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182 Analytical Notices.-Encyclopædia Britannica.--Supplement. [May restored to more than her former trespass at will on a weaker neighbour. splendour. At the commencement of The ancients had certainly some idea the French revolution, the Austrian of such a political equipoise; but whedominions contained a population of ther that idea was merely speculative, 25,000,000,-as confirmed by the Con or whether it influenced their political gress of Vienna, their population is conduct, is a question which has di27,926,000.- This mighty empire in- vided some of our ablest writers. Mr cludes, at present, Bohemia, Moravia, Hume maintains, that the authority Austrian, Silesia, Lower Austria, Up- of this system was scarcely less extenper Austria, Salzburg and Berchstol- sive in ancient than in modern Eugaden ; Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, rope ; while Mr Brougham affirms, Friuli, and Trieste ; Galicia, Bucko- that in this department of politics, the wine, Hungary, Transylvania, Sclavo- ancients displayed nothing beyond a nia, Croatia, Venetian States, Istria, speculative knowledge. The truth Dalmatia, Tyrol, Lombardy, and other seems to lie between these assertions. acquisitions in Italy. The power of The great principle of preserving a this empire is less than we might ex- due balance of power, is to be traced pect from its extent of population, in many of the transactions of the owing, as is judiciously observed, to Grecian states ; but that principle was the want of that consonance of nation- never so regular in its operation, nor al manners, and that congeniality of so authoritative in its influence, as it national feeling, which are essential to has become among the modern nations ease in governing, and which have of Europe. It was in Italy, divided long formed the strength of France into a number of small states and comand Britain.
monwealths, that this principle first The next article of considerable assumed the appearance of system. length is BAKING, leaving which to Early in the fifteenth century, we see the consideration of bakers and phy- the balance of power becoming an obsicians, we pass on to a very intelli- ject of constant concern among these gent paper on the BALANCE of Power. states--and about the close of that -We regret that the author has not century, these ideas began to extend developed more fully the clear and en to other quarters, and to influence the lightened views which he entertains on operations of mightier kingdoms. The this important subject, particularly as beneficial effects of such a system are it is a subject not generally treated of in sufficiently obvious. It checked the works of a similar nature. The policy frequency of wars—it was a barrier of balancing the power of one state against the strong, and a bulwark to against another, was never pursued the weak. We heartily concur with but in modern Europe-nor was it till the author of this article, in reprobatthe commencement of the sixteenthing and lamenting the fatal violation century, that the European states be of this salutary principle in the pargan to be formed into one grand fede tition of Poland-which presented the ral league, to be the guardians of each alarming example of a deliberate, unother's interests. The ultimate inten- checked conspiracy against the indetion of this system of policy was, to se pendent existence of an unoffending cure every state in the full possession country. With regard to the interest of all its rights, by checking the first of Great Britain in the balancing sysencroachments of ambition, watching tem, it is very justly remarked, that the movements of foreign powers, and our commerce and our colonies render uniting their respective force in sup- it absurd to talk of our being insulatport of the weak against the strong. ed as an empire, because Britain is an It was no part of this system to equal island; and that we could not always ize the powers of the states compos- be as secure, and as free from uneasy ing the grand community-which is apprehension, in a state of total insulaas impracticable as to preserve an equal. tion from foreign connexions, as with ity of property among the individual friends or confederates to employ or members of a nation. The question oppose a formidable enemy on his own is not what amount of power above a confines. We accord, likewise, in the nother any state possesses, provided observation, that it is often proper to that power is fairly acquired, but whe- watch and to warn, to use the influther any state possesses its power in ence of our remonstrances and counsuch circumstances, as to enable it to sels, without having recourse, except
1817.1 Analytical Notices.-Encyclopædia Britannica-Supplement. 183 in urgent cases, to the extremity of 1810, are given with more precision in
the Edinburgh Encyclopædia; but the Of the Baltic a very full, and, we author of this article has the advanare inclined to believe, a very correct tage of having written six years later, account is given, under the different and can therefore state, that the loan heads of general description, extent, of £3,000,000, with which, in condepth, level of its waters with those of sideration of the renewal of its charthe ocean, tides, superior and inferior ter, the bank agreed to accommodate currents, saltness, temperature, winds, government for six years without infisheries, coasts, canals and commerce. terest, and which was afterwards conThe plan of the article is faulty, in tinued during the war at an interest of embracing too much information, and, 3 per cent., was discharged in the year of course, occupying a space out of all 1814; that the additional £3,000,000, due proportion with the rest of the which, in 1808, the directors, in conwork. Under the head of coasts, in sideration of the immense profit acparticular, the author enters into a cruing from the use of the public detailed account of towns which he money, agreed to lend to government should have merely enumerated, leav- without interest, until six months ing a fuller description of them to be after the conclusion of a definitive given either under their respective treaty of peace, was continued to the names, or under the names of the public till the 5th of April 1816; that, countries in which they are situated. according to an arrangement then The same observation will apply to his made, the bank was allowed to add to account of the rivers which fall into its capital £2,910,600; and, in return, the Baltic, and the canals which com the loan of £3,000,000 was continued, municate with it. With these excep- at an interest of 3 per cent. In 1746, tions, we think the article very satis- the advances to government, which factory.
form the undivided capital of the bank, The next article which claims our amounted to £11,686,800; they now attention is BANKING.
amount to £20,686,800. The increase plaining, in a very satisfactory man- of its circulation has been amazingly ner, the purpose for which banks rapid. By the report laid before Para were originally established, and their liament lately, it appears, that in 1718 general utility, the author proceeds the total amount of Bank of England to notice some of the recent trans notes in circulation was £1,829,930 ; actions of the Bank of England, and in April 1816 it was £26,594,360. to describe the effects produced by so Never at any former period have the powerful an engine on the circula- affairs of this bank been in so flourishtion and commerce of the country. ing a state as at present. A principal Most of our readers, perhaps, know, cause of that prosperity is the imthat this bank, the most important in mense amount of the national debt the world, whether we consider its £830,000,000; for the management wealth, or the amazing extent of its of which the bank receives £340 per transactions, was established, by a char- million for the first £600,000,000, and ter of William and Mary, in July 1694. £300 per million on the excess above It was projected by William Paterson, £600,000,000. It has likewise an ala native of Dumfriesshire, who is said lowance of £800 per million on the to have taken the bank of St George, whole amount of every loan of which in Genoa, for his model; and who was it receives the payment; on every lotassisted in arranging his plan bytery contract it is allowed £1000; and Michael Godfrey, a gentleman of great it has the use of all the public money consideration in London. The charter committed to its charge, besides several was granted for the term of twelve other allowances of less importance. years; and the corporation was deter. But for the other sources of its wealth, minable on a year’s notice. The ori- and the general detail of its business, ginal capital, lodged by the proprietors we must refer our readers to the artiin the Exchequer, was £1,200,000, cle itself, which will be found equally for which they received 8 per cent. in- clear in its statements and accurate in terest, and were allowed by govern- its information. The topics which it ment, £4000 additional in name of embraces, besides those to which we house expenses. The detail of the have already adverted, are the “ ad. transactions of the bank, to the year vantages resulting from the use of
184 Analytical Notices.- Encyclopædia Britannica-Supplement.. [May paper in place of specie; country maxim of ancient philosophy, that nabanks in Britain; system of banking ture abhors a vacuum ; and to this in Britain ; mode of settling the daily abhorrence were ascribed all the eftransactions of the banks in London ; fects which result from atmospherical disadvantages incident to a currency pressure. An incident, apparently triof paper; policy to be adopted by the vial, first led to the refutation of that Bank of England in a disordered state absurd opinion. Some artisans in the of the circulation ; dangers to which service of the Grand Duke of Tusbanks of circulation are exposed ; in- cany, having been employed to conterruption of credit in 1793 and 1797; struct a sucking pump for a very deep suspension of cash payments by the well, were surprised to find, that in Bank of England, and reasons for con- spite of all their care in constructing tinuing that suspension; chartered the pump, they could not raise the banks of Scotland ;* Bank of Ireland; water higher than 32 feet. For an exand Bank of France.
planation of this perplexing fact they Of the article on BANKS FOR Sav- applied to Galileo, whose ingenuity had INGS we forbear to say any thing at already prepared a complete revolution present, as the merits of that article in science. Galileo had, by some inhave already been adverted to in our teresting experiments, obtained a tolformer Number, and we believe the erably correct notion of the weight of subject will soon be resumed.
air; but the horror of a vacuum was In the account of the BARBARY an established principle, which he had STATES, which our limits allow us not the boldness to question ; and he merely to mention, there is some re endeavoured to explain this seeming cent and curious information, particu- anomaly, by supposing the influence larly with regard to the condition of of the horror to be confined within Christian slaves.
certain limits, not exceeding the presTo the article BAROMETER our at sure of a column of water 32 feet in tention must be more particularly di- height. He was dissatisfied with his rected. The able writer of this article, own explanation ; instituted an exbeginning with a concise and elegant periment which brought him almost summary of the opinions of the ancients within sight of the truth; and com, concerning the system of the material municating his doubts and his conjecworld, and shewing how the mutual tures to his disciple Toricelli, led him opposition of the academicians and pe into the tract of more successful exripatetics discouraged the application periment. of mathematical reasoning in physical The celebrated experiment of Toriresearch, then proceeds to trace the pro- celli, and the still more decisive expegress of experimental science from the riments of Pascal, one of the finest and wild but beneficial projects of the al- most original geniuses that France ever chemists, through the more sober and produced, at length exploded, though regular steps which have raised her to not without a violent struggle, the long her present commanding elevation. received maxim of the abhorrence of a In this enlightened survey, he is led vacuum; and proved, with the evito mention some of the most curious dence of demonstration, the pressure and instructive facts in the history of of the atmosphere.--" On the whole," knowledge and of the human mind.- says the quihor of a well-written article It is well known how much, after the on the same subject, in the Edinburgh restoration of letters, a reverence for Encyclopædia, " the history of this reantiquity, and particularly for the te- search affords a signal instance of the nets of Aristotle, repressed the ardour slow and gradual progress of human of philosophical adventure. It was a knowledge. Galileo proved that the air
was possessed of weight ; Toricelli
conjectured that this fluid caused the • There are at present in our metropolis ascent of water in pumps, as well as three banks incorporated by charter; name the suspension of mercury in the tube, ly, the Bank of Scotland, established by act of Parliament in 1695; the Royal Bank of converted this conjecture into a de
which bears his name; and Pascal Scotland, established by royal charter in 1727 ; and the British Linen Company, far beyond our limits, by the interest
monstration."-We have been led so originally incorporated in 1746, with a capital of £100,000, for the encouragement ing nature of these facts, that we of the linen manufacture.
can barely mention the other subjects
1817.) Analytical Notices.-Encyclopædia Britannica.-Supplement. 185 which this article embraces. An ac As a sequel to the article BAROMEcount is given of the invention of the Ter, we have, from the same pen, a air pump, by Güricke of Magdeburg, paper on BAROMETRICAL MEASUREabout the middle of the seventeenth
The decisive experiment by century, -of his statical balance and which Pascal ascertained that the presanemoscope: the introduction of ex sure of the atmosphere diminished acperimental science into England, and cording to its elevation, naturally sugthe institution of the Royal Society, gested to him the possibility of meaare next related ; this naturally leads suring by the barometer the relative to the mention of some of its most ce- heights of distant places on the surlebrated members, as Boyle and Hook, face of the globe. The first attempts, the latter of whom greatly improved however, were rude, as they proceedthe form of the air pump ; next come ed on the inaccurate supposition that the experiments of Huygens, who, the lower mass of air is a fuid of unifrom the suspension of mercury in a form density. We regret that our glass tube exhausted of air, was led to limits prevent us from accompanying infer the existence of a more subtile Mr Leslie in tracing the successive fluid, which he called æther : the cis- steps by which the instruments and tern barometer is then described ; after the rules employed in barometrical which are detailed the various con measurement have attained their pretrivances for enlarging the scale of the sent state of perfection. One interestvariations of the barometer ;-first in ing discovery, however, lately made order is the barometer of Descartes ; by this mode of distant levelling, we then the double barometer of Huy- must, in justice to our readers, mengens, the advantages and disadvan- tion. Two Prussian travellers, Engaltages of which are pointed out; next, horde and Parrot, who proceeded, on the more accurate double barometer, the 13th July 1814, from the mouth of and the wheel barometer of Dr Hook; the Kuban, on the Black Sea, to the the inclined barometer, ascribed to Sir mouth of the Terek, on the Caspian, Samuel Moreland ; the square baro- ascertained, by a series of fifty-one acmeter of Cassini and Bernoulli; the curate observations, that the Caspian conical barometer of Amontons; the is 334 English feet below the level of sectoral barometer proposed by Ma- the ocean ; and that, at the distance gellan ; the adaptation of the differen- of 189 miles from the Caspian, the tial scale for measuring minute divi- country is depressed to the level of sions, first proposed by Vernier, early the ocean-thus leaving an immense in the seventeenth century, but long basin, from which the waters are supafterwards strangely neglected ;-the posed to have retired by a subterranearticle next proceeds to mention the ous percolation. circumstances which influence the va In the article Bathing, the mediriations of the barometer, viz. the effect cal and physical effects of the various of moisture within the barometric kinds of baths, in various circumtube,—the effect of the width of the stances, as determined by the obsertube-the uniform convexity of the vations of Wright, Currie, Seguin, surface of pure mercury in properly Parr, Haygarth, Fourcroy, Marcard, constructed barometers, the quantity and other able physicians, are minuteof depression in different tubes,-the ly and accurately detailed. application of a leather bag to the sy The article BEAUTY we opened with phon barometer,—the effect of heat on peculiar interest; and though we are: the barometer, which leads to an ac very far from agreeing to the theory count of the successive improvements proposed, and the reasoning by which of the thermometer; marine barome- that theory is supported, we are ready ters are next described, the most ap- to do full homage to the abilities disproved kind of which, manufactured by played in the discussion. We cannot Mr Cary of London, is illustrated by a say, however, that we greatly adınire figure, in a well executed plate the the style in which the article is comdifficulty of explaining the variations posed. It is distinguished, indeed, by of the barometer are adverted to, and great vigour of conception, and by a some hints are thrown out relative to command of language almost peculiar these causes. On the whole, we think to its celebrated author ; but the vehethis a very able article, though, per- mence of its tone, and the dogmatical haps, a litile too discursive.
confidence of its assertions, rernind us VOL. I.
more of the manner of a pleader at wonderful ingenuity; whereas their exthe bar, anxious at all events to make pedients are few, obvious, and coarse. good his cause, than of the calm and of the methods proposed for supdispassionate style of a philosophical pressing begging, there seems to be inquirer- of which Mr Alison and Mr none so deserving of approbation as the Stewart, in their treatises on the same scheme of the society at Edinburgh for subject, had given so pleasing speci- that laudable purpose. Nothing can be
We shall not at present at more judicious than the principles on tempt any analysis of the contents of which the society proceeds; and their this article, as we hope soon to have exertions have met with the success to a communication on the subject from which they are so well entitled. It is a correspondent.
objected to their plan, by the writer of Under the article Bee, the many this article, that it is not calculated curious and interesting facts relative for permanent or general use. Let to the physiology and economy of their example be generally followed, these remarkable insects, which have and there can be little doubt that it been discovered by the researches of will be found generally beneficial. Swammerdam, Maraldi, Reaumur, The article on BENEFIT SOCIETIES Schirach, and Huber, are detailed in proceed from the same pen, and is a clear and systematic manner : but as marked by the same prepossessions as these facts are now so generally known, the article on Banks for Savings. It we think it unnecessary to give any is unnecessary, therefore, to say any analysis of the article.
thing of it at present, as another opBeggar is the next subject that portunity will offer of examining the claims our attention. The informa- doctrines and the principles which it tion contained in this article is chiefly contains. drawn from the report of a committee Besides the articles to which we of the House of Commons, appointed, have already adverted, this part of the in 1815, to inquire into the state of Encyclopædia contains some good biomendicity in the metropolis. Beggars graphical sketches of Joel Barlow, are classed into those who beg from Barry, Barthez, Basedow, Beattie, necessity, and those who beg from Beaumarchais, Beccaria, Beckmann, choice. With regard to the relative and Beddoes. numbers of these classes, the information of the committee was quite con
EDINBURGH ENCYCLOPÆDIA, Vol. tradictory. Two of the witnesses exa
XI. Part I. mined, whose experience was equal or superior to that of all the rest taken Two different plans have been adopttogether, asserted, that a proportion as ed by the editors of Encyclopædias, large as one half were beggars from which may be distinguished by the epinecessity, and some of them extremely thets of alphabetical and scientific. In worthy objects of compassion ; while the Cyclopædia edited by Dr Rees, there others asserted, that all beggars, with is indeed a vast treasure of valuable hardly, any exception, were beggars knowledge ; but the plan of that work from choice. One fact, extremely hon- appears to us, in several respects, esourable to the working part of the sentially faulty. One grand objection community, seems to be well ascer to it is its extent, which places it far tained. Of the journeymen in the out of the reach of ordinary readers ; metropolis, no one is ever known to another objection, the consequence, beg, though thousands of them, in indeed, of the former, is the enormous the fluctuations of trade, have been length of most of the articles, which, reduced to the most cruel privations; instead of being compendious treatises, and not a few of them actually starve are prolix and ill digested compilaunpitied and unknown! The number tions, apparently intended to contain of beggars in the metropolis the com- every thing that seems to bear, howmittee have been unable to ascertain ; ever remotely, on the subject ; but a but it appears to be certain that it is still more important objection is the gradually diminishing. Of the decep- want of unity, occasioned by dividing tions practised by beggars very erro- a subject into separate departments, neous notions have been entertained. which are discussed in different, and In the number and variety of their con- often distant, parts of the work. The trivances they are supposed to exercise Edinburgh Encyclopædia, on the other