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against him, to controul him at their appetite ; and when they think good, to slay him, or to cut him off, and adopt to themselves any other they please, in his room: or can any retence of wickedness, or rigour on his part, be a just excuse for his children to put band into him? And although we see by the course of nature, that love useth to descend more than ascend, in case it were true, that the father hated and wronged the children never so much, will any man, endued with the least spunk of reason, think it lawful for them to meet him with tặe line? Yea, suppose the father were furiously following his sons with a drawn sword, is it lawful for them to turn and strike again, or make any resistance, but by flight? I think surely, if there were no more but the example of brute beasts and unreasonable creatures, it may serve well enough to qualify and prove this my argument. We read often the piety that the storks have to their old and decayed parents; and generally we know, that there are many sorts of beasts and fowls, that with violence and many bloody strokes will beat and banish their young ones from them, how soon they perceive them to be able to fend themselves; but we never read or heard of any resistance on their part, except among

the vipers; which proves such persons, as ought to be reasonable creatures, and yet unnaturally follow this example, to be endued with their viperous nature.

And for the similitude of the head and the body, it may very well fall out, that the head will be forced to garl cut offsome rotten meinber (as I liave already said) to keep the rest of the body in integrity; but what state the body can be in, if the head, for any infirmity that can fall to it, be cut off, I leave it to the reader's judgment.

So as (to conclude this part) if the children may upon any pretext that can be imagin d, lawfully rise up against their father, cut him off, and choose any other whom they please in his room; and if the body for the weal of it, may for any infirmity that can be in the head, strike it off, then I cannot deny that the people may rebel, contre ul, and displace, or cut off their king at their own pleasure, and upon respects movwg them. And whether these similitudes represent better the office of a king, or the offices of masters, or deacons of crafts, or doctors in physic, (which jolly comparisons are used by such writers as maintain the contrary proposition) I leave it also to the reader's discretion.

As a sort of salvo for the unqualified despotisin of the preceding passage, his majesty presently adds :

Not that by all this former discourse of mine, and apology for kings, I mean that whatsoever errors and intolerable abominations a sovereign prince commit, he ought to escape all punishment, as if thereby the world were only ordained for kings, and they without controulinent to turn it upside down, at their pleasure; but by the contrary, by remitting them to God (who is their only ordinary judge) I remit them to the sorest and sharpest school-master that can be devised for them: for the further a king is preferred by God above all other ranks and degrees of men, and the higher that his seat is above iheirs, the greater is his obligation to his maker.

1 to make, cause.

The remaining pieces in the volume are:
6. A Counter-blast to Tobacco; Anony-

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7. A Discourse of the Powder Treason. Anonymous.

8. An Apology for the Oath of Allegiance, first set out anonymous, and afterwards published with the præmonition under his majesty's Town name.

9. A Præmonition to all Christian Mo. narchs, free Princes and States, written both in English and Latin, by his majesty.

10. A Declaration agatnst Vorstius, written

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by his majesty, first in French, after translated into English by his majesty's leave.

11. A Defence of the Right of Kings, against Cardinal Perron, written by bis majesty in French, and thereafter translated into English by his majesty's leave.

To the above are added five speeches on different occasions. The king wrote also various pieces, in Latin, which it were needless to particularize.

The following lines are found under the print of James, prefixed to his works.

Crowns have their compass, length of days their date,
Triumphs their tombs, felicity her fate;
Of more than earth, can earth, make none partaker,
But knowledge makes the king most like his maker.

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the man. We destroy the commonwealth, while we preserve our own private interests, and neglect the public,


1. A king is a thing men have made for their own sakes, for quietness sahe. Just as in a family one man is appointed to buy the meat; if every man should buy, or if there were many buyers, they would never agree; one would buy what the other liked not, or what the other had bought before, so there would be a confusion. But that charge beirg committed to one, he, according to his discretion, pleases all, If they have not what they would have one day, they shall have it the next, or something as good.

2. The word king directs our eyes. Suppose it had been consul or dictator, To think all kings alike, is the same folly, as if a consul of Aleppo or Smyrna, should claim to himself the same power that a consul of Rome. What, am not I consul? Or a duke of England should think himself like the duke of Florence. Nor can it be imagined that the word Bronius did signify the same in Greek, as the Hebrew word 72 did with the Jews. Besides, let the divines in their pulpits say what they will, they in their practice deny, that all is the

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