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George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham; George Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury; and the ill-fated Duke of Monmouth : and half lengths of the Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury, and Dr. Thomas Burnet; the latter,
t which was executed by Sir Godfrey Kneller, the doctor's friend, is very highly finished.
The old Court Room claims attention, as being one of the very few apartments now remaining in London, of Queen Elizabeth's time; but the emblazonings of the armorial insignia, which formerly enlivened the stuccoed panelling of the ceiling, have been obliterated by white-wash; the Duke of Norfolk's motto, “ Sola virtus invicta,” is inscribed upon several parts of the borders. The walls are hung with tapestry, but in many places the colours are faded, almost to obliteration. Here is a stately architectural chimney-piece, the basement Tuscan, the upper part Ionic, lavishly enriched with gilding and painting on pannels, &c. containing the figures of Mars and Minerva ; Faith, Hope, and Charity; and representations of the Annunciation and Last Supper : the arms of Mr. Sutton, and of James the First, have also been introduced; but these are of a posterior age to the other parts. This room is now used only for the celebration of the Anniversary of the Foundation, which is kept on the 12th of December; on this occasion, among other joyous ditties, is always sung the old Carthusian melody, terminating in full chorus, with this verse :
« Then blessed be the memory
Of good old Thomas Sutton ;
And he gave us beef and mutton,"
Adjoining to the above room is the Library, which was founded with the collection of Daniel Wray, Esq. Deputy Teller of the Exchequer, who died in 1783, at the advanced age of eighty-two years. He left his books to be disposed of by his widow, who, knowing his attachment to the Charter House, in which he had been educated, offered them on very reasonable terms to the governors, who cheerfully purchased them. Over the fire-place is a good portrait of Mr. Wray, copied by Powell, from a picture by Dance.
The Governors of this Foundation, including the Master of the Charter House, who is always one by virtue of his office, are sixteen in number, and in them is yested the entire direction of all its concerns, of whatever kind. They form a body-corporate, and on every vacancy, another person is chosen to succeed by the majority. At present, the King is at their head, with the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and the others are some of the first noblemen in the land : all have an equal right to present scholars and pensioners in rotation. The principal Officers, are the master, preacher, master of the school, registrar and steward of the courts, receiver, auditor, reader and librarian, writing-master, physician, surgeon, apothecary, organist, manciple, and surveyor.
The entire internal economy of the establishment is vested in the Master : the manciple, or house steward, provides the diet of the hospital, for which he is “to pay in ready money."
Eighty Pensioners and forty-two Scholars are supported on this establishment. The former, according to the original statutes devised by Mr. Sutton's executors, should be “gentlemen by descent, and in poverty ; soldiers that have born arms by sea or land ; merchants decayed by piracy, or shipwreck, or servants in houshold to the King and Queen's Majesty.” these limitations were rescinded in April 1642, upon the ground that the Letters Patent of King James “ authorised the crection of the Hospital for poor, aged, maimed, needy, or impotent people in general, without any distinction whatever.”* In practice, it has been known that improper persons have occasionally been presented, and even “cast serving-men”+ have been admitted into the Institution, although very contrary to the intentions of its founder. But this last abuse was checked by a resolution of the governors, proposed about thirty years ago, by Lord Hawkesbury, (first Earl of Liverpool,) who had been a Scholar at the Charter House. Every pensioner has a separate apartment, and proper attendance : he is also amply dieted at the expense of the Hospital, and allowed twenty pounds yearly, for wearing apparel and other necessaries. By the general regulations, no person can be admitted under the age of fifty years, unless maimed in war. It is but seldom, however, that any pensioner is presented at such an early age; and an entire renovation of this class of the Hospital inhabitants is averaged to take place in every ten or twelve years. Every pensioner admitted, must, by a recent regulation, have been a housekeeper.
* Smythe's “ Historical Account,” p. 253.
+ Vide“ Letter to King James," from Sir Francis Bacon, ibid. p. 212.
Boys are admitted into the School at any age between ten and fifteen years, but cannot remain on the establishment above eight years. They are instructed in writing, arithmetic, and every branch of classical learning; and for those who complete the usual course of education here, and are properly qualified, twenty-nine exhibitions, of £80 per annum each, are provided at the two Universities.* There are also, eleven Ecclesiastical Preferments in the gift of the Governors, which, according to the statutes, « should be conferred upon the Scholars brought up within the Hospitall." By a most judicious and important regulation, introduced by the late Dr. Matthew Raine, Schoolmaster, and which ought to be followed in every seminary throughout the kingdom, every scholar is provided with a separate bed.
The grounds, which extend from the Hospital buildings to Wilderness Row and Goswell Street, are variously appropriated. The Green, on the north side of which is the new School, is a square plot, of about three acres, devoted to the amusement of the scho. lars, whilst the Wilderness, which is shaded with fine trees, and laid out in gravel and grass walks, is reserved for the recreation of the pensioners and other members of this foundation. The kitchen garden occupies somewhat more than an acre of ground.
* An apprentice fee of £60 is now given with those qualified -scholars, whose parents or guardians prefer putting them to trades to sending them to College. But tbis occurs in very few instances : one of then may excite a smile, namely, that of Henry Siddons, who was apprenticed to bis uncle, Mr. J. P. Kemble,“ to learn the Histrionic Art and Mystery.”
Numerous remains of human bones, and even perfect skeletons, have been uncovered at different times, in digging the foundations of houses in Charter House Square, which had anciently the name of Charter House Yard, and was, doubtless, used for interments in the wide-spreading pestilence of 1348. The north side of this square is partly occupied by the entrance and boundary wall of the old monastery, and partly by respectable houses, as are also the three other sides of the quadrangle. The area is inclosed by a neat iron railing, and shaded by two intersecting avenues of old trees. In the centre of this area was anciently a small chapel, used in the Catholic times for expiatory masses. Several of the officers of the Charter House have their residences in this Square.
Besides the Scholars upon the foundation, there are upwards of 170 boys educated in the Charter House School, the terms for whose board and education have been fixed by the Governors at £57. 12s. per annum; but from the necessary extra charges, the entire cost varies, for each boy, from £75 to £85 a year. They are mostly accommodated at two large boarding-houses in Charter House Square, kept by Masters of the School. Many persons of high rank and eminence have, in consequence of these arrangements, received their early education within the walls of the Charter House.
From the archives preserved in the muniment room, it may be calculated that nearly £100,000 was expended by Mr. Sutton, on the purchase of the numerous estates which he bestowed on this foundation !