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EXPLORATIONS AND DISCOVERIES

DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

BEING DETAILED ACCOUNTS OF THE

SEVERAL EXPEDITIONS TO THE NORTH SEAS,

BOTH ENGLISH AND AMERICAN, CONDUCTED BY

ROSS, PARRY, BACK, FRANKLIN, M'CLURE, DR, KANE, AND OTHERS,

INCLUDING THE LONG AND FRUITLESS

EFFORTS AND FAILURES

IN

SEARCH OF SIR JOHN FRANKLIN.

EDITED AND COMPLETED TO 1855.

BY

SAMUEL M. SMUCKER, A. M.,

AUTHOR OF "COURT AND REIGN OF CATHERINE II," NICHOLAS 1," ", MEM-
ORABLE SCENES IN FRENCH HISTORY," "HISTORY OF THE MORMONS," ETC.

WITH A CONTINUATION TO THE YEAR 1886.

BY WM. L. ALLISON.

NEW YORK :

WILLIAM L. ALLISON CO.

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Book den 5-24-45

52570

PUBLISHER'S PREFACE.

In offering this account of Arctic explorations to the public in a new form, and with the narrative continued from 1857, where Dr. SMUCKER left off, down to the year 1886, the publisher aims to present a history of discoveries in the Ice Zones during the present century more complete and interesting to the general reader than any other that can be found in a single volume. Although the literature of Arctic adventure would form a library in itself, yet there is no other book which presents a continuous narrative of the various expeditions, from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present time, and the voluminous works which have been published by the different explorers cover detached periods and single expeditions, beside being drawn out to undue length by the personal experience or interests of the writers. It is believed that this compendious narrative gives all needful details, and omits no important discovery in the ice-belts -while no individual adventurer or commander is exalted at the expense of his forerunners or compeers.

The disasters which overtook so many explorers, especially the parties of De Long and GREELEY, led to the abandonment of the International Signal Stations established in concert by most civilized nations, and no scientific circumpolar expeditions have been recently sent out. Except the projected journey of Col. GILDER announced in the last pages of this volume the only efforts which have been made within the last two years, or which appear to be in contemplation, to add to our knowledge of the Arctic regions, are the following:

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