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assembling the rest of his followers, did by their opinion and assistance judge it. Out of which

usage, the court-barons took their beginning, and the lords of towns and manners gained the privilege of holding plea and jurisdiction within those their territories over their tenants and followers; who thereupon are at this day called sectatores, in French suitres, form suivre, to follow. But the Saxons themselves called this jurisdiction, Sacha and Soca, signifying thereby causarum actionem, and libertatem judicandi ; for sacha signifieth causa, in which sense we yet use it, as when we say for God's sake; and soca signifieth libero ty or privilege, as Cyricsocne, libertàs ecclesiæ. But by this manner the lords of towns (as ex consuetudine regni) came to have jurisdiction over their tenants and followers, and to hold plea of all things touching land. But as touching cognizance in criminal matters, they had not otherwise to meddle therewith than by the king's charters. For as touching the king's peace, every hundred was divided into many freeborgs or tithings, consisting of ten men, whichi stood all bound one for the other, and did amongst themselves, punish small matters in their court for that purpose, called the Leet ; which was sometimes granted over to the lords of manors, and sometimes exercised by peculiar officers. But the greater things were also carried from thence into the hundred courts ; so that both the streams of civil justice, and

of criminal, did there meet, and were decided by the hundreds, &c. as by superior judges, both of the court baron, and court Leet also.

Edward the confessor (Ll. cap. 32) saith, that there were justices over every ten freeborgs, called Deans, or Tienheopos, (that is, head of ten,) which among their neighbours in towns compounded mat. ters of trespasses done in pastures, meadows, corn, and other strifes rising among them. But the greater matters, saith he, were referred to superior justices appointed over every ten of them, whoin we call centurions, centenaries, or hundradors, because they judged over an hundred freeborgs.

The lord of the hundred, therefore, had jurisdiction over all the towns of the hundred, as well in criminal matters as in civil, and they that failed of their right in the court barons, tithings, or Leets, might now prosecute it here before the lord of the hundred and his followers, called the suitors of the hundred, which were the lords and owners of lands within that hundred; who were tied to be there at every court; which, as appeareth by the laws of Henry I. cap. 8. was to be holden twelve times in the year, that is, once every month: but especially a full appearance was required twice in the year, in memory whereof the suitors are at this day called at our Lady and Michaelmas courts, by the steward of the hundred.

These (as I said before) held plea of trespasses done in pastures, meadows, corn, and such like, and of other strifes arising between neighbour and neighbour, and (as by and by also shall be shewed) of criminal matters, touching the very life of a man.

The works of Spelman erected a sort of store-house for the writers of English history since his time. He was the restorer of Saxon literature, first by his own study of that language, and afterwards by the foundation of a Saxon professorship at Cambridge, in the year 1639.

His eldest son, sir John Spelman, was also a man of considerable learning. He was the author of several compositions; and in particular, of a Life of King Alfred, which he left in MS. Some time after the restoration, this was translated from the English into Latin, by Mr. Christopher Ware, and published in 1679, fol. by Mr. Obadiah Walker. The original English, however, was printed by Mr. Hearne in 1709, 8vo.

ANDREWS,

Bishop of WINCHESTER, was born at London, in 1565. He received the rudiments of his education first in the Coopers’ free-school at Ratcliff, and afterwards in Merchant Tailor's school in London. At the usual age he entered at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, of which, on his taking his bachelor's degree, he was chosen fellow. Soon after, from the fame of his learning, he was elected honorary fellow of Jesus College in Oxford, lately founded by Hugh Price. On his taking his master's degree, he waş chosen catechist of Pembroke Hall, and every Saturday and Sunday read a lecture on the ten commandments, which was numerously attended.

His increasing reputation gained him the countenance of Henry earl of Huntingdon

and particularly of sir Francis Walsingham, secretary of state to queen Elizabeth, who assigned him for his immediate maintenance the lease of the parsonage of Alton in Hampshire, and afterwards procured for him the vicarage of St. Giles, Cripplegate, in London. He was subsequently chosen prebendary and residentiary of St. Paul's, as also prebendary of the collegiate church of Southwell; and on the death of Dr. Fulke, became master of Pembroke Hall. Moreover, queen Elizabeth was so struck with his preaching, that she appointed him one of her chaplains in ordinary, made him a prebendary of Westminster, and afterwards dean of that church.

On the accession of James I. he was selected by that prince as his literary champion against the virulent attacks of his enemies; and in 1605, was promoted by him to the bishopric of Chichester; at the same time he was also made lord Almoner. In 1609 he was advanced to the bishopric of Ely; was afterwards nominated one of his majesty's privy counsellors of England, and then of Scotland, when he attended the king in his journey to that kingdom. He was promoted, in 1618, to the bishopric of Winchester, and deanery

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