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neighbouring country, a grand and posed to the same fluctuations in their picturesque object in the landscape, circumstances, nor to the frequent and affords from its environs, and even extremes of poverty and misery, to from every quarter of its interior, which the latter are so liable. Amid views of surrounding scenery, which, the universal distress, however, which in variety and beauty, are perhaps un has prevailed in all parts of the counequalled in any other situation in the try during the last year, the poor of world,

Edinburgh could not fail to suffer am The principal streets in the ancient mongst others; but the extent and part of the town, with the exception degree of this suffering has been very of the Cowgate, which, placed in the materially diminished by the assist hollow betwixt the middle and south- ance so seasonably afforded by their ern ridge, is narrow and confined, richer fellow citizens, by the sums are spacious; and the whole of the subscribed in order to give them emNew Town, occupying the northern ployment. The circumstances in the ridge, and the modern part of the Old state of the poor in this town, already Town, both chiefly built within the mentioned, made it much more possilast half century, and forming now the ble to render effectual service to those greater part of the city, are remark- in want than in most other large towns; able for the grandeur of their streets and there can be no doubt, that the and the uniform elegance and sub- money laid out has afforded the means stantialness of the houses. From the of employment and subsistence to elevated position of the town--the ire many who must otherwise have pined regularity of the surface of the sur in wretchedness and starvation; while, rounding country, and vicinity of the from the mode in which it has been Forth, it is exposed to currents of wind applied, in extending and repairing the even in the calmest weather; and the walks in the neighbourhood, it must numerous lanes, very properly deno add to the healthfulness and comforts minated closes, running from the High of the city. Street and Canongate, down the sides There is nothing perhaps in which of the middle ridge of the town, be- luxury and comfort have so much intween rows of high and irregular creased, within the last fifty years, as houses, though in appearance confined in the style of the houses occupied by and ill-aired, have frequently a draught the different classes of the community. of air passing through them. This Since the period of the extension of complete and steady ventilation, and the town, which was begun about the the high situation and declivity of al. middle of the last century, it has inmost all the streets, in a great measure creased much more in extent than in prevent the possibility of dampness, population, and a great and progresand afford advantages for cleanliness sive improvement has taken place in seldom to be found in any other large the plans of the houses. The lower town.

classes of the community now occupy, The population of Edinburgh is cal. as habitations, the apartments on the culated to be above 80,000 souls; but flats of the lofty houses of the Old as it is not a place of trade, or of ex- Town, which have been deserted by tensive manufactures, the number of the richer for the more commodious the labouring classes, and of the poor, and splendid houses of the modern part is small in proportion to that of the of the town. From this circumstance, middling classes, and of the rich ; the artisans and labourers are provided among the labouring classes, too, as with more substantial and dry habitathey are chiefly mechanics employed tions than usually fall to the lot of this in supplying the wants of the in- class; but the heightofthestairs and the habitants of the town and surround. number of families residing under each ing country--porters for the use of roof, contribute in some degree to occathe town, and labourers employed in sion that want of cleanliness and neatthe operations of building, and in ness which but too generally prevails. agriculture in the vicinity, their em. The climate of Edinburgh being ployment is in general steady; and very variable, cannot be said to be though they do not obtain the high pleasant, but it is temperate, and is wages and luxuries sometimes enjoy, not liable to any continued extremes ed by manufacturers, they are not ex. of heat, or cold, or moisture. The

constant prevalence of wind, frequently nument, at a considerable height above from the north or from the east, ren- the surface of the earth, and not exa ders it, during the greater part of the posed to eddies of wind, the annual year, chill, and in the summer cool. quantity of rain, averaged from the The winter, which may be said to last observations of the years 1814 and four months, is, as might be expected 1815, is indicated to be 15.29 inches; from the neighbourhood of the sea, ge- and last year, an unusually wet season, nerally open and variable, frosts or not less than 18.15 inches. By thegauges storms of snow seldom lasting longer in the immediate neighbourhood, but than a few days. The wetness and placed near the ground, the quantities sudden changes in the weather during indicated are much greater. The spring are proverbial ; and during the country around Edinburgh is drained month of May, which in more south- and highly cultivated, affording rich ern countries is so delightful, damp crops of wheat, turnips, and potaeasterly winds too generally prevail toes. An abundant supply of coals, during the day, with frosts in the night, for fuel, is brought at a reasonable destroying the blossoms and prospects price from the neighbouring country. of fruit, which a continuance of fine The spring of this year has been weather in April not unfrequently remarkable for the steadiness and dry, produces. At this period of the year, ness of the weather, and most favoure there is a striking difference in cli- able for the advancement of the opemate between the north and south rations of husbandry. The month of sides of the town, often of material February was open and mild; and consequence to invalids ; the latter ly, during March, though there were frea ing exposed to the south, sheltered quent frosts and showers of snow, and from the east wind by Arthur Seat, of rain, there was much fine weather. and from the north by the high ridge In the latter end of the month, after of the town, is considerably warmer some days of warmth, an intense cold than the northern part; not only an suddenly came on, which continued evident difference in the sensation of for three days, the thermometer, durheat being felt in passing from the one ing the night, standing seven degrees to the other, but, during the day, a below the freezing point, and a sharp difference of two or three degrees in dry wind blowing from the north. the thermometer being frequently ob- During April a westerly wind prevailservable. The summer is usually ed, and the weather, though not warm, agreeable, as the heat is seldom op- was steady and remarkably dry, only pressive, or the drought continued ; a few slight showers of rain having fale and the weather, in the months of len during the month. With May the September and October, is generally east winds set in, and have continued steady, fair, and temperate. The with little variation during the month, changes in the barometer and thermo- but they have been less chill and damp meter, particularly in the latter, are than usual, and the frost in the night frequent, and often great and sudden. less severe. In the latter end of the The average annual temperature of month frequent seasonable falls of rain Edinburgh is about 47°, and the took place, which had become desirable thermometer seldom stands above 75° for the advancement of vegetation.* in summer, or falls below 20 in win The markets of Edinburgh are well ter. Showers of rain are frequent at and regularly supplied with the neall times of the year, but wet weather cessaries of life; and abundance of is seldom long continued. In spring fish of various kinds, particularly of a drizzling mist from the east free cod, haddocks, and at certain seasons quently occurs. The observations late- of herrings, is to be procured at a very ly made at Edinburgh, from rain moderate price. All the luxuries and gauges, shew that the quantities of indulgencies of the table are easily oba rain which fall, indicated by that in- tained by the rich, but the diet of the strument, are much modified by its labouring classes, whose mode of live position ; and therefore, that the core rectness of the results which have hi.

* It will be observed, from examining therto been obtained from its use, is not the meteorological report of the Magazine, much to be depended on. By the gauge that the average of the temperature of this belonging to the Astronomical Institue spring has been about 50 higher than that tion, placed on the top of Nelson's mo of the last.

ing is necessarily much limited by it is distributed to the older part of their circumstances, is chiefly come the town by means of public wells in posed of oatmeal porridge, bread, po- the streets, and to the more modern tatoes, and milk. Even among them by pipes to each house, or to their wheaten bread has now in a great mea, areas. As of late years the population sure displaced that of oatmeal or bar- has greatly increased, and pipes have leymeal. Their means enable them been furnished to the new houses, but seldom to procure butcher meat; which, from their size, require a large but for dinner they frequently make a quantity of water, while no effectual þroth, with barley and green vege- means have been taken to provide for tables, in which beef bones, or a por, this increased consumption, the supa tion of butter, of which they consume ply of this essential article is never a considerable quantity, have been abundant,

and, in dry seasons, extreme boiled, if not with the effect of adding ly deficient. In order, therefore, to to its nutritive qualities, at least with observe a due and proper economy in that of rendering it more palatable. its use, it is supplied to the public During the season, the fresh herrings wells only at times, and it flows to afford them a cheap and excellent food; the cisterns of the houses at considera and they at all times consume, with able intervals. To all classes of the their potatoes, à considerable quantity community this deficiency occasions of salt herrings and salted fish. Fresh a very great privation; but to the white fish, though often cheap, they poor, when the time and labour which seem little in the habit of using in their they expend, and the exposure they families. The harmless and refreshing have to undergo in procuring their luxury of tea is very generally enjoyed; scanty supply are considered, it is oba and the number of public houses, and vious that it must be an evil of serious the quantity of spirits consumed, but magnitude. To this scarcity of water too plainly prove the extent to which there can be little doubt that the of the more pernicious one of dram-drink fensive state of the streets, particularing is indulged in. It were much to ly in summer, so long the opprobrium be wished, both on account of the mo- of Edinburgh, is in some degree to be rals and health of the people, that the attributed ; and while it continues, it money expended in this destructive must oppose a serious obstacle to the use of ardent spirits, were laid out on improvement in the cleanliness of their the more nutritive and wholesome be persons and their habitations, which is verage of mált-liquor. Though, along so desireable among the poor. with whisky, a considerable quantity The degree to which the scarcity of of inferior ale is consumed in the pub water was felt during the dry summer lic houses, it is but little used as a re. of 1815, and the threatening of it gular article of diet.

which has already been perceived this During the last winter, from the spring, has drawn the attention of the difficulty of procuring employment, Magistrates and of the public to it in and the low rate of wages, joined with a particular manner; and it is now to the high price and inferior quality of be hoped, that the town will ere long bread and corn, and particularly of enjoy the benefit of the advantages oatmeal and potatoes, the food of the which it possesses from its situation, poor must have been less nutritious, as of obtaining a supply of water even to well as diminished in quantity; and profusion, of which an abundance is while we cannot but admire the pa- so essential to the cleanliness of the tience with which they have sustained city, and to the comfort and health of them, it is melancholy to reflect on its inhabitants. the privations which the labouring There is no disease which is peculiar classes of the community must have to Edinburgh, neither can any of the borne in their fare, which is at all diseases of this country be said to be times plain and so little abundant. particularly prevalent or severe in this

With all the advantages which this town. On the whole, it is remarkably otherwise favoured town possesses, it healthful; and I believe, that it may is deficient in the most indispensable be stated, that the mortality in it is necessary and luxury of life. It is small in proportion to the population, supplied with excellent water, convey- though I have not before me, indeed ed, from springs near the Pentland I do not know if there exists, docuHills, to two reservoirs, from which ments on which an accurate opinion VOL. I.

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constant prevalence of wind, frequently nument, at a considerable height above from the north or from the east, ren the surface of the earth, and not exders it, during the greater part of the posed to eddies of wind, the annual year, chill

, and in the summer cool. quantity of rain, averaged from the The winter, which may be said to last observations of the years 1814 and four months, is, as might be expected 1815, is indicated to be 15.29 inches; from the neighbourhood of the sea, ge- and last year, an unusually wet season, nerally open and variable, frosts or not less than 18.15 inches. By thegauges storms of snow seldom lasting longer in the immediate neighbourhood, but than a few days. The wetness and placed near the ground, the quantities sudden changes in the weather during indicated are much greater. The spring are proverbial ; and during the country around Edinburgh is drained month of May, which in more south- and highly cultivated, affording : rich ern countries is so delightful, damp crops of wheat, turnips, and potaeasterly winds too generally, prevail toes. An abundant supply of coals, during the day, with frosts in thenight, for fuel, is brought at a reasonable destroying the blossoms and prospects price from the neighbouring country. of fruit, which a continuance of fine The spring of this year has been weather in April not unfrequently remarkable for the steadiness and dryproduces. At this period of the year, ness of the weather, and most favour. there is a striking difference in cli- able for the advancement of the opea. mate between the north and south rations of husbandry. The month of sides of the town, often of material February was open and mild; and consequence to invalids; the latter ly, during March, though there were frea ing exposed to the south, sheltered quent frosts and showers of snow, and from the east wind by Arthur Seat, of rain, there was much fine weather. and from the north by the high ridge In the latter end of the month, after of the town, is considerably warmer some days of warmth, an intense cold than the northern part; not only an suddenly came on, which continued evident difference in the sensation of for three days, the thermometer, dure heat being felt in passing from the one ing the night, standing seven degrees to the other, but, during the day, a below the freezing point, and a sharp difference of two or three degrees in dry wind blowing from the north. the thermometer being frequently ob- During April a westerly wind prevailservable. The summer is usually ed, and the weather, though not warm, agreeable, as the heat is seldom op was steady and remarkably dry, only pressive, or the drought continued ; a few slight showers of rain having fale and the weather, in the months of len during the month. With May the September and October, is generally east winds set in, and have continued steady, fair, and temperate. The with little variation during the month, changes in the barometer and thermo- but they have been less chill and damp meter, particularly in the latter, are than usual, and the frost in the night frequent, and often great and sudden. less severe. In the latter end of the The average annual temperature of month frequent seasonable falls of rain Edinburgh is about 470, and the took place, which had become desirable thermometer seldom stands above 75° for the advancement of vegetation. in summer, or falls below 20 in win.

The markets of Edinburgh are well ter. Showers of rain are frequent at and regularly supplied with the neall times of the year, but wet weather cessaries of 'life; and abundance of is seldom long continued. In spring fish of various kinds, particularly of a drizzling mist from the east free cod, haddocks, and at certain seasons quently occurs. The observations late- of herrings, is to be procured at a very ly made at Edinburgh, from rain moderate price. All the luxuries and gauges, shew that the quantities of indulgencies of the table are easily obrain which fall, indicated by that in- tained by the rich, but the diet of the strument, are much modified by its labouring classes, whose mode of live position ; and therefore, that the correctness of the results which have hi

* It will be observed, from examining therto been obtained from its use, is not the meteorological report of the Magazine, much to be depended on. By the gauge that the average of the temperature of this belonging to the Astronomical Institue spring has been about 5° higher than that ion, placed on the top of Nelson's mo of the last.

ing is necessarily much limited by it is distributed to the older part of their circumstances, is chiefly com, the town by means of public wells in posed of oatmeal porridge, bread, po- the streets, and to the more modern tatoes, and milk. Even among them by pipes to each house, or to their wheaten bread has now in a great meas areas. As of late years the population sure displaced that of oatmeal or bar has greatly increased, and pipes have leymeal. Their means enable them been furnished to the new houses, but seldom to procure butcher meat; which, from their size, require a large but for dinner they frequently make a quantity of water, while no effectual broth, with barley and green vege- means have been taken to provide for tables, in which beef bones, or a por this increased consumption, the suption of butter, of which they consume ply of this essential article is never a considerable quantity, have been abundant, and, in dry seasons, extreme boiled, if not with the effect of adding ly deficient. In order, therefore, to to its nutritive qualities, at least with observe a due and proper economy in that of rendering it more palatable. its use, it is supplied to the public During the season, the fresh herrings wells only at times, and it flows to afford them a cheap and excellent food; the cisterns of the houses at consider and they at all times consume, with able intervals. To all classes of the their potatoes, a considerable quantity community this deficiency occasions of salt herrings and salted fish. Fresh a very great privation ; but to the white fish, though often cheap, they poor, when the time and labour which seem little in the habit of using in their they expend, and the exposure they families. The harmless and refreshing have to undergo in procuring their luxury of tea is very generally enjoyed; scanty supply are considered, it is ob and the number of public houses, and vious that it must be an evil of serious the quantity of spirits consumed, but magnitude. To this scarcity of water too plainly prove the extent to which there can be little doubt that the of the more pernicious oneof dram-drink- fensive state of the streets, particularing is indulged in. It were much to ly in summer, so long the opprobrium be wished, both on account of the mo. of Edinburgh, is in some degree to be rals and health of the people, that the attributed ; and while it continues, it money expended in this destructive must oppose a serious obstacle to the use of ardent spirits, were laid out on improvement in the cleanliness of their the more nutritive and wholesome be persons and their habitations, which is verage of malt-liquor. Though, along so desireable among the poor. with whisky, a considerable quantity

The degree to which the scarcity of of inferior ale is consumed in the pub water was felt during the dry summer lic houses, it is but little used as a re of 1815, and the threatening of it gular article of diet.

which has already been perceived this During the last winter, from the spring, has drawn the attention of the difficulty of procuring employment, Magistrates and of the public to it in and the low rate of wages, joined with a particular manner; and it is now to the high price and inferior quality of be hoped, that the town will ere long bread and corn, and particularly of enjoy the benefit of the advantages Oatmeal and potatoes, the food of the which it possesses from its situation, poor must have been less nutritious, as of obtaining a supply of water even to well as diminished in quantity; and profusion, of which an abundance is while we cannot but admire the pa so essential to the cleanliness of the tience with which they have sustained city, and to the comfort and health of them, it is melancholy to reflect on its inhabitants. the privations which the labouring. There is no disease which is peculiar classes of the community must have to Edinburgh, neither can any of the borne in their fare, which is at all diseases of this country be said to be times plain and so little abundant. particularly prevalent or severe in this

With all the advantages which this town. On the whole, it is remarkably otherwise favoured town possesses, it healthful; and I believe, that it may is deficient in the most indispensable be stated, that the mortality in it is necessary and luxury of life. It is small in proportion to the population, supplied with excellent water, convey- though I have not before me, indeed ed, from springs near the Pentland I do not know if there exists, docu. Hills, to two reservoirs, from which ments on which an accurate opinion Von, I.

2 M

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