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In the fourth year of Richard II., A. D. 1381, Sir W. Walworth was buried in the neighbouring Church of St. Michael, and this Company still preserve his funeral Pall, which is curiously embroidered with gold. They have likewise an interesting plan of the splendid Show which was exhibited at the time of his inauguration as Mayor, in 1380. Among the portraits belonging to this Company, is a very fine picture of the late gallant Admiral, Earl St. Vincent, and two portraits of the Margrave and Maryravine of Anspach, executed by Romney, in 1797. They have also eight curious pictures of many different kinds of Fish, by Spiridione Roma, which are grouped with much skill, and correctly coloured. The Fishmongers were anciently accustomed to make a great display of pageantry whenever

any one of their Company was advanced to the Mayoralty, and about fifty Lord Mayors are enumerated among its members. They are governed by a Prime and five other Wardens, and a Court of Assistants.


THESE much-frequented thoroughfares, the former a straight passage, the latter a crooked alley, derived their names from the Turning Stiles, which two centuries ago, stood at their respective ends next Lincoln's-Inn Fields, and which were so placed both for the conveniency of foot passengers, and to prevent the straying of cattle, the Fields being at that period used for pasturage. The genuine edition of Sir Edwin Sandys's curious work, entitled “ Europa Speculum, or a View or Survey of the State of Religion in the Westerne Part of the World,'' 4to., printed in 1637, was “ sold by George Hutton, at the Turning Stile in Holborne.” The English Translation of Bishop Peter Camus's “ Admirable Events," printed in 1639, 4to., was also “sold in Holborn, in Turnstile Lane." Strype says, (anno 1720) “ Great Turnstile Alley is a place inhabited by shoemakers, senipsters, and milliners, for which it is of a considerable trade and well noted.” Its present occupants can hardly be classed, their trades being mostly different, as dealers in cutlery and hardware, butchers, dress, bonnet, and glove makers, a tobacconist, pastry-cook, fruiterer, &c. Little Turnstile is chiefly inhabited by brokers and petty chandlers. Near to it is New Turnstile, built in 1685, which has recently undergone a thorough repair, and is inhabited by small shopkeepers.



This Deanery, which was originally the abode of the Abbots of Westminster, was built by Abbot Litlington in the reigns of Edward III. and Richard II., together with the Jerusalem Chamber and the College Hall and Kitchen. These buildings are all connected with each other, and inclose a small quadrangular paved court, the only entrance to which is from the


passage leading into the cloisters from Great Dean's Yard. In the Deanery are several large and handsome apartments : among the few pictures contained in them, is a good half-lergth of Queen Elizabeth, when middle-aged, in an embroidered dress, elaborately painted; this was presented by the Queen to Dean Goodman. The other portraits are those of the Deans Andrews, Dolben, Sprat, Atterbury, a three-quarter length; Bradford, Wilcocks, a half-length, holding a plan of the Abbey Church in his right hand; Pearce, Thomas, by Vandergutch ; Horsley, and Vincent, by Owen. Here, also, is a north-west view of the Abley Church of Westminster, with a procession of the Knights of the Bath, in the time of George II; a good bust of Dean Wilcocks in marble, and plaster casts of Henry III., Henry VII., and Elizabeth, the latter's Queen, from their respective monuments in the Abbey Church.

Some remains of painted glass of Henry the Eighth's time, and somewhat later, are preserved in the windows of the apartments communicating with the Jerusalem Chamber, and in the small ante-room, in an ornamented niche, probably for a piscina. The chamber itself, which is thirty-eight feet in length, and nineteen feet in width, was repaired in the summer of 1820. The ceiling is coved; the chimney-piece is of cedar, but has been painted to imitate grained oak; it is curiously carved in the style of James the First's reign, when it was first erected, at the cost of Dean Williams : it consists of two divisons of pannelling, &c., having

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cornices, supported by Ionic columns. In the centre pannel are the following arms: Quarterly, first and fourth, a chev. erm. between three Saracen's heads in profile, couped ; second and third, a chev. between three stag's heads, caboshed and attired. This coat is placed between the arms of the See of Lincoln, on the dexter, and those of the College of Westminster on the sinister side; the whole being in one shield, for Dr. John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln and Dean of Westminster, who, in 1641, was advanced to the See of Canterbury. The same arms are represented in the large north window, together with seven small historical and scriptural subjects, in stained and painted glass, which, from their peculiar style of design and mode of execution, may be referred to Richard the Second's reign. Against the side walls, disposed in frames, are some considerable remnants of the old tapestry hangings of the Choir of the Abbey Church, and against the south wall is the well-known curious painting of King Richard II., sitting, in his regal paraphernalia, in the Coronation Chair.*

Henry IV. breathed his last in this Chamber, into which he had been brought when seized with his final illness whilst worshipping at St. Edward's Shrine, on the 20th of March, 1413. At that period be was preparing for a voyage to the Holy Hand, having recently

* This picture was carefully cleaned a few years ago, by the late Mr. Charles Muss, whose extraordinary talents for painting on enamel and glass were of the highest rank.

assumed the Cross in consequence of a prediction that " he should die in Jerusalem," which had been made to him in the early part of his life.

• He became so syke," says Fabian, “whyle he was makynge his prayers, to take there his leve, and so to spede hym upon his iournaye, that such as were aboute hym feryd that he wolde have dyed right there; wherefore they, for his comforte, bare hym into the Abbottes place, and lodged hym in a chamber, and there, upon a paylet, leyde hym before the fyre."'* Shortly after, on recovering his senses, he enquired where he was, and on being told in the Jerusalem Chamber, he adverted to the prophecy, and finding his death to be approaching, employed his last moments in giving counsel to his son, the Prince of Wales; then recommending his soul to God, he expired.

The College Hall (formerly the Abbot's Hall) is spacious and well-proportioned; the roof is supported by strong beams, and the wall partly lined by a pannelled wainscotting; at the south end is a large music gallery, now used as a pantry. In the middle of the foor, which is paved with stone, is a raised circular hearth, with a hollow surrounding it, for the combustion of wood, as was usual in great halls in ancient times. On the corbels, below the timbers of the roof, are the arms of St. Edward the Confessor, the Abbey of Westminster, and Abbot Litlington; and on the north wall are painted those of the College of Westminster; Trinity College, Cambridge; and Christ Church,


* Fabian's “ Chronicle,” pp. 576, 577, edit. 1810. VOL. II.


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