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sions belonging to the nobility and clergy, most of which were situated on the south side, and had large gardens extending to the water's edge.

The first of these mansions from Temple Bar, was Exeter House, an inn belonging to the Bishops of Exeter, afterwards called Paget House, and Leicester House, and finally Essex House, from being the residence of the favourite of Queen Elizabeth; under the latter appellation it has given name to the street; now built upon

the spot where it formerly stood. Between that mansion and the present Milford Lane, was a Chapel, dedicated to the Holy Ghost, called St. Spirit,

vpon what occasion founded,” says Stow, “ I have not read."*

To the west of this chapel was an Inn, belonging to the Bishop of Bath, called Hampton Place, and afterwards Arundel House, standing on the site of the present Arundel Street. Further to the westward was an Inn of Chancery, called Chester's Inn, and Strand Inn, near which the Bishop of Landaff had also an Inn. At a short distance from the latter place, was the Strand Bridge, “and vnder it,” says Stow, “a lane or way down to the landing-place on the bank of the Thames,"'* the site of which is still marked by Strand Lane. Not far from the bridge stood the Bishops of Chester's Inn (“ commonly called Lichfield and Couentrie,”t) and adjoining it the Bishop of Worcester's Inn, both of which were pulled down by the Protector Somerset in 1549, when he erected Somerset House. Opposite the Bishop of Worcester's Inn, formerly stood a stone cross, at which, says Stow,

* Stow's “ Survey,” p. 829, edit. 1618. † Ibid. p. 130, edit. 1618.


“ the justices itinerants sate without London ;'* near this spot afterwards was erected the May Pole, which was removed in 1718. The next mansion was the Palace of the Savoy, adjoining to the walls of which were the gardens of the Bishop of Carlisle's Inn, afterwards called Worcester House, now the site of Beaufort Buildings. The next in succession, was Salisbury House, which has given name to Salisbury and Cecil Streets. Proceeding onwards, and passing over Ivy Bridge, the magnificent structure of Durham House presented itself, which at one period was a royal palace. Nearly adjoining was an Inn belonging to the Bishops of Norwich, afterwards called York House, from becoming the residence of the Archbishops of York, when their former mansion at White hall was converted into a royal palace by Henry the Eighth. York Stairs, at the bottom of Buckingham Street, still marks the water-gate of the estate, which subsequently became the property of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, whose names and titles are perpetuated in the various streets, &c. built upon it. The last mansion near the village of Charing, and now the only remaining one, was called Northampton House, afterwards Suffolk House, and now Northumberland House, from being the residence of the Dukes of Northumberland.


* Stow's “ Survey,p. 130, edit. 1618.

On the north side, the Strand presented but few houses of note. Wimbledon House, on the spot lately occupied by D'Oyley's Warehouse, which had been erected by Sir Edward Cecil, was burnt down in 1628. At a little distance, westward, was Burghley House, afterwards Exeter House, and now partly occupied by Exeter Change ; on the other part, and its attached ground, were erected the several streets and alleys receiving names from the Cecil family.



DURHAM HOUSE, (with its appendages,) formerly an Inn belonging to the Bishops of Durham, occupied an extensive plot of ground, now covered by the buildings, called the Adelphi. It was erected, according to Stow, by Thomas de Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, * and Strype quotes the following entry connecting it with that prelate, from a manuscript in the Bodleian Library : “ Manerium, sive Hospitium Episcopale Londoniæ cum Capella et Cameris, sumptuosissimè construxit.” But Pennant says, that it was only rebuilt by Hatfield, and owes its original foundation to Anthony de Beck, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and Bishop of Durham in the reign of Edward the First.t In the 26th of Henry the Eighth, Tonstal, the then Bishop of Durham, exchanged this mansion with the King for another in Thames Street, called “ Cold-harborough,

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* “ He was made Bishop of the See in the year 1345, and sat Bishop there 36 years.” Strype's Stow, vol. 2. p. 576.

† Pennant's “ London,” p. 120.

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