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that is, of those persons who brought meat from the country, in carts, and sold it just without the bounds of the City liberties. They were at first stationed in stands, or shambles, as is yet common in many country places; but before, and in Queen Elizabeth's reign, houses were built here, chiefly of wood and plaster, with over-hanging stories, and of various heights. These, in process of time, became inhabited by tradesmen and shopkeepers of many different descriptions :* one of them was the celebrated Betty's Chop-house.

On the north side (at a short distance from Shipyard) was a large mansion-like edifice, of five stories, which had latterly been divided into two houses, but was single in James the First's reign, and then inhabited by Count Beaumont, the resident envoy

from the French Court. Here, for one night, was lodged the famous Duc de Sully, who, in 1603, when Marquis de Rosny, had been appointed ambassador extraordinary from Henry the Fourth, King of France, to

* At a low broker's shop in the western part of Butcher Row, that“ wicked wight, young Wylliam Henry Irelaunde," pur. chased the two drawings, engraved in his father's publication of the spurious Shakspeare Manuscripts. One of them, he transmogrified into something like a resemblance of the Warwickshire Bard; and in tbe corners of the other design, he portrayed bis armorial bearings with the initials W.S., a pair of scales, and a knife, and inserted the titles o several of his plays : from these altered subjects, it was most sagely decided by the amateurs of Shaksperian Lore, that the first was a portraiture of the poet himself, in the part of Bassanio, and the other a delineation of Sbylock, the Jew, in the same drama.

congratulate King James on his accession to the English Throne. On that occasion the office of Master of the Ceremonies was first instituted, and given, with a yearly salary of £200, to Sir Lewis Lewkenor;* who, accompanied by Count Beaumont, attended the Marquis on his landing at Dover. The arrangements for his reception were very deficient ; and yet more so for that of his return, which consisted of upwards of two hundred gentlemen. The following passage in the " Memoirs de Sully," renders the fact of his lodging here unquestionable :-"As for myself, I sup'd and lay at Beaumont's, and din'd there the next day, for so short a time had not been sufficient to procure and prepare me lodgings, until the Palace of Arundel, which was destin'd for me, could be got ready; but this greatly embarrass'd my retinue, which could not all be lodg'd in Beaumont's house, and, therefore, apartments were sought in the neighbourhood." The ambassador's own accommodations could not have been particularly commodious, as the rooms were small and low,-four, six, and eight upon

* Lewkenor's Lane, in Holborn, derived its name from this gentleman, who had a house and gardens on its site.

+ These were probably found in the several large Inns and Taverns which existed near the spot, of which the principal were, the Ship Tavern, the Swan, the Crown, the Robin Hood, the White Hart, the Bear and Harrow, the Holy Lamb, and the Angel. The Angel Inn is still a large establishment, at the bottom of Wych Street, much frequented by travellers and professional gentlemen from the western counties. The situation of most of the others are known by the courts and alleys deriving names from them; and vestiges of one or two still remain.

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a floor, and lit only by casement windows. The ceilings were traversed by large unwrought beams, in different directions; and a well stair-case, illumined only by a sky-light, run up the middle, in the rudest style. In front, were several roses and crowns, fleur-de-lis, dragons, and other ornaments, together with the date 1581, twice repeated.


LUDGATE was anciently one of the principal gates of the city, and was situated at the western extremity of what was formerly denominated Bowyer's Row, but is now called Ludgate Hill, between the present London Tavern and St. Martin's Church. Its first erection is attributed by Geoffery of Monmouth (but without any credible foundation,) to the British King Lud, about sixty-six years before the birth of Christ. In 1217, it was either new built, or substantially repaired by the confederated barons, (who were in arms against King John,) with the ruins of the stone houses of the Jews, which had been destroyed. In 1260, it was again repaired, and ornamented with statues of King Lud, and other sovereigns, which, "in the raigne of Edward the Sixt," says Stow," had their heads smitten off, and were otherwise defaced, by such as iudged every Image to bee an Idoll, and in the raigne of Queene Mary were repayred, as by setting new heads on their old bodies, &c." Early in Richard the Second's time, this gate was converted into a free prison; but in process of time its privileges were violated, and it became a place of great oppression.

Between the years 1454 and 1163, it was much enlarged, with a new building towards the south, for the comfort of the prisoners, by the liberality of Dame Agnes Forster, and the executors of Stephen, her husband; in memory of which, the following lines, inscribed on copper, were placed against it :-* “ Deuout soules that passe this way,

for Stephen Forster, late Maior, heartily pray, And Dame Agnes his spouse, to God consecrate,

that, of pitie, this house made of Londoners in Ludgate. So that for lodging and water, prisoners here nought pay,

as their keepers shall all answere at dreadful doomes day.

Ludgate was greatly damaged by the fire of 1666; but it was afterwards repaired, and continued to be occupied as a prison until 1760, when it was pulled down, and the street thrown open. On the east side were effigies of King Lud and his two sons, in niches; and on the west side was a statue of Queen Elizabeth :

* The tradition concerning the origin of this benevolent and charitable design, will be found in the Appendix to Strype's Stow; it is also the foundation of Rowley's Comedy, of " A Woman never Vext, or the Widow of Cornhill,” which has lately been revived, with alterations by Planche. In the first scene of the fifth act, is the following passage:

Mrs. S. Foster. But why remove the prisoners from Ludgate ?

Stephen Foster. To tuke the prison down, and build it new, With leads to walk on, chambers large and fair; For when myself lay there, the noxious air Choked up iny spirits. None but captives, wife, Can know what captives feel. VOL. II.


the latter was afterwards fixed up against the east wall of St. Dunstan's Church, where it still remains. The other statues lie disregarded in the small adjoining church-yard.

A quarto tract, intituled Prison Thoughts, by Thomas Browning, Citizen and Cook of London, a prisoner in Ludgate, “where


citizens are confined and starve amidst copies of their freedom," was published in that prison, by the author, in 1682. It is written both in prose and verse, and probably gave origin to Dr. Dodd's more elaborate work on the same subject. The following is inserted as a specimen of the poetry :

" On Patience.
Patience is the Poor Man's Walk,
Patience is the Dumb Man's Talk,
Patience is the Lame Man's Thighs,
Patience is the Blind Man's Eyes,
Patience is the Poor Man's Ditty,
Patience is the Exil'd Man's City,
Patience is the Sick Man's Bed of Down,
Patience is the Wise Man's Crown,
Patience is the Live Man's Story,
Patience is the Dead Man's Glory.

Troubles do controul,
In Patience then possess your Soul.



This celebrated philosopher and statesman, on his first arrival in London, on Christmas-eve, 1724, en

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