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gines, that had America been depende desire to sell has always been, and ent on this country, we could have must always be, as strong as the inclicompelled her to purchase our mere nation to purchase. chandise, though really higher than With the present colonial system that of other states. --Our colonial the slave trade can only be considered system was always more liberal than as nominally abolished. I do not that of Spain; but did all the re- imagine any such keen and determined strictions, regulations, and guarda-cos- opposition would have been made to tas, of that power, prevent her colonies the slave registration bill, if vast numfrom being deluged with the commo- bers of those wretched beings had not dities of England, France, and Ger- still found their way to our islands. many? No custom-house regulations, But when the cultivation of the sugar however rigorously enforced, can ever cane shall become general in America, command or preserve any market; it is it is to be presumed that this infamous solely by the comparative cheapness traffic will be really put an end to. and quality of the goods offered for A government residing on the spot, sale, that the demand is regulated. can see that the laws preventing fresh
The dread of being deprived of co- importations are rigorously executed; lonial produce, if we had no colonies, but the same thing
cannot possibly be appears equally futile and unfounded. effected by a far distant government,
What country can be mentioned, whose agents must often be interested which, though it had no share in the in a continuance of the traffic, which colony trade, ever wanted its products, they are officially engaged to suppress. if disposed to pay for them. Coun The following table shews the quan, tries possessing extensive colonies are tity of sugar imported into the United frequently reduced to great difficulties States, and again exported, and, conseby foreigners refusing to buy their quently, the quantity of foreign growth commodities, but when did we hear consumed in that republic from 180) of any people refusing to sell ? This to 1812, both inclusive. It is extracted is altogether a visionary danger :--the from Mr Pitkins' work, page 255.
78,476,165 61,180,208 17,295,987
86,694,229 28,962,527 57,731,702
1809, 1810, 1811, 1812,.
Average consumption of foreign sugar in the United
States, during the twelve years ending with 1812,}
NEMORANDUMS OF A VIEW-HUNTER.
-Preparing the race-ground If you can find room for some brief for the races. This raised a train of sketches of a view-hunter, who has a ideas about the D_,, the fair little enthusiasm in his line, and who, M-, and all that, varied but pleaslike not a few of his countrymen, has ing:-Pretty clean-looking village of been a view-hunting lately in France, Bridge in the bottom. The country his memorandum book is very much rich with gentlemen's houses and garat your service. The sketches have at den-like enclosures. The track was least one merit—they are warm from
This had been the the life.
boundary of my former trips on the
now new to me.
Dover road. The dale to the right,
Dover. with hamlets, villages, churches, gen At the Paris hotel. Very good house. tlemen's seats, appears peculiarly ele- Civil and attentive. Full of passengant, contrasted with the plainness on gers to and from the Continent, Walkthe left. The road is carried along the ed out with my companions, Dr B. east side of a valley. This valley is and Mr S. to view-hunt a little on the narrow and rich—of the glen sort- heights on so fine an afternoon. The and, as we approach Dover, it has se town built on a narrow slip of land at veral pleasing vista-openings in the the bottom of steep chalky cliffs. AsScottish style.
cended a circular excavation in the We got a small peep of the channel, chalk. Three winding stairs up it, of two or three miles from Dover. The about 200 steps. Made some years ago. town itself is scarcely seen till we en- Sentinels both at the entry below and ter. On descending to the bottom; in above. Part of the works of defence, which it stands, we took up a little on the top of the hill, a little to the man about twenty, one of the most right of this. Ascend it by ladder free and easy persons I have ever met stairs on the outside. These have a with. He introduced himself to us in fine effect, combined with the fortifia moment, and gave us all the infor- cations. The castle, also, has a venermation we wanted ; indeed, much more able and picturesque appearance from than my companion S— seemed to this station. want. But I was pleased with the I inquired about Shakspeare's cliff rattle for the moment. He, however, of the soldiers. A decent-looking midid not lack either sense or discrimi. litiainan, who was carrying a pretty nation. He pointed out the stream child, while two more were playing that creeps in the bottom, as being round him, pointed it out to mea reckoned the richest in England of its mile or so off. A few halfpence made size, for manufacturing returns. . So the little folks very happy, and the he said. Saw several paper manufac- parent's fond eye glisten with delight. tories and flour mills. One of the I cast a wishful look to this favourite former, he said, was famous for fine cliff: The declining day was so fine. paper ; the scenery of its banks pleas- But Dr B. said, he was so fatigued he ing, and from this account it became could not think of it; and as I could more interesting. It seems to descend not leave him so abruptly, I was obliged from a vista on the right, and to run to give up the project, but not withonly four or five miles.
out regret that was constantly recurOur attention was attracted by a ring. This is the inconvenience of a group of young women promenading view-hunter entangling himself with in a green field on its banks, near a very any non-view-hunter as a travelling small rustic chapel and church-yard; companion. He is prevented from the latter only about fifty feet square. seeing half of what he may see.--A The whole formed a fine rural picture. word to view-hunters. I determined On descending to the level of the to give my companions the slip for the stream, we found both the footway future, except at meals. and the road covered with walkers; I then proposed ascending to the for this was Sunday afternoon, and the citadel. The way at first steep, and weather was uncommonly fine. When nearly on the edge of the precipice. we entered the town, we still found Dr B. said to some of the soldiers the footway-for it has a footway on who pointed out our way, as they were each side, and this was one of the few reclining on the declivity, that it looke we were to see for many a hundred ed like ascending to the skies. Nomile still crowded with promenaders. thing of that sort, said a drummer. I The people well dressed, particularly have climbed it often, and I never the women. The girls very pretty. found I was a bit nearer heaven than Seldom have seen so many fine faces before. The pert drummer might not in a town of the same size; but it was be very far wrong with respect to himKent. A smile on every countenance. self. I like to see the evening of the Sab The view of the harbour, which is bath-day kept in this cheerful but de- a tide one, and very extensive, having
gates between the outer and inner I shall compare this with what I see station, with the ships so far below us, at Calais, said I to my companions of formed an interesting picture. The
sea was delightfully calm. The white
cliffs of France, whither we were go- truly grand and beautiful. I felt the
While we sat at tea, a little valetu. Two very bonny lasses, with a fine dinarian Jew, whom they called Mochild, ascended at the same time with ses, offered his services in the moneyus, but still nearer the precipice. I changing line. He said he followed begged them, for Heaven's sake, not to this business merely for the sake of a go so near. They laughed, and went little amusing employment. He chargstill nearer ; and sat down almost on ed a penny more for his Louises (of the very edge of the tremendous pre twenty francs) than I had paid in cipice, which, even at the distance London, or 16s. 4d. He wanted very we were standing, made us shudder. much to tempt me to part with some Goodbye, my poor dears, said I to of the slips of paper I had received them; I shall see you no more. They from Hammersley, for French gold, gave me some jocular reply. Such is no doubt by way of amusement also. the effect of custom.
But in vain he offered me a douceur, Went up to the citadel. Not al as I meant to keep my paper till I got lowed to enter. A nice-looking wo
to Paris. He loitered in the coffeeman and her husband on the draw. · room, and again and again he attemptbridge. She seemed quite frightened. ed to bribe me to part with it. Pho! On raising my eyes, I soon found the thought I, as I sipt my tea ; and is the cause of her terror. They were going theory of our bullion committee come to fire the evening gun from the ram to this in practice. The notes of the part. The picture was truly fine. Bank of England, alone, are now from The poor female was crouching down eight to ten millions more than when on the bridge, though the gun was
this learned body, far above the prefull twelve feet above her, and stop- judices of metal-money times no doubt, ping her ears; and the artillery men were theorizing; and yet here is a were standing in order by it, waiting Jew (for the sake of mere amusement, till the sun, who was now going down, it is granted) offers me more gold for should sink under the hill. We were my paper money, than even its mint at unequal distances, watching the price warrants. His urgency, also, hand that held the lighted match. certainly looks very much like his.conThis was applied. The height seemed sidering paper really more valuable to sbake under us. The thunder ran than gold. 'Tis a pity that facts will round the hills for some time, and re still be giving the negation flat to certurned again. The varied and pleas- tain favourite theories. We shall, ing form of these winding heights, however, reach something like good with their picturesque ornaments, sense on money at length, perhaps. I the glens between them, which put say good, and not common sense ; for me in mind of some of the glens of the common sense on the subject of the Grampians, though in miniature, money, as on many others, has a good --and the brilliant tints which the sun deal of that negative kind of sense in had left behind him, received such an it, which is styled nonsense. addition from this simple and familiar All this, it is to be noticed, I thought, incident, that Dr B., who seemed to and not said. From some remark that possess a very moderate share of view. had fallen from Dr B. I perceived he hunting enthusiasm, exclaimed, 'Tis was an adherent of the metal money
party, and I was a decided partisan of tributed to make them better acquaintpaper. Now, it is well known, that a ed with themselves—it excited new regular argumentation on paper and enterprises--it educed latent talents metal money, unless abruptly termi- it stimulated to exertions unknown to nated by a quarrel or a duel, ---to say our people before. nothing of disturbing all around us A long extent of coast was exposed with our poise, --seldom, on a mode- to an enemy, powerful above every rate calculation, abates in its violence other on the ocean. His commanders in less than two hours and a half. threatened to lay. waste our country But I wished to retire to bed early, with fire and sword, and, actually, in and therefore I did not offer battle. various instances, carried their menaces
My bed-room was just under a per- into execution. It became necessary, pendicular cliff of chalk, say, from 150 for our defence, to resist, by every to 240 feet high. Suppose now, thought practicable method, such a formidable I to myself, this cliff should tumble foe. down in the night. However, thought* It was conceived, by a most ingeI to myself again, this perpendicular nious and enterprising citizen, that cliff has stood during the nights of the power of steam could be employed several thousand years, and why should to propel a floating battery, carrying it, of all nights, fall down on the very heavy guns, to the destruction of any night that I sleep at Dover ?-And hostile force that should hover on the sleep there I did, and very soundly shores, or enter the ports of our Atlantoo. In three minutes I was uncon tic frontier. The perfect and admirscious of existence, and dreamt neither able success of his project, for moving of Jews changing money for mere boats containing travellers and bags amusement, metal nor paper, bullion gage by the same elastic agent, opened committees, nor yet perpendicular cliffs the way to its employment for carryof chalk.
ing warriors and the apparatus for And now, sir, with your permission, fighting. I shall postpone my invasion of France The plan was submitted to the contill next month,
sideration of the executive òf an enlightened government. Congress, in
fluenced by the most liberal and ACCOUNT OF THE AMERICAN STEAM
patriotic spirit, appropriated money
for the experiment; and the navy deMR EDITOR, As the following account of the nourable William Jones, appointed
partment, then conducted by the Hosteam frigate lately built in America, commissioners to superintend the conhas, so far as I know, not yet been struction of a convenient vessel under published in this country, I have the direction of Robert Fulton, Esq. taken the liberty of transmitting it for the inventor, as engineer, and of your Magazine. It was communi- Messrs Adam and Noah Brown, as cated to me some time ago by Samuel naval constructors. The enterprise, L. Mitchill, M.D.F.R.S.E. of New from its commencement, and during York, one of the commissioners who a considerable part of its preparatory superintended its construction.--I am, operations, was aided by the zealous Sir, yours, &c. D. Brewster. co-operation of major-general DearEdinburgh, March 4th, 18.7.
born, then holding his head-quarters
at the city of New York, as the offiReport of Henry Rutgers, Samuel L.
cer commanding the third military disMitchill, and Thomas Morris, the trict. The loss of his valuable counsel, commissioners superintending the in conducting a work which he had construction of a Steam Vessel of maturely considered, and which he War, to the secretary of the navy: strongly recommended, was the con
New York, December 28, 1815. sequence of his removal to another SIR,--The war which was terminated section of the union, where his proby the treaty of Ghent, afforded, during fessional talents were specially requirits short continuance, a glorious dis- ed. play of the valour of the United States The keels of this steam frigate were by land and by sea--it made them better laid on the 20th day of June, 1814. known to foreign nations, and, what The strictest blockade the enemy
could is of much greater importance, it con- enforce, interrupted the coasting trade,
and greatly enhanced the price of timthe strength of horses. Carriages of ber. The vigilance with which he the most approved model were conguarded our coast against intercourse structed, and every thing done to with foreign nations, rendered difficult bring her into prompt action, as an the importation of copper and iron. efficient instrument of war. The same impediment attended the About this time, an officer presupplies of coal, heretofore brought to eminent for bravery and discipline, New York from Richmond and Li- was commissioned by the government verpool. Lead, in like manner, was to her command. Prior to this event, procured under additional disadvan- it had been intended by the commiss tages. These attempts of the enemy sioners to finish her conformably to the to frustrate the design were vain and plan originally submitted to the exécu: impotent. All the obstacles were sur tive. She was a structure resting upon mounted. Scarcity of the necessary two boats, and keels separated from end woods and metals was overcome by to end by a canal 15 feet wide, and 156 strenuous exertions; and all the block- long. One boat contained the cauldrons ading squadron could achieve, was not of copper to prepare her steam. The a disappointment in the undertaking, vast cylinder of iron, with its piston, but merely an increase of the expense. lever, and wheels, occupied a part of its
So, in respect to tradesmen and la- fellow; the great water-wheel revolved bourers, there was an extraordinarydif- in the space between them; the main ficulty. Ship-wrights had repaired to or gun deck supported her armament, the lakes for repelling the enemy, in and was protected by a bulwark 4 feet such numbers, that comparatively 10 inches thick, of solid timber. This speaking, few were left on the sea- was pierced by 30 port holes, tó enable board. A large portion of the men as many 32 pounders to fire red hot who had been engaged in daily work, balls; her upper or spar deck was plain, had enlisted as soldiers, and had march- and she was to be propelled by her ed under the banners of the nation to enginery alone. the defence of its rights-yet, amidst It was the opinion of Captain Porter the scarcity of hands, a sufficient num and Mr Fulton, that the upper deck ber was procured for the purpose ought to be surrounded with a bulwhich the commissioners had in charge. wark and stanchions—that two stout An increase of wages was the chief masts should be erected to support impediment, and this they were ená- latteen sails—that there should be bled practically to overcome.
bowsprits for jibs, and that she should By the exemplary combination of be rigged in a corresponding style. diligence and skill, on the part of Under authorities so great, and with the engineer and the constructors, the the expectation of being able to raise business was so accelerated, that the the blockade of New London, by devessel was launched on the 29th day of 'stroying, taking, or routing the eneOctober, amidst the plaudits of an 'my's ships, all these additions were unusual number of citizens.
adopted, and incorporated with the Measures were immediately taken vessel. to complete her equipment; the boiler, It must here be observed, that, durthe engine, and the machinery, were ing the exhaustion of the treasury, put in board with all possible expedi- and the temporary depression of pubtion. Their weight and size far sur lic credit, the commissioners were expassed any thing that had been wit- ceedingly embarrassed ;-their pay-, nessed before among us.
ments were made in treasury notes, The stores of artillery in New York which they were positively instructed not furnishing the number and kind to negotiate at par. On several occaof cannon which she was destined to sions even these were so long withcarry, it became necessary to transport held, that the persons who had adguns from Philadelphia. A prize vanced materials and labour were imtaken from the enemy, put some fit portunate for payment, or silently disand excellent pieces at the disposition contented. To a certain extent, the of the navy department. To avoid the commissioners pledged their private danger of capture by the enemy's credit. Notwithstanding all this, the cruizers, these were carried over the men, at one time, actually broke off. miry roads of New Jersey. Twenty The work was retarded, and her comheavy cannon were thus conveyed by pletion was unavoidably deferred, to