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TEMPLE BAR FROM BUTCHER ROW, 1800, LOOKING EAST.

Tho Hurst. Edw Chance & Co London.

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à cheval,' and · bon homme d cheval ;' the Duke of Norfolk being the first, that is, rather a fine person on a horse ; the Duke of Northumberland being both in perfection ; namely, a graceful person, and excellent rider. But the Duke of Norfolk told me, he had not ben at this exercise these twelve yeares before. There were in the field ye Prince of Denmark, and the Lord Landsdown, sonn of ye Earle of Bath, who had been made a Count of ye Empire last summer for his service before Vienna."

From the above extracts, it appears, that Faubert's Riding Academy was as fashionable a lounge for the noblemen and gallants of that period, as Tattersals is at the present day. When Swallow Street was pulled down, to effect the grand improvements which have taken place in this part of the metropolis, the greater part of this passage, including the Riding School, which had been converted into livery stables, shared the same fate, and but one of the original houses is now left standing.

TEMPLE BAR.-BUTCHER ROW.

TEMPLE BAR divides the City of London from the liberty of Westminster: in ancient times, they were merely separated by a chain, or bar, placed across the street, which, from its immediate vicinity to the Temple, acquired the appellation which it still bears. In after

ages, this bar gave place to an erection of timber, raised across the street, with a narrow gateway underneath, and an entrance on the south side to the house above. After the fire of London, Sir Christopher

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Wren erected the present edifice, which was commenced in 1670, and finished in 1672. It is built of Portland stone, and rusticated, having a large flattened arch in the centre, and two small semicircular ones for foot passengers laterally. Over the gateway is an apartment, with a semicircular arched window on the eastern and western sides ; the whole is crowned with a sweeping pediment. On the west façade are niches, in which are placed statues of Charles the First, and Second, in Roman costume ; and over the key-stone of the centre archway, are the royal arms; on the east, in similar niches, are statues of Queen Elizabeth and James the First. This gate is always clos and opened with great formality, on state occasions; and the King, according to civic etiquette, cannot enter the City, without first knocking, and asking permission of the Lord Mayor.

On Temple Bar were formerly placed the heads of those persons who were decapitated for high treason : the last which was thus exhibited was that of Simon, Lord Lovat, who was executed on Tower Hill, for the rebellion of 1745. One of the iron poles, or spikes, on which they were placed, was only removed at the commencement of the present century.

In Nichols's “ Literary Anecdotes," is the following singular passage, relating to the head of Counsellor Layer, which had been thus fixed upon Temple Bar. Layer was executed for high treason, at Tyburn, on May the 17th, 1723, and died in the steady maintenance of his principles. Dr. Rawlinson was a nonjuror, and a distinguished antiquary. He lived at

London House, Aldersgate Street, the ancient palace of the Bishops of London :

“ When the head of Layer was blown off Temple Bar, it was picked up by a gentleman in the neighbourhood, [Mr. John Pearce, an attorney,] who shewed it to some friends at a public house, under the floor of which, I have been assured, it was buried. Dr. Rawlinson, meanwhile, having made inquiry after the head, with a wish to purchase it, was imposed on with another instead of Layer's, which he preserved as a valuable relique, and directed it to be buried in his right hand.” The Doctor died on the 6th of April, 1755, and was interred in St, Giles's Church, Oxford.

The irregular buildings shewn in the annexed print, formed the lower part of Butcher Row, which, before the improvements made here, about thirty years ago, occupied most of the open space from opposite Shipyard to the end of Picket Street* The ground plot was that of a long, obtuse-angled triangle, of which the western line was formed by the vestry-room and alms-houses of St. Clement's: the sides and west end contained shops of various classes, the most respectable of which were on the Strand side, opposite Thanet Place. Butcher Row, properly so called, originated in a flesh market, granted, in the 21st of Edward the 1st, to Walter le Barbur, for the convenience of the foreign butchers, as they were termed,

* Picket Street was so called, from respect to Mr. Alderman Picket, through whose zealous exertions and perseverance the improvements in this quarter ere chiefly carried into effect,

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