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a censer with incense; which he incenseth, instead of them all, with great reverence performed unto the table. This done, they return to their places, and present their gifts, and after are feasted.
When Cublai had overthrown Naiam his uncle (as before is said) understanding that the Christians observed their yearly solemnity of Easter, he invited them all to come unto him, and to bring the book of the four gospels, which he incensed often with great ceremonies, devoutly kissing it, and caused his barons to do the like. And this he observeth alway in the principal feasts of the Christians, as Christmas and Easter. The like he did in the chief feasts of the Saracens, Jews, and Idolaters. The cause (he said) was because of those four prophets to which all the world doth reverence. Jesus of the Christians, Mahomet of the Saracens, Moses of the Jews, and Sogomambar Khan, the first idol of the Pagans. And I, (saith he) do honour to them all, and pray him, which is the greatest in heaven, and truest, to help me. Yet, he had best opinion of the Christian faith, because it contained nothing but goodness; and would not suffer the Christians to carry before them the cross, on which so great a man as Christ was crucified. He also sent Nicolo and Maffio, the father and uncle of Marco Paulo, our author, in embassage to the pope, to send him a hundred wise men, which might convince the idolaters, that boasted of those their magical wonders, whereas, the Christians that were there were but simple men, not able to answer them; which if it had been effected, he and his barons would have been baptized. Thomas a Jesu, a Jesuit, in his second book, “ of procuring the Conversion of all Nations,” reportetb that Clement the First ordained John a Monte Corvino, a minorite, archbishop of Cambalu, and nine other of the same order he consecrated bishops, and took order for the successor of the archbishop, when he died. Whether these went or no, is uncertain. Great pity it is, that the Jesuits, nien of so refined wits, and such mighty miracle-mongers (our world must witness the one, and the east and west the other) were but of yesterday's hatching, aird that Ignatius had not broken his leg before those times. These had been, (if they then had been) the only men to have removed those objected scandals of the simplicity of Christians, and to have confronted these magical mountebanks, as the Khan here required. But these were reserved for times more fatal to the Pope, to help at a dead lift, by pervertings here, and convertings there, to hold up the supposed sanctity of the triple diadem. But look we to our Tatars.
Odoricus saith, that in his time, the Khan celebrated, besides the former, the feasts of bis circumçision, marriage, and coronation. But before the
conquest of Cathay, they observed not any day at all with festival solemnities.
Cublai Khan was of mean stature, of countenance white, red, and beautiful. He had four wives, which kept several courts, the least of which contained at least ten thousand persons. He had many concu. bines ; every second year having a new choice of the fairest maidens in the province of Ungut, (most fertile, belike, of that commodity) which pass a second election at the court, and the fairest and fittest of them are committed to ladies, to prove and instruct them. Their parents hold it a great grace so to have bestowed their children, and if any of them prove not, they impute it to their disastrous planet. They hold it for a great beauty, to have their noses fiat between their
eyes. In December, January, and February, he abideth at Cambalu, in the north-east province of Cathay, in a palace near to the city, builded on this manner, There is a circuit walled in, four square,
square çontaining eight miles, having about them a deep ditch, and in the middle, a gate. A mile inwards is another wall, which hath six miles in each square; and in the south side three gates; and as many on the north. Betwixt those walls are soldiers. In every corner of this wall, and in the midst, is a stately palace, eight in all, wherein are kept his mutions. There is a third wall within this, contain
ing four miles square, each square taking up one mile, having six gates and eight palaces, as the former, in which are kept the grand Khan's provisions. And between these two walls are many fair trees, and meadows, stored with many beasts. Within this is the grand Khan's palace, the greatest that ever was seen, confining with the wall abovesaid on the north and south. The matter and form thereof is of such cost and art, with such appurtenances of pleasure and state, as were too long here to recite, He, for a superstitious fear, suggested by his astroogers, of a rebellion which sometime should be raised against him in Cambalu, built a new city near thereunto, called Taida, twenty-four miles in compass, and yet not able to receive the inhabitants of the old city; whence he removed such as might move suspicion, hither. This city was built by line, in four squares, each whereof contained six miles and three gates, so straight, that upon the wall of one gate, one might see the gate right against it. In the midst of the city is a great bell, which is rung in the night, to warn them to keep within daors. The great Khan hath 12,000 horsemen, under four captains, to his guard. He keepeth leopards, wolves, and lions, to hunt with, and with them to take wild asses, bears, harts, &c. and one sort of eagles able to catch wolves. The two masters of his hunting game had ten thousand men under each of them;
the one part clothed in red, the other in sky-colour. And when the emperor hunteth, one of these captains goeth with his men and dogs on the righthand, the other on the left, compassing a great quan tity of ground, that not a beast can escape them, From October to March, they are bound daily to send in a thousand head of beasts and birds. He hath also, when he travelleth, ten thousand falconers, divided in divers companies, himself abiding in a chamber carried upon four elephants, whence he may see the game, having also his tents pitched for his solace near thereby. None may carry bawk or hunting-dog out of his dominion, nor may hawk or hunt near the court, by many days journeys; nor at all in their times of breeding, from March to October.
But he that list to be more fully informed herein, let him read M. Paulus and others, which have written of this argument. It is religion to us, further to suspend our discourse of religion,
- The portion which Hakluyt contributed to these four volumes, amounts perhaps, in the whole, to about a volume; and consists of his MS. remains, of which Purchas got posses