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plot of ground granted by his late Majesty. There are also, nearly one hundred appointed receiving houses (chiefly publicans), in the metropolis and its surrounding vicinity.
ST. JAMES'S PALACE.
THE site of St. James's Palace was originally occupied by an Hospital, founded by some Citizens of London, and dedicated to St. James, for the reception of "fourteen Sisters, Maidens, that were leprous, living chastely and honestly in Divine Service."* The precise period of its foundation is involved in great obscurity; but there is much reason to believe that it was erected prior to the Norman conquest; and we find that it was visited in the year 1100, by Gislebert, Abbot of St. Peter's, Westminster. This visitation was most probably grounded on the Abbot's claim to the original endowments of the Hospital, which consisted of two hides of land, with their appurtenances, in the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster, that were held of the Abbots of Westminster. At a subsequent period,
Strype's Stow, vol. ii. p. 578; edit. 1755.
In the reign of Edward the Third, Abbot Henley had a long contest with the King's Treasurer respecting this right. In the course of ages, St. James's Hospital had been visited by several different Abbots; but as some of them were Treasurers to the King, it was now contended, that those visitations had been made in that character, and not in right of their abbatial dignity. Henley, on the contrary, affirmed that several Abbots who had not been Treasurers, and in particular, bis immediate predecessor, had visited there, and had made regulations, corrected abuses, and devised penance for offenders. As this dispute could
other lands, to the yearly value of £56, were also given by the Citizens; in consequence of which, a Brotherhood of six chaplains and two laymen was annexed to this Hospital, for the celebration of Divine and other services. "After this," says Stow, "sundry devout Men of London gave to this Hospital four Hides of Land in the field of Westminster; and, in Hendon, Calcote, and Hamstead, eight Acres of Land and wood," &c. In 1290, Edward the First granted the privilege of an annual Fair to this establishment, to be held on the Eve of St. James, and the six following days. It appears from Flete, that this Hospital was rebuilt by Abbot Berkynge, of Westminster, in Henry the Third's reign; and in 1450, its perpetual custody was granted by Henry the Sixth to Eton College.
The favourable situation of St. James's Hospital attracted the regard of Henry the Eighth, who, in his
not be amicably arranged, it was, at length, in June, 1342, brought before a jury, who gave a full verdict for the Abbot, on these grounds; first, that the Hospital was within the parish of St. Margaret, where the Abbots had immemorially possessed an exclusive jurisdiction, which had been confirmed to them by certain Bulls of Pope Clement the Third; and secondly, that the Abbots, and no other persons, had solely exercised every kind of visitatorial power over the said foundation. Notwithstanding this verdict, the suit was continued by the Treasurer, and was still pending, when both himself and the Abbot died. Widmore says, "an author" intimates, that the next Treasurer, William de Edyndon, Bishop of Winchester, "succeeded in depriving the Abbey of its right, through the indolence of Abbot Byrcheston."-Brayley and Neale's "History and Antiquities of the Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster," vol. i. p. 73.
23d year, anno 1532, obtained it in exchange from the above college, for Chattisham, and other lands, in Suffolk. Then dismissing its inmates, he granted pensions to the Sisterhood, and having pulled down the ancient structure, he erected a “goodly Palace” upon its site : he also formed the Park of St. James's, by inclosing the adjoining fields with a brick wall.
The architect of “ St. James's Manor House,” as it was then called, is not known ; but there is some reason to believe that it was erected under the direction of Cromwell, Earl of Essex. Holbein is also said to have furnished the plan, which is not improbable, as he certainly was engaged in some of the royal palaces, and received a salary from the crown.
Only a small part of Henry's building now remains, and that is in a purer style of architecture than any of the other designs of Holbein : in the filling-in of the spandrils of some of the arches, the Florentine (or rather the Flemish) manner is conspicuous, particularly in the chimney-piece of the Presence Chamber, the ornamented compartments over the arch of which contain Tudor badges, and the initials H. A., united by a knot: from this latter circumstance we may infer that the Palace was originally built for the reception of the unfortunate Anne Boleyn.*
In 1610, the House and Manor of St. James's, with their appurtenances, except the Park and the King's Stables at the Mews, were granted to Prince Henry, on whose lamented death, in 1612, they reverted to the crown. Various additions were made to this Palace by Charles the First, and most of his children were born in it; here, also, he formed a gallery of statues, which was principally obtained for him by Sir Kenelm Digby, from the Duke of Mantua, and from the Temple of Apollo, at Delos. During that reign, the Chapel Royal, a part of the original mansion, was fitted
* In 1529, Queen Katherine was commanded to remove from court; and in the same year, “bis Highness (the King), rode in his progress with Mistress Anne Boleyn," into Northamptonshire.
and the unfortunate monarch attended divine service in it immediately before his executio...* The Queen's Chapel, now called the German Chapel, was erected for Catharine of Braganza, in the court now called the Friery.t The first stone was laid by Don Carlos Colonna, and the Queen first heard mass there on Sunday, the 21st September, 1662, when Lady Castlemaine, though a protestant, and the King's avowed mistress, attended her as one of the maids of honor. #
* From hence, “the King,” says Whitelock, walked through the Park, guarded with a Regiment of Foot, and partizans, to Whitehall.”-Whitelock's “ Memorials,” p. 374. In juxta-position with this circumstance, it may be mentioned, that the plan of the Restoration of Charles the Second, was partly concerted at St. James's, betwe :1 Sir John Granville and General Monk.
† It derived that appellation from the Conventual Establishment founded there by the above Queen, under the direction of Cardinal Howard, ber Majesty's almoner.
# Vide Pepys's “ Diary,” vol. I, p. 312. Our author, with much naïveté, says, “ The Queene coming by in ber coach, I crowded after her, and I got up to the room where her closet is, and there stood, and saw the fine altar, ornaments, and the ryers
After the Restoration, James, Duke of York, had his residence here, which is spoken of by contemporaries as splendidly adorned; one room was embellished with pictures of the Court Beauties, by Sir Peter Lely. Here, also, he lodged on the night before his coronation, and in the morning proceeded through the Park to Whitehall.
On the 18th of December 1688, William, Prince of Orange, came to St. James's, where, three days afterwards, the Peers assembled, and the household and other officers of the abdicated sovereign laid down their badges. King William occasionally held councils here, but mostly resided at Hampton Court.
On the conflagration at Whitehall, in William the Third's reign, anno 1697, there was no place in London fit for the reception of the court, except St. James's, and, in consequence, it became the principal Palace of our succeeding monarchs. Queen Anne constantly resided here, when in town, and in her reign the palace was much enlarged. Queen Caroline, George the Second's consort, died at St. James's, in 1737. Some of the state rooms were enlarged on
in their habits, and the priests come in with their fine crosses, and many other fine things."-Ibid.
* Evelyn says, "All the world goes to see the Prince at St. James's, where there is reate Court. There I saw him: he is very stately, serious, and reserved."-Diary, vol. i, p. 660.
The fourth plate of Hogarth's "Rake's Progress," published in 1735, represents the arrest of Rakewell as he is going to Court, on the 1st of March, Queen Caroline s birth-day : the Palace of St. James is shewn in the back ground.