a shower of hail, time the weather was very unsteady;

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frequent showers of hail, snow, rain, your readers should be furnished, too, &c.

with as much as possible of suceinct I can find no person in this quarter and tastefully arranged fact, concernwho remembers to have ever seen the ing all the countries and colonies with luminous appearance mentioned above, which we are connected. I intreat you before this season,-or such a quantity humbly to keep these things in view ; of lightning darting across the hea- and to lay under contribution, for these vens,-nor who have heard so much purposes, such able and well-provided thunder at that season of the

year. correspondents, as the personal influThis country being all stocked with ence of yourself and your Publisher, sheep, and the herds having frequent and the internal attractions of your occasion to pay attention to the state Work, may have brought about you. of the weather, it is not to be thought From an account* printed by the that such an appearance can have been House of Commons, 20th March last, at all frequent, and none of them to it appears, that for the years 1815have observed it.

16-17, the official value of cotton Leadhills, 3d May 1817.

yarn exported abroad was, in each of these years respectively,-£2,907,276, -£1,781,077,-£2,707,384. I find from the Annual Finance Books, published for the use of Parliament in 1812 and 13, that the official value of

the same article, in the four years MR EDITOR,

proceeding 1814, stood as follows: I know not whether you be that dig- 1810, £1,097,536–1811, £1,075,237 nified and determinate sort of inan -1812, £545,237-1813, £966,007.+ which ordinary people, like me, in While an alarmning decrease, therefore, their extreme simplicity, are apt to set. has taken place in the demand for our down for the conductor of a literary cotton fabrics, occasioned by the other journal. But if power, and the love countries of Europe becoming, as well of sway consequent on the possession as America, manufacturers for themof it, have not yet wholly corrupted selves, an increase in the foreign puryour understanding, bear with me, for chase of our cotton twist has, from the hinting to you, that among the many same cause, been made apparent. Engimprovements as to mere arrangement, land, as well as the other countries of and the other far more essential ones Europe, must remain dependent on in point of spirit and talent, of which, America for a supply of the raw mateabove all others, your young work ex rial of cotton; and if America contihibits so many proofs -- I think it is nues to work up such immense quanstill much deficient in what relates to tities of that article, it is highly prothe financial and commercial concerns bable, that large supplies of spun of the country. Let me draw your cotton will find their way from thence notice to them as, in every direction, to Russia and France, and other counand at all periods, deserving of your tries of the European Continent, with best attention. It is to them, next to which the Americans have a direct the more pressing matters of personal trade. England, however, is a coal security and civil liberty, that the country, and has excellent machinery anxious curiosity of that part of your in abundance; and though nothing readers which best deserves to be

can work a charm against the effects pleased is drawn at this moment. of excessive taxation, there may be Thither it must be drawn for a long grounds for hoping that, in the protime, while we hardly know into what

cess of time, she may be able to enter channels our commercial relations with into effectual competition, at the best other countries shall settle down, or markets of Europe, with the manufachow we shall recover from the agita- turers of Rouen and Prague, with her tion consequent on our deep-drawn and breathless contests, or the stun

* Parl. Pro. 1817, No 141. nings of our sudden success.

To un

of The following shews the fluctuation of derstand these relations well, and to estimate fairly the phenomena which for the same period :-1810, official value,

our exports in cotton manufactured goods will still be emerging under altered £18,634,614__1811, £18,033,794-1812, circumstances and new connexions, £11,715,533—1813, £15,972,826.

finer cotton fabrics, as well as with her to want, or enable them to buy, any cotton twist. This, however, cannot one article of luxury or necessity. But be rationally expected under present this is carrying me out of bounds, and circumstances. In the meantime it I must content myself with referring becomes us, like drowning mariners, you, for some clear and incontrovertto cling to the last plank which affords ible views on this subject, to a contemus any chance of preservation. Even porary journal.* the rigid law of hard necessity, how The export of cotton yarn to Gerever, will not teach sense to those who many, in the year ended 5th Jan. 1817, are most conversant with tangible ex. is alone 10,594,400 lbs.-more, by one istences, and who might be supposed eighth, than a half of what we have to be, of all classes of men, the least sent to all the world beside. And, with liable to be led away by extravagant the docile genius and happy turn for refinements, against the evidence of imitative industry which distinguish ordinary reason. Several petitions were the German people, it is easy to antipresented to Parliament in the course cipate what rapid strides they will of this spring, requesting that duties make, with only a few years of peace, might be laid on the exportation of in this most important branch of incotton twist. Nothing has yet been dustry. Russia is the next best cusdone, in the way of enactment, to meet tomer in this branch. She took, this the wishes of these petitioners; and if year, 2,554,942 lbs. which, however, Parliament continues to refrain, it will was about 400,000 lbs. less than in have the high credit of opposing, to 1816. She will no doubt begin to mathe cominon prejudices of the people, nufacture for herself; and it will be an approximation to the doctrines of the object of her enterprising and papolitical economy. The imposition of ternal autocrat, to give her, in that even a nominal duty, in the present direction, perhaps a greater impulse case, would have, for its only effect, than the graduated scale of her civilizathe sure consequence of preventing, in tion, the forms of her society, or the a short time, even a small quantity of influence of her yet feudal government, the article from reaching the Continent may permit. from Britain. It would make the Holland and Flanders are the next spinners of twist shut up their mills, considerable in demand. Ireland foland carry their capital somewhere else. lows them; for to that country 622,107 This, or even any thing which by dis- lbs. were sent this year,-though in tant consequence leads to it, it is our 1816 the amount had been 705,599 lbs. interest at all times to avoid, and more It is a curious fact, when taken in especially at the present unhappy con contrast with this statement, that prejuncture of affairs. Even they who vious to 1781, no manufactured cotare most inclined to hope on against ton was exported from Ireland. In conviction, must be at last convinced, that year, the whole amount of cotton that the national capital is at present yarn exported from that country was disappearing to an extent almost un- 239 lbs. and manufactured cotton to precedented; and that it will continue the value of only £157,78.-although to do so, under our financial difficulties, Parliament had been at the pains, three even were our commercial relations years before, to pass an act, allowing very different from what they are. If « the free importation of cotton yarn, any part of it, therefore, can be bene- manufactured in Ireland, into any of ficially invested in the production of the British ports.” But at that time cotton twist for a foreign market (and we were at war with America, and as things are, it will be beneficially in- Ireland had gained confidence and convested if applied when it can produce sequence from her volunteers. In the a small return, by way of profit, to the course of the same year, Parliament holder, and contribute to negative the wasting process, by giving such employment as will enable some of the • THE SCOTSMAN, Edinburgh Newspeople to maintain themselves freely), paper, under date 17th May.- Whatever it is a public and a solemn duty not to views in which that Journal indulges, it

be the complexion of those political interfere with the exportation of cot- is unquestionably the ablest and soundest ton twist. With every thing, very much expositor of the most improved views of pothe reverse of what it was in 1808 and litical economy among all our papers--daily 1809, we cannot force our neighbours or weekly:



laid a heavy duty on cotton wool or yet I believe very little has been yarn, imported in foreign vessels“ du- done, except in large towns, for the ring the present hostilities ;" and the spread of education. It does not seem newly acquired strength of Ireland to have occurred to the inhabitants of purchased for her, from the English our country towns and villages, of ministry, a free trade,-one of the im- what inestimable advantage a set of mediate consequences of which to her parochial schools might prove to the was, that in one year, viz. 1782, her community, and how completely every exports of cotton yarn rose to 8798 lbs. objection which has been elsewhere In 1783, Ireland imported only 5405 lbs. urged, and with some reason, against

I have thus given you a small specie larger schools, as collecting together men, Mr Editor, of what, it occurs to the bad and good, often to the corme, your readers may expect of you ruption of the latter, may be set aside from time to time. In my next letter by the circumstance of the teacher's I shall send you the account to which and patron's influence extending beI have alluded, and some facts regard- yond the walls of the school-room. ing the progress of cotton manufactures With regard to the religious and moral in America.

H. culture of the mind, there can be no

question but that, under such circumstances, the juvenile population of the country stands on much better ground

than that of a large town. There the MR EDITOR,

bond of neighbourhood, the attachThe writer of an article in the last ments of locality, are wanting between No. of the Edinburgh Review, “ On the teachers and the taught. They the Causes and Cure of Pauperism," separate after the business of the day has, in a very bold and masterly strain is over, and in all probability know of argument, pressed upon our notice nothing more of one another till they the remedies which are most likely to meet again in the same room. The prove ultimately effectual in the cure, very names of the individuals forming or at least the alleviation, of this great the body are mostly unknown, and disease of the nation. We are much over whatever passes beyond the walls obliged to him for so doing. We con- of the school-room, the eye of the template, with feelings of admiration, teacher does not and cannot watch. the picture which he has drawn of the It is obvious that I do not mean to beneficial effects resulting in his own detract from the merit and exertions country from the diffusion of chari- of those who are connected with such ties, not wrung, as they are here, from schools. On the contrary, it is easy the people by the compulsatory in- to see, that in proportion to the magfluence of law, but prompted by the. nitude of the evil to be encountered, stronger impulse of religious duty. and the difficulty of encountering it, And while we could wish that such is the honour of having so done. All too were our circumstances, we thank I wish is, to see others sensible of their him for putting us in mind of the superior advantages with regard to the means which we certainly possess for performance of a great duty, and not raising the minds of our poor from that slumbering over a comparatively easy lamentable state of degradation, that task. I do not speak from enthusiasm, shamelessness of dependence, which but from what I see and know, when are such striking features in the moral I maintain, that the wealthy in every constitution of the people at this time. parish have in their own hands, and It is so obvious, that the want of em are in a large degree accountable for, ployment, the want of comfort, the the character of their population. In want of almost every thing which a country village every face is known, raises, man « above the brutes that every being is in some degree depende perish," must have a tendency to de- ent on another, and there the faults, grade and vitiate the mind,—that it the misfortunes, and the good deeds, perfectly astonishing to me, that men of every individual, are sure to be are not more eager to rescue the juve- known. On what vantage ground then nile part of the population from the do we stand, when we take the sons contagion of bad habits. We have and daughters of our poor under our talked and argued about Lancaster own care, and are enabled, by our inand Bell for the last six years, and fluence, to correct, restrain, and res

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