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ED PRINTING PRESS.

zie, daughter to Rorie M‘Kenzie of ye impleyment he had, and of guhata Davoch-maluack. His first patrimonie ever fell to his hand, he conqueist to was his sword and bow, quherewith himself a resonable estate, quhilk he he did such worthie service, that he dailie augmented during the rest of conqueist first the love of his chieffe his worthie dayes. He married to his and broyer, the lard of Kintail, wyt first wife Annabel M-Kenzie, daughter the love of all his countreymen, so as to Murdo MŠKenzie of Pairburn, and his broyer made choise of him to be relich,” &c. &c. &c. his mareschall of all his armie in all The place was not hereditary ; at ye wares he had wyt Glengarrie and least the historian, himself a male deM'Leod of the Lewis. He commande scendant and grandson of the marshal, ed sexscore of the prettiest men that does not affirm that it was ever again ware in his broyer's armie, and especi- held by any of his kindred. allie the Clanwurchie were under his

(To be continued.) command, quho served him as under officers to discharge the dutie of mari- ACCOUNT OF MR RUTHVEN'S IMPROVschall. His dutie wes, that in ye armies marching to ye enemies land, he As one of the objects of this Magazine should still guard the riar; and as the is to disseminate usef: I knowledge, we ármie rested in ther camp, he still went cannot attain the end in view with in expeditiones to bring them hership* better effect than by giving some acand provision, quhilk herschips were count of a most important improvedistributed as he liked, with the con- ment in the mechanical part of printsent of the superior. His own pert of ing, by Mr John Ruthven, printer, of the hership was ilk cow quhose ear wes this place. This very ingenious melonger then hir horn, ilk black cow that chanician, having diligently studied his had not a white spott in her bodie, ilk profession for upwards of twenty years, white cow that had not a black spott in observed that there were numerous deher bodie, and ilk horse that wes wyt in fects in the construction of the printthree years ;

and his under officers ing presses commonly employed, the had all the hedes of all the cowes that principle of which is unaltered from were killed in the camp. But some- the time of the invention of printing. times he destributed his part of the The excessive and dangerous labour herships amongst the best deshervin occasioned to the workmen, and the of the shouldiers, quhilk made the very imperfect adaptation of the press shouldiers so desperat quich were un- to many purposes, were the most obder his command, that they resolved vious defects; to remedy which, by ayer to die or be victorious quhenever any improvement of the original mathey ingadged. He had power to fine chine, Mr Ruthven found, after diliall the shouldiers that did not goe gent study, to be quite impracticable ; right in their cloathes and armes, and he therefore resolved on attempting wytall to decern all the contravershies; something new; and, after much laquhilk place he managed so fortunatlie, bour, he has succeeded in producing that he was sent in all expeditiounes, not only a highly useful press, but in and in everie expeditioune he was vic- giving a most beautiful application of torious. His good service gott him à combination of levers, for the prothe reall affectioune of his broyer, so duction of parallel motion, with a dethat his broyer, in his death-bed, left gree of power hitherto unequalled. him his own sword, quhilk was the For the better understanding of the gretest merit a kinsman could haive, account we propose to give, it will be to haive the sword of such a brave con- well to premise a few observations on queror, as a testimonie of faithfull ser

the printing-press commonly used. vice.”

The screw has hitherto been the The situation appears to have been power employed to produce pressure, lucrative ; for he adds, “ Ane estate while the types were placed on a movefrom his broyer he needed not; ffor able carriage, which was moved, after befor his broyer's death, by h... on the ink had been applied, under the prudent managment of ye benefii ukeld.

le for pressing. In consequence

e power has always been li• “ Herschip, Heirschip, Heiriscip, the mited- ne radius of the lever which act of plundering, devastation.Booty, moves the screw being confined. It prey, &c.” Jamieson.

is also a consequence, that not more

of ti

than one half of a large sheet could be put on in the usual manner on the tymprinted at one descent of the screw. pan, a, (fig. 1.) and secured by the frisket, A most serious evil results from this, b. On turning over the tympans thus especially in printing duodecimo, be arranged, the platen, N (fig. 2.)-supcause the pressure necessarily is ap- ported by the wheels, QQ,-is drawn plied twice to the centre pages of each over the coffin by the handle, U, till the sheet, while it is applied only once to lower parts of the screw bolts, MM, be the other pages.

To these disadvan- fully secured in the clutches, LL (fig. tages may be added, the difficulty of 2.); the lever or handle, A, is then turnascertaining and regulating the degree ed over in the front of the press till stopof pressure; the irregularity of the ped, when it will be nearly in a horimotion of the lever; the severe labour, zontal position. It is then restored to and excessive exertion of the work- its original situation, the platen pushman ; the nice accuracy in placing the ed back, the tympans raised, and the types under the centre ;-there being printing is completed. The mode in no difference, in point of trouble and which this movement is produced is labour, in printing a card and a folio; concealed by the check, R. -and the necessity for placing small The action which takes place in the work always in the same spot, which above-described process will be best necessarily wears out one part sooner understood by a reference to, and exthan the others. In obviating these amination of, the section, fig. 2. The defects, Mr Ruthven has completely platen is in this represented in its succeeded ;-and after giving some ac- proper situation over the types. The count of the construction of the new parts of the external structure have printing press, we shall point out the been already sufficiently explained; it superior excellencies of it as briefly as only remains to point out those which possible.

are exposed in the section. Beneath The general appearance of the large the tablet, P, and immediately behind press is well represented in fig. 1. ; of the check, R, are the levers, Í I, haywhich fig. 2. is a complete section. In ing their fulcra at KK; to which are this press the types are placed on a sta- attached the clutches, L L, communi. tionary coffin or tablet, P; the paper is cating as above mentioned with MM;

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the motion to which is given by the which first solicited Mr Ruthven's atbolt, H, forming a point of union be- tention.-1st, In the new patent press tween the levers, I I. When their the types remain stationary. 2d, The ends are depressed by means of the platen is the size of the whole sheet. crank, EGF, which is moved by the 3d, Time is saved by its being brought handle, A, communicating to the over from the side. 4th, There is crank, BC, and the connecting rod, nearly half an inch between the tymD, the platen or upper surface, N, is pans and the platen while passing over forcibly drawn down upon the types. the types, by which all blurring is a

To maintain the relative position of voided. 5th, Any degree of pressure the several levers, the balance-weight, (from an ounce to twenty tons) may S, is applied. TTT is the frame-work be correctly and uniformly given at supporting the whole of the machinery. pleasure. 6th, The platen being

Such is as minute an account of Mr drawn down by the two ends, and the Ruthven's printing press as is neces- resistance sustained against the under sary for general information. It is surface of the tablet, affords the most here proper to state some of the points complete and uniform security to all of superiority which it has, very de- the parts; while, contrary to every cidedly, over all other contrivances of other example known to us of the apthe same kind. These may be very plication of pressure, the frame is briefly detailed, as we have already wholly independent of, and unaffected pointed out the most glaring defects by, the force employed. 7th, As complete parallelism between the two sur- Nothing can be more conducive to faces (vize of the platen and coffin) is the promotion of the arts than publicimaintained by means of the two screws, ty, which may be greatly accelerated 0 0, so a small piece of work may be through the medium of your publicadone at either end without a support- tion, by the admission of discussions ing block at the opposite extremity. on the works of ancient and modern 8th, This press being entirely unat- artists, explanations of their mødes of tached, requires no levelling or stay, representation, or descriptions of the ing ; and one for demy royal requires implements or apparatus used by them a space of only forty-two inches square, for that purpose. To those desirous 9th, The motions of the pressmen, of information, you may thus furnish though less severe, are sufficiently sic facilities of acquiring it; and to those milar to enable him, in the course of willing to communicate the result of one or two hours, to work with equal their experience, a reputable and easy facility as at the common press. 10th, channel to publicity. To the inexThe principles above described are e perienced, nothing is more discouragqually applicable to presses of all sizes. ing than the difficulty with which Fig. 3. represents one of the size of a practical information is to be obtained, cubic foot, which is capable of printing with regard to the composition or off an octavo page with greater celerity management of the substances or imthan a larger press, and

may be works plements to be employed in the arts ed on a common table without being in general. With this view, and fixed. The advantages of foolscap- trusting to a coincidence of opinion on presses of this construction will be your part, I beg leave to request the found very important.

insertion of the following article on An ingenious application of the prin- LITHOGRAPHY, or the art of engravciples of this press has been made to ing on stone, which I hope may be copying manuscripts; for that pur- the means of calling forth other compose (although it may with perfect ef- munications, either on the practice or fect be done with the small printing criticism of the fine arts. presses) Mr Ruthven bas contrived the This art has been long and successpress represented in fig. 4. which is fully practised on the Continent, and made without the printing apparatus, we believe Germany has the honour and having, instead of the clutches, of its invention. It was introduced permanent pillars to connect the unper into this country by a person of the surface with the levers. The paral- name of Andrè about fifteen years lelism of the two surfaces is regulated ago, who attempted the publication of by two graduated scales and indices at a periodical work, containing specieach end, as may be seen in the an- mens of it by some of the most eminexed figure.

nent artists in London, but which has We are persuaded, that when, in been discontinued. It was also used addition to the excellencies already in the Quarter-Master General's office, described, the extreme simplicity of for the purpose of printing military the new patent press, and its little lia- plans, &c. In this country, however, bility to derangement, are taken into it has never reached that state of perconsideration, it will in a short time fection to which it has arrived on the supersede every other printing ma- Continent, as may be seen by a comchinery that has hitherto been in use. parison of the works of Spix on cra

M. niology (in the college library), Al

bert Durer's Missal, and the Bavarian Flora ; all of which are printed at

Munich, and also the Flora Monacens MR EDITOR,

sis, and the last number of the JourThe increasing taste for the fine nal des Scavans; and these also furarts in this great literary capital, and nish a proof of what may yet be done the pretty eager attention now paid to in the detail of this extraordinary inthem by the public in general, inspire vention. a hope that you will allot a place in The great advantages which this your Magazine for so interesting a de- art possesses over every other kind of partment of polite and useful know- engraving, are, first, that any person ledge.

who can draw, can also execute the

ACCOUNT OF THE METHOD OF EN

GRAVING ON STONE.

ANECDOTE OF THE HIGHLANDERS IN

engraving with the same ease with gum water and lamp black, and after which he uses the pencil on paper; it is dry, the design is drawn with the and, secondly, the circumstance of his point of an etching needle, in the same being enabled to have any number of way as on copper, cutting through the copies taken at less than half the ex- covering of gum and black, till the pense of ordinary copperplate print- surface of the stone is reached, and ing.

then rubbing the solution into the Nothing equal, it is true, to the lines or scratches. This done, it must tone, or minute elegance of the best be allowed to dry for the above menline engraving can be produced, but tioned time, and

then soaked as before an inspection of the works already in water, when the gum will dissolve, mentioned, will show how admirably leaving the lines only; upon which it is adapted to represent objects of a the printing ink is applied, as before picturesque description, natural his- explained, and the impression taken. tory, outlines, anatomical subjects, Should this plan find a place in the plans, &c. It is also applicable to the Magazine, it is proposed to give, in purpose of multiplying writings, as some of your subsequent numbers, a the subject can be written on the pre- short account of the history of the dispared paper, afterwards transferred to covery, and of the methods used in the stone, and then printed without common etching upon copper, together delay, at no further expense than the with some receipts for the preparation printing. In this way all the procla- of the grounds, &c. mations of the state at Munich are made public.

Directions. A slate of white lias (Bath stone), about one inch thick,

1745. must be made perfectly level, and polished with very fine sand. The

( Communicated by Mary LADY subject is then drawn on the stone

CLERK to the Publisher.) with a common pen, and a prepared Sir, liquid of the consistence of common ACCORDING to your request this mornink, and with the same facility ; after ing, I send you some account of the this the stone is washed over with di- particulars that attended my birth, luted nitric acid, which slightly cor- which I do with infinite pleasure, as rodes that part of the stone only which it reflects great honour on the Highhas not been drawn on with the pen. landers (to whom I always feel the The liquid is made with gum lac, dis- greatest gratitude), that at the time solved in ley of pure soda, with a little when their hearts were set on plunder, soap, and coloured with lamp black. the fear of hurting a sick lady and The liquid upon the stone, after the child instantly stopped their intentions. design is drawn, must be allowed to This incident occurred November dry for about four days, and then 15, 1745. My father, Mr D'Acre, soaked in water till perfectly saturated; then an officer in his Majesty's militia, in this state (with the water on the was a prisoner in the castle of Carlisle, surface), a common printing ball is at that time in the hands of Prince dabbed over it as in type printing. Charles. My mother (daughter of Sir This ink adheres to such parts as have George le Fleming, Bart. bishop of been drawn upon, the other parts of Carlisle) was living at Rose-Castle, six the stone being wet, repel the printing miles from Carlisle, where she was de ink; the impression is then taken, by livered of me.--She had given orders passing it through a press with a single that I should immediately

be privately cylinder. When the print is wished baptized by the bishop's chaplain (his to resemble a chalk drawing, the stone lordship not being at home), by the is left rather rough, by using a coarser name of Rosemary D’Acre. At that sand to polish it; and instead of the moment a company of Highlanders ink and pen being used, a crayon made appeared, headed by a Captain Macof the same materials (only with a donald ; who, having heard there was larger quantity of the lamp black) is much plate and valuables in the castle, applied in the same manner as a pencil. came to plunder it. Upon the apa There is another method by which it proach of the Highlanders, an old may be done, namely, by covering the gray-headed servant ran out, and en. stone over with a thin mixture of treated Captain Macdonald not to proVOL. I.

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