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REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Private Memoirs, which, with the Work influence, but from the difficulty of , of M. Hue, and the Journal of Clery, maintaining them amidst the innucomplete the History of the Captivity merable facilities afforded to vice, by. of the Royal Family of France in the obsequiousness and flattery of serthe Temple. Translated from the vile dependents. Their happiness apa French, with Notes by the Trans- pears so far above all ordinary compelator ; 12mo, pp. 138. London, tition, that we view it without envy; Murray; Edinburgh, Blackwood. and over their miseries, perpetually
contrasted in our minds with the THERE is something interesting even brighter aspect of their lot, we shed a in the title of this little publication. tear of unmingled compassion. Sovereigns and princes are so far re Never have the best of these feelings moved from the observation of the rest been more powerfully awakened in of mankind, that public curiosity has our own breasts, than by the perusal always been directed with peculiar of this journal. Nothing, indeed, can eagerness to their private history. We be conceived more interesting than feel a very natural desire to “enter the circumstances in which it has apwithin the vail," which ceremony in- peared. It is continued to the day of the terposes between them and their sub- dauphin's death, and of course cone jects; to see them lay, aside the overa, tains much information which Clery powering lustre, which prevented our and Hue, in their journals, could not near approach and our steady gaze; and give. It is composed from notes, to observe how far they, who never ap- either made by stealth at the mopeared to our imaginations but in the ment, with pencils which the princess full meridian of felicity and of power, had found means to conceal from her approach in their retirement the level persecutors, or added immediately after of humanity, and are influenced by the her release from prison, and has therecommon motives and feelings of men, fore an air of simplicity and nature,
The memoirs of princes, therefore, which the feeling of the moment alone are always read with avidity, even could impress. It was written without though there be nothing very extra- any view to publication, and therefore, ordinary in their details. We con- represents, without disguise or concealtemplate with interest any portrait, ment, the miseries and the conduct of, which exhibits the minds of such ex the ill-fated captives. It is written alted personages without the disguise by the Orphan of the Temple, whose of court costume : we have a secret restoration to her former dignity afa pride in comparing them with our. fords some compensation for her proselves; and in observing how com. tracted sufferings; and who, by her pletely their superiority vanishes, when virtues and her heroism, has com they are viewed apart from those ex manded the admiration of the world, ternal advantages, which threw around and proved how much she had profitthem an adventitious glare.
ed in the school of affliction. This The abatement of admiration, how- interesting little work is not accomever, which such memoirs generally panied by any name, but it is avowed produce, is amply compensated by the at Paris ; and it is impossible to read better feelings which they excite. one page of it, without being con, We enter with full sympathy into the vinced that it is the genuine producjoys and sorrows to which we see royal tion of the illustrious personage to hearts
equally accessible with our own. whom it is ascribed. The familiarity into which we seem The narrative commences from the admitted with them is repaid with a 13th of August 1792, when the king proportionate degree of amity. Their and his family were committed to the faults, estimated by their temptations, Temple. They were accompanied to are scanned with a very indulgent eye; this melancholy abode by the Princess and their virtues derive additional lus- de Lamballe, of the house of Savoy, tre, not only from the extent of their widow of Louis de Bourbon, Prince of
Lamballe. Her attachment to the journal) “ the horrible man who had queen was enthusiastic. The prepare broken open the door of the king on ations for the journey to Montmedy the 20th of June 1792, and who had separated them for a time; and Ma- been near assassinating him. This dame de Lamballe sought refuge in man never left the tower, and was inEngland ; but when she heard of the defatigable in endeavouring to torment queen's recapture, no earnestness of him. One time he would sing before entreaty, or fear of danger, could pre- the whole family the Carmagnole, and vent her from rejoining her royal a thousand other horrors; again, knowfriend, whom she accompanied and ing that the queen disliked the smoke cheered during her dreadful trials, with of tobacco, he would puff it in her unequalled magnanimity and affec- face, as well as in that of the king, as tion. The unfortunate queen was not they happened to pass him." Such long permitted to enjoy the soothing were the indignities to which they conversation of this generous com were daily exposed : but the horror of panion. The tyrannical mandate of the picture is relieved by the devoted the Commune de Paris forced Madame affection of this amiable family for de Lamballe from the Temple, to ex. each other, which seemed to beguile piate the crime of her devoted attach- them of the sense of their individual ment to the royal sufferer, by a death misery---to console them for all they attended with circumstances of atroci. had lost-to support them under all ty, “ unparalleled even in the annals of they had to suffer, and to fortify them France." This barbarous event was against all they had to fear. The communicated to the unhappy family health and education of the dauphin in the Temple, in a manner which was their principal care. For the sake strongly marked the brutality of the of his health, they went every day to Revolutionists. « At three o'clock, walk in the garden, though Louis never (3d of September) just after dinner, failed to be insulted by the guards. as the king was sitting down to tric. The king taught him geography; the trac with the queen, (which he played queen, history, and to get verses by for the purpose of having an oppor- heart; and Madame Elizabeth gave tunity of saying a few words to her him little lessons in Arithmetic. But unheard by the keepers,) the most hor of the hope which mingled with these rid shouts were heard. Several offi- soothing employments they were soon cers of the guard and of the munici- to be deprived. On the 22d of Seppality now arrived the former insist- tember the republic was proclaimed ; ed that the king should shew himself and one evening in the beginning of at the windows ; fortunately the latter October, the king, after he had supopposed it; but, on his majesty's ask ped, was told to stop; that he was not ing what was the matter, a young offi- to return to his former apartments; and cer of the guard replied: “Well, since that he was to be separated from his you will know, it is the head of Ma- family. At this dreadful sentence the dame de Lamballe that they wish to queen lost her usual courage ; and the show you.” At these words the queen officers were so much alarmed by her was overcome with horror ;-it was the silent and concentrated sorrow, that only occasion in which her firmness they allowed her and the other prinabandoned her. The noise lasted till cesses to see the king, but at meal times five o'clock. The prisoners learned only, and on condition that they should that the people had wished to force the speak loud, and in good French. At door, and that the municipal officers length, on the 11th of December, the had been enabled to prevent it only by king was summoned to the bar of the putting across it a tricoloured scarf, and Convention. The anxiety of his faby allowing six of the murderers to mily during his absence may be easily march round the tower with the head conceived. The queen, to discover of the princess, leaving at the door her what was going on, condescended for body, which they would have dragged the first time to question the officers
also. When this deputation enter- who guarded her-but they would tell ed, Rocher (the gaoler) shouted for her nothing. On his return in the joy, and brutally insulted a young wo- evening, she requested to see him inman, who turned sick with horror at stantly, but received no answer. Next this spectacle.'-This Rocher was (to day she repeated her request to see the adopt again the emphatic words of the king, and to read the newspapers, that.
she might learn the course of the trial, and Madame Royale dressed the child, or if that should be refused, that the for his poor mother had no longer children at least might be permitted to strength for any thing. Nevertheless, see his majesty. The newspapers were when he was dressed, she took him refused; but the children were allow- and delivered him into the hands of ed to see their father, on condition of the officers, bathing him with her being separated entirely from their tears, foreseeing, possibly, that she was mother. To this privation, however, never to see him again. the king was too generous to expose The only pleasure the queen now enher.
joyed was, seeing her child through a The circumstances immediately pre chink as he passed from his room to the ceding and attending the execution of tower : at this chink she used to watch the unhappy monarch are known to for hours together. The barbarity all:-we cannot deny ourselves the with which the dauphin was treated satisfaction of transcribing the tribute has no parallel. He was committed paid by his daughter to the greatness to a man of the name of Simon, a of his conduct during his rigorous cape shoemaker by trade, then one of the tivity. During his confinement, he municipal officers. To this inhuman displayed the highest piety, greatness wretch, the boy's crying at being seof mind, and goodness;
-mildness, parated from his family, appeared an fortitude, and patience, in bearing the unpardonable crime and he soon immost infamous insults, the most hor- pressed him with such terror that he rid and malignant calumnies ; chris- did not dare to weep. Simon, .to intian clemency, which forgave even his sult the miseries of the unhappy sufmurderers; and the love of God, his ferers through the voice of this belovfamily, and his people, of which he ed child, made him every day sing at gave the most affecting proofs, even the windows the Carmagnole, and other with his last breath, and of which he revolutionary songs; and taught him went to receive the reward in the bo- the most horrid oaths and imprecasom of his Almighty and all-merciful rions against God, his own family, and Creator.”
the aristocrats. “ The queen fortunAfter the death of Louis, the perse- ately was ignorant of these horrors. cutions of his family became every day She was gone before thechild had learnmore rigorous. A decree the Com- ed his infamous lesson. It was an inmune, that the dauphin should be se- fliction which the mercy of Heaven parated from his mother and the prin- was pleased to spare
her." While this cesses, gave rise to a scene of affliction, unfortunate boy remained under the which is described with the most care of Simon, his bed had not been stirtouching simplicity.
red for six months, and was alive with “ As soon as the young prince heard bugs, and vermin still more disgusting. this sentence pronounced, he threw His linen and his person were covered himself into the arms of his mother, with them. For more than a year he and entreated, with violent cries, not had no change of shirt or stockings ! to be taken from her. The unhappy every kind of filth was allowed to acqueen was stricken to the earth by cumulate about him, and in his room. this cruel order. She would not part His window, which was locked as well with her son ; and she actually de as grated, was never opened, and the fended, against the efforts of the offi- infectious smell of this horrid room cers, the bed in which she had placed was dreadful. He never asked for any him. But these men would have him, thing, so great was his dread of Simon and threatened to call up the guard and his other keepers. He passed his and use violence. The queen exclaim- days without any kind of occupation. ed, that they had better kill her than They did not even allow him light in tear her child from her. An hour was the evening. This situation affected spent in resistance on her part, in his mind as well as his body, and it is threats and insults from the officers, not surprising that he should have in prayers and tears on the part of the fallen into the most frightful atrophy. two other princesses. At last they But we must forbear to indulge farthreatened even the life of the child, ther in these melancholy details, earand the queen's maternal tenderness nestly recommending to our readers at length forced her to this sacrifice. the perusal of the journal itself. The Madame Elizabeth (the king's sister), queen and Madame Elizabeth, a prin.
cess distinguished by her virtues and found very useful to those who are not piety, were successively dragged from intimately acquainted with the early the Temple to the Conciergerie, and history of the French revolution. thence to the scaffold.-The dauphin, though originally of a vigorous constitution, fell a victim, at the age of On the Principles of Political
and Taxation. By David RICARDO, ten years and two months, to the studied barbarity of his treatment.
Esq. Murray, London ; Blackwood, We have to regret that these me
Edinburgh. 8vo. 1817. moirs are not continued after the dau. The science of political Economy owes phin's death, though Madame Royale its rise to the eighteenth century. (now the Duchess of Angouleme) re- Many facts, and several of the prinmained in the Temple six months after ciples which now enter into treatises that event, exposed alone to the perse on that subject, had been previously cutions and insults of her enemies. ascertained, but it was reserved for She was released on the 11th of De- Stuart, Turgot, Smith, and other emicember, the seventeenth anniversary nent men of the last age, to combine of her birth, to experience vicissitudes them into one consistent and harmono less wonderful, though happier in nious whole, and to analyze, in a much their issue, than those through which more accurate manner than had ever she had already passed.
been done before, the sources of wealth, Whatever opinion may be entertain, and the laws which regulate its distried of the principles which led to the bution among the different classes of revolution in France, no diversity of society. Since the publication of the sentiment can prevail with regard to Wealth of Nations, political economy the atrocities of the Revolutionists. It has been greatly improved. That will ever remain a problem in the his- great work, by shewing its infinite tory of mankind, that a people dis- importance to our best interests,-by tinguished by their refinement, should proving that no legislative measures have become all at once equally dis- could be adopted clashing with its tinguished by their barbarity ;-that a principles, but what must be vitally people almost singular in their attach- injurious to the community at large, ment to monarchy, should, under the -and by successfully exposing many reign of the best of their monarchs, absurd theories, enactments, and prachave forgotten their loyalty and alle tices, hitherto looked upon as the acgiance ; and, in the wildness of repub- mè of genius and wisdom, contributed lican frenzy, have sought to annihilate in a very high degree to draw public every thing connected with a govern- attention to the science of which it ment, for which, but lately before, still continues the brightest ornament. they thought it all their glory to live More lately, the profound and original and to die. The poison administered inquiries of Mr Malthus have cast a by their philosophists might, perhaps, new light on many subjects, which vitiate the principles of the whole mass had either been entirely neglected, or of the community; the corrupt exam- only cursorily noticed by Dr Smith; ple of a court might have diffused while the extraordinary events of the through all ranks its pernicious influ- last twenty years have enabled us in vaence; but will these causes account rious instances, to try the deductions of for the violence of their revolutionary theory by the touchstone of experifury, unless we suppose, that the force ence. The suspension of cash payof the revulsion, which burst asunder ments at the bank of England, with all their former political associations, the subsequent depreciation of our tore up at the same time all the good currency, and derangement of the exprinciples of their nature, and drove changes, rendered us much better acthem from the excess of admiration quainted with the theory of banking and devotion, to the opposite extreme and money. And amid all the com, of contempt and hatred?
plicated evils arising from our general The translation, conducted on the factitious system,
-the orders in counmost correct ideas, combines, very suc- cil, the corn laws, and such like meacessfully, the simplicity of the original sures, have at least served to bring with the purest English idiom. The under our view a variety of unprecetranslator has occasionally elucidated dented phenomena in economics, and the text with notes, which will be by interesting the public, and giving
rise to much animated discussion, have objects of desire, are procured by labour ; conspired to disseminate and improve and they may be multiplied, not in one the science.
country alone, but in many, almost without Among the writers who have signal- any assignable limit, if we are disposed to ized themselves in these discussions,
bestow the labour necessary to obtain them. Mr Ricardo holds a distinguished place. their exchangeable
value, and of the laws
" In speaking then of commodities, of - His Essay on the “ High Price of which regulate their relative prices, we mean Bullion,” first clearly pointed out the always such commodities only as can be incircumstances regulating the amount creased in quantity by the exertion of human of circulating medium in all commer- industry, and on the production of which cial countries; and his Essays “ On competition operates without restraint." the Profits of Stock," and on “ Cur In the early stages of society, the rency," develope principles of the ut- exchangeable value of these commodimost importance, and abound in views ties, or the rule which determines how equally just, novel, and ingenious. much of one shall be given in exchange Such being the case, a more than or- for another, depends solely on the comdinary interest must be excited by parative quantity of labour expended the appearance of the work before on each. us, in which this able economist has “ The real price of every thing," explained his opinions respecting some says Dr Smith, “what every thing of the fundamental doctrines of the sci- really costs to the man who wants to ence, and in which, as it appears to us, acquire it, is the toil and trouble of he has established some highly impor- acquiring it. What every thing is realtant principles, and rectified many pre- ly worth to the man who has acquired vailing errors.
it, and who wants to dispose of it, or Nothing has contributed in a greater exchange it for something else, is the degree to perplex and confuse the in- toil and trouble which it can save to vestigations respecting the principles of himself, and which it can impose on political economy, than the confound- other people. *** If, among a nation ing together of what Dr Smith has of hunters, for example, it usually cost termed value in use, and value in ex twice the labour to kill a beaver which change. Air is extremely useful ; it is it does to kill a deer, one beaver should not possible to exist without it; but as naturally exchange for, or be worth, it can be had at pleasure, as all can ac two deer. It is natural, that what is quire it without any exertion, it has no usually the produce of two days', or exchangeable value. Utility, then, as two hours' labour, should be worth Mr Ricardo has observed, is not the double of what is usually the produce measure of exchangeable value, ale of one day's or one hour's labour.” though it is absolutely essential to it. That this is the only real foundation If a commodity were in no way use of exchangeable value seems indisputaful,-in other words, if it could in no ble; and hence it follows, that every way contribute to our gratification, increase in the quantity of labour must it would be destitute of exchangeable augment the value of that commodity value, however scarce it might be, or on which it is necessarily expended, as whatever quantity of labour might be every diminution of that quantity must necessary to procure it.
proportionally lower its value. “ Possessing utility, commodities derive
It may perhaps be thought, that altheir exchangeable values from two sources: though this is the case in early stages from their scarcity, and from the quantity of society, in an advanced state it of labour required to obtain them.
“There are some commodities, the value would be different; but Mr Ricardo of which is determined by their scarcity a
has shewn that, in all cases, commodilone. No labour can increase the quantity ties vary in value conformably to this of such goods, and therefore their value principle. It is of no consequence cannot be lowered by an increased supply. ainong how many hands the labour of
Their value is wholly independent of the making a pair of stockings is divided. quantity of labour originally necessary to produce them, and varies with the varying whole either diminished or increased,
If the aggregate quantity is on the wealth and inclinations of those who are de- the exchangeable value of the stocksirous to possess them. “ These commodities, however, form a
ings will fall or rise in proportion. very small part of the mass of commodities
From what we have already stated, daily exchanged in the market. By far the a most important consequence, first greater part of those goods, which are the pointed out by Mr Ricardo, necessarily