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the great disappointment of the com tion. These were devised and exemissioners, until winter rendered it cuted with all possible care. impossible for her to act.
Suitable arrangements having been Under all this pressure, they never- made, a third trial of her powers was theless persevered in the important attempted on the 11th day of Septemobject confided to them. But their ber, with the weight of twenty-six of exertions were further retarded, by the her long and ponderous guns, and a premature and unexpected death of considerable quantity of ammunition the engineer. The world was de- and stores on board; her draft of water prived of his invaluable labours, before was short of eleven feet. She changed he had completed this favourite under- her course, by inverting the motion of taking. We will not inquire, where- the wheels, without the necessity of fore, in the dispensations of Divine putting about. She fired salutes as Providence, he was not permitted to she passed the forts, and she overcame realize his grand conception. His dis- the resistance of wind and tide in her coveries, however, survive for the bene- progress down the bay. She performfit of mankind, and will extend to un ed beautiful manæuvres around the born generations.
United States frigate, Java, then at anAt length all matters were ready for chor near the light-house. She moved a trial of the machinery to urge such with remarkable celerity, and she was a bulky vessel through the water. perfectly obedient to her double helm. This essay was made on the first day It was observed, that the explosions of June, 1815. She proved herself of powder produced very little concapable of opposing the wind, and of cussion. stemming the tide, of crossing cur The machinery was not affected by rents, and of being steered among ves it in the smallest degree. Her prosels riding at anchor, though the wea gress, during the firing, was steady ther was boisterous and the water and uninterrupted. On the most acrough. Her performance demonstrat- curate calculations, derived from heaved, that the project was successful— ing the log, her average velocity was no doubt remained that a floating five and one-half miles per hour. Notbattery, composed of heavy artillery, withstanding the resistance of currents, could be moved by steam. The com- she was found to make head way at missioners returned from the exercise the rate of two miles an hour against of the day, satisfied that the vessel the ebb of the East River, running would answer the intended purpose, three and one-half knots. The day's and consoled themselves that their care exercise was satisfactory to the rehad been bestowed upon a worthy ob- spectable company who attended, beject.
yond their utmost expectations. It But it was discovered that various was universally agreed, that we now alterations were necessary.
Guided possessed a new auxiliary against every by the light of experience, they caused maritime invader. The city of New some errors to be corrected, and some York, exposed as it is, was considered defects to be supplied. She was pre as having the means of rendering itself pared for a second voyage with all invulnerable. The Delaware, the practicable speed.
Chesapeake, Long Island Sound, and On the 4th day of July she was every other bay and harbour in the again put in action. She performed nation, may be protected by the same a trip to the ocean, eastward of Sandy tremendous power. Hook, and back again, a distance of Among the inconveniences observafifty-three miles, in eight hours and ble during the experiment, was the twenty minutes. A part of this time heat endured by the men who attendshe had the tide against her, and had ed the fires. To enable a correct judgno assistance whatever from sails. Of ment to be formed on this point, one the gentlemen who formed the com of the commissioners (Dr Mitchill,) pany invited to witness the experi- descended, and examined by a therment, not one entertained a doubt of mometer the temperature of the hold her fitness for the intended purpose. between the two boilers. The quick
Additional experiments were, not- silver, exposed to the radiant heat of withstanding, necessary to be sought, the burning fuel, rose to one hundred for quickening and directing her ino- and sixteen degrees of Fahrenheit's
scale. Though exposed thus to its miliar by use. It is highly important intensity, he experienced no indisposi- that a portion of seamen and marines tion afterwards. The analogy of pot- should be versed in the order and teries, forges, glass-houses, kitchens, economy of the steam frigate. They and other places where labourers are will augment, diffuse, and perpetuate habitually exposed to high heats, is knowledge. When, in process of time, familiar to persons of business and of another war shall call for more strucreflection. In all such occupations, tures of this kind, men, regularly the men, by proper relays, perform trained to her tactics, may be destheir services perfectly well.
patched to the several stations where The government, however, well un- they may be wanted. If, on any such derstand, that the hold of the present disposition, the government should vessel could be rendered cooler by desire a good and faithful agent, the other apertures for the adınission of commissioners recommend Captain air, and that in building another steam Obed Smith to notice, as a person who frigate, the comfort of the firemen has ably performed the duties of in. might be provided for, as in the ordi- spector from the beginning to the end nary steam-boats.
of the concern. The commissioners congratulate the Annexed to the report, you will government and the nation on the find, Sir, several statements explanaevent of this noble project. Honour- tory of the subject. A separate report able alike to its author and its patrons, of our colleague, the Honourable it constitutes an era in warfare and the Oliver Wolcott, whose removal from arts. The arrival of peace, indeed, New York precluded him from athas disappointed the expectations of tending to the latter part of the buconducting her to battle. That last siness with his accustomed zeal and and conclusive act, of showing her su- fidelity, is herewith presented. A periority in combat, it has not been in drawing of her form and appearance, the power of the commissioners to by Mr Morgan, as being likely to give make.
satisfaction to the department, is also If a continuance of tranquillity subjoined, as are likewise an inventory should be our lot, and this steam ves of her furniture and effects, and an sel of war be not required for the pub- account of the timber and metals conlic defence, the nation may rejoice that solidated in her fabric. the fact we haye ascertained is of in It is hoped these communications calculably greater value than the ex will evince the pains taken by the penditure, -and that if the present commissioners to execute the honourstructure should perish, we have the able and responsible trust reposed in information never to perish, how, on them by the government. a future emergency, another may be
SAML. L. MITCHILL. built. The requisite variations will
THOMAS MORRIS. be dictated by circumstances.
HENRY RUTGERS. Owing to the cessation of hostilities, it has been deemed inexpedient to finish and equip her as for immediate and active employ. In a few weeks MR EDITOR, every thing that is incomplete could It is very pleasing to observe with receive the proper adjustment. what care the most
popular writers of After so much has been done, and this age are obliged to guard against with such encouraging results, it be- introducing any circumstances, even comes the commissioners to recom in their works, of a nature entirely mend that the steam frigate be officer- fictitious, which do not harmonize with ed and manned for discipline and prac- the manners of the period wherein the tice. A discreet commander, with a scene of their story is laid. The examselected crew, could acquire experience ple of such authors as Scott, Southey, in the mode of navigating this pecu- and Byron, who display so much liar vessel. The supplies of fuel, the erudition even in the most trifling tending of the fire, the replenishing of matters of costume, must soon put an the expended water, the management end to the rage for historical poems of the mechanism, the heating of shot, and romances from the pens of such the exercise of the guns, and various half-informed writers as Miss Porter, other matters, can only become fa- Miss Holford, and the like. The novels VOL. I.
ON SITTING BELOW THE SALT.
founded on fact,' as they are called, their blood, was a mere invention of with which some of these female con. the facetious author, and entirely withnoisseurs have thought fit to present out any foundation in history, or, as the world, abound everywhere in vio. one of them expressed it, totum merum lations of historical truth as gross, and sal. It struck me at the time, that in sins against costume as glaring, the usage was not so new to my ears as ever astounded the reader of a ro as it seemed to be to theirs, and, on mance of the thirteenth century. As coming home, I looked into a volume in these productions of that dark age, of old English ballads, where I found Achilles and Hector are always painted the following verse ; like true knights of Languedoc or Ar " Thou art a carle mean of degre, morica, with saltires and fesses on Ye salte yt doth stande twain me and thee; their shields, with mottos, merrymen, But anthou hadst been of ane genty! strayne, pennons, gonfalons, caps of mainten- I wold have bitten my gante* againe." ance, close viziers, tabarts, trumpeters, An instance of the importance atand all the trappings of Gothic chi- tached to the circumstance of being valry;-so, in the Scottish Chiefs," seated above the salt, occurs in a much we find Sir William Wallace, “ that later work-" The Memorie of the stałwart knycht of Elderslee,” meta- Somervilles," a curious book, edited morphosed into an interesting young last year by Mr Walter Scott.-" It colonel, making love to a delicate lady, was, says Lord Somerville, (who with one arm in a sling, and a cam wrote about the year 1680) “as much bric handkerchief in his hand-quote out of peike as to give obedience to ing Ossian, warbling ballads, and re this act of the asseinblies, that Walcovered from a sentimental swoon by ter Stewart of Allontoune, and Sir the application of a crystal smelling, James his brother, both heretors in bottle. It would have been cruel the parish of Cambusnethen, the first, indeed to have brought so fine a from some antiquity, a fewar of the gentleman to the block on Tower-hill; Earle of Tweddill's in Auch termuire, so Miss Porter contrives to smuggle whose predecessors, until this man, Sir William out of the way on the fatal never came to sit above the salta morning, and introduces a dead porter foot, when at the Laird of Cambusto have his head chopped off in his nethen's (Somerville's) table ; which stead.
for ordinary every Sabboth they dyned These observations were suggested to at, as did most of the honest men of me, by hearing some persons, in a com- the parish of any account." Vol. ij. pany where I was the other day, call in p. 394. question the accuracy of the author of The same author is indeed so fami, the Tales of my Landlord,' in respect liar with this usage as one of every-day to an antiquarian remark which he has observance, that he takes notice of it introduced in two different parts of his again in speaking of a provost of Edinwork. The first occurs in the descrip- burgh : “Hewas a gentleman of very tion of the feast, in p. 251 of the mean family upon Clyde, being bro
Black Dwarf.'--" Beneath the Salt- ther german to the Goodman of Allencellar," says he, (a massive piece of tone,
whose predecessors never came to plate which occupied the middle of the sit above the salt-foot." P. 380, ibid. table,)“ sate the sine nomine turba, I have observed, in several houses of men whose vanity was gratified by oc- distinction, certain very large and massy cupying even the subordinate space at pieces of plate-of a globular form, and the social board, while the distinction commonly with two handles, which, observed in ranking them was a salvo although they go by a different name, to the pride of their superiors." In I have at times suspected to be no the same manner, in the tale of Old other than salt-foots," or, as it Mortality,' in the admirable picture should be written, salt-vats. To of the Laird of Milnwood's dinner, the whatever uses these may be applied, I old butler, Cuddie, &c. sat" at a con- bave always been inclined to say with siderable distance from the Laird, and, Plautusof course, below the salt.” The critics,
“ Nunquam ego te tum esse Matulam crewhose remarks it was my fortune to dida." hear, were of opinion, that this usage of I shall endeavour to procure a drawplacing guests above or below the salt, according to the degree of nobility in
* i. e. glove.
ing of a very beautiful one, in the pos- and there to repress the voice of opsession of an honourable person in this position by the influence that might neighbourhood, and send it you, along accompany his immediate presence. with a few further remarks, if possi On concluding his lectures at Bath ble, before the publication of your se- and Clifton, he there announced his cond Number. "Yours respectfully, intention of visiting this northern
J. M. capital ; at the same time exciting the Stockbridge, March 17, 1817. sympathy of his audience, by declar
ing, “ that he was going amongst his
enemies." At Clifton, particularly, THE CRANIOLOGICAL CONTROVERSY. he had gained many proselytes; and Some Observations on the late Pamph settling the manifestations of mind
so occupied were the ladies there in lets of Dr Gordon and Dr Spurzheim. from the bumps on each other's skulls, MR EDITOR,
that carefully to braid the hair, in orNo speculations have engaged more der to conceal wrong propensities, be attention, or have more frequently af came a matter of very serious atten. forded a topic for conversation, since tion. The following fact, which acthe time of Joanna Southcote, than tually occurred at a party in Clifton, those of Drs Gall and Spurzheim. will shew with what a nice accuracy Your readers, I presume, have heard Dr Spurzheim had taught his fair disof these gentlemen and their doctrines, ciples to discover in their neighbours and perhaps may be amused by a few particular manifestations of mind ;remarks on the craniological controver- and I give it as a short lesson of causy. One of these learned persons, who tion to their sister craniologists in Edlately lectured in this city, has been inburgh, of which there are not a few. remarkably active in the promulgation A lady in a large party remarked of his new system, and has devoted pretty audibly, that on a certain head many years to its explanation, in all very near her, she perceived a suspithe principal cities and towns of Eu- cious bump. The lady to whom the rope. Of this system it is unnecessary head belonged, hearing this observahere to give any detailed account. Its tion, turned to the informant, and, deoutlines have been made so generally claring that she would instantly rew known by the unwearied eloquence of move this organ which had excited a Dr Spurzheim, in his writings and suspicion of a wrong propensity, imby his lectures, that I beg to refer the mediately took from her hair a small very few persons, who have not heard comb, which, lying concealed, had the latter to the perusal of the former. caused the manifestation. I shall here offer only some general Dr Spurzheim arrived in Edinburgh observations on a treatise lately pub- soon after the commencement of the lished on the subject by Dr Gordon, last summer session at this university. and on a pamphlet by Dr Spurzheim, He gave several demonstrations of a intended as a reply.
calf's and sheep's brain in Dr BarThe craniological system of Drs clay's lecture-room ; and as soon as he Gall and Spurzheim has been very could procure a human brain, he befully detailed and discussed in all the gan his demonstrations on that organ literary journals of this country, and in the class-room of Professor Thomthey have been very unanimous in son and Dr Gordon.
Here was a deciding on its merits. The Edin- fair opportunity to put to shame the burgh Review stood foremost in oppo- critics of Edinburgh, who had so se sition to this new system, and pointed verely ridiculed his system. This was out more fully and clearly than the the time to support his written disrest, the anatomical errors on which it coveries by actual demonstration. His was founded. Dr Spurzheim, en new and superior mode of dissecting couraged by his success in England the human brain, could now readily relying, it may be also, on his per- be made manifest by a public exhi. sonal address, and on the plausible bition of his skill before some of the sophistry with which he explained his most eminent professors and practisystem--for its ready reception with tioners in the kingdom. A human the multitude of readers, who were of brain was placed before him ;-that course incapable of detecting its ere organ on which his system was foundrors-resolved to visit Edinburgh ; ed, and his alleged discoveries respecte
ing which had already gained him pointed, and which, if well founded, such celebrity. The interpreter of go very far to affect the credit and mind took up his scalpel, and the character of Dr Spurzheim. learned men of the city sat around in This gentleman and his colleague silent expectation. In such a situa- have asserted, that no anatomist betion, there was one course which, it fore themselves believed that the brain might be imagined, Dr Spurzheim was, throughout, of a fibrous struc.would certainly have pursued. As the ture. This, therefore, they claim as colleague of Dr Gall, he had been ac a discovery peculiarly their own, and cused, in no very ambiguous terms, considering it one of high importance, , by the Edinburgh Review, of wilful they style it, “ La premiere et la plus misrepresentation, and of gross ig- importante des decouvertes, celle sans norance in a science which he pre- la quelle toutes les autres seroient imtended to have enriched by new dis- parfaites.” Dr Gordon proves very coveries. These accusations, being satisfactorily, that from the time of anonymous, he certainly was not bound Malpighi in 1664, downwards, such to notice. Convinced, however, as he a fibrous structure was believed to exmust have been, that such heavy ist every where throughout the cerecharges against him were well known bral mass. To such proofs Dr Spurzto his audience, he surely must have heim, in his pamphlet, returns no anfelt peculiarly anxious to do away any swer.
This first and most important bad impression they might have made, of their discoveries turns out, thereby a minute and clear exposition of fore, to be no discovery at all—and his leading doctrines, and a decisive it will be seen that all the others are demonstration of the correctness of his indeed " imparfaites.” anatomical views. Strong in his own Drs Gall and Spurzheim wished to integrity, and in the soundness of his appropriate to themselves the method system, we can conceive him gladly of scraping the brain, as a mode of preparing to confound his enemies, by dissection peculiar to themselves, and appealing to the testimony of their best calculated to display its structure. own senses, and claiming, for an ac Dr Gordon asserts, that this method tual exhibition of new anatomical facts, was not invented by them. To this a belief in the theories which he had assertion Dr Spurzheim assents by his deduced from their existence. How silence. Dr. Spurzheim availed himself of One of the most important points such an opportunity is well known in his and Dr Gall's anatomical disto all who witnessed his dissection. coveries, concerns, as we are told by Far from establishing his claims to Dr Spurzheim, the two orders of fipretended discoveries by actual de- bres, viz. diverging, and converging or monstration, it appears that he in- uniting. It is in fact upon the existence volved himself and his system in of these peculiarly arranged fibres, and further discredit, by his visible ina- upon the proof of a statement which has bility to display the new structure he been positively advanced, that the had so confidently described. He left brown matter secretes the white, that very little doubt, I believe, on the the whole system of Drs Gall and minds of his audience, as to the merits Spurzheim depends. I beg your readof craniology. In order, however, still ers particularly to notice, that it is upfurther to obviate misrepresentation, on the communication between the and to place the claims of all and brown matter and the white medullary Spurzheim in a proper light, Dr Gor- substance, to which it serves as a covdon drew up a treatise, entitled, “Ob- ering, that the doctrines of craniology servations on the Structure of the depend for their chief support. ImaBrain, comprising an estimate of the gine no such communication to exist, claims of Drs Gall and Spurzheim to and the brown capsule of the brain, discovery in the anatomy of that or and cerebellum, is nothing more than gan. On the title-page of this treat an unconnected covering to the white ise he placed his name. This, let it substance beneath. Now, in this case, be observed, was no anonymous attack if mind can be manifested by external which an individual could pass over signs on the head, these signs being without notice. It is a treatise in caused by swellings, or a peculiar conwhich the author personally brings formation of some substance within forward accusations most! direct and the cranium-that substance must