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very curious old granite pillar resembling a part of a stone cross stands near the hamlet. It is locally known as "Other Half Stone," and bears the Latin inscription "Doniret rogavit pro anima." Who Doniret was who thus entreats the prayers of the people tradition telleth not, but some suppose him to have been a king of Cornwall named Dungerth, who was drowned in 876. It seems a sad shame that several old inscribed stones have actually been destroyed in Cornwall, made into gateposts, put over streams as foot bridges, or thrown into wayside ditches.
I read with particular interest the remarks of Mrs. Helen Watney on this subject in the Red Dragon for November, especially since I had visited the Cornish stones in 1866-7-8-9, and afterwards in 1873-4 made a survey and measurement of a great number of them. Being an orthodox Druid, I am in a position to explain some matters connected with these monuments, matters that are altogether dark to the general reader. I do not, however, claim exclusive knowledge of them. I beg, therefore, to offer a few words on certain portions of Mrs. Watney's article. There is no such name as "Tot-men." It must be a misprint for Tol-men. The Holed-stone is not the same as the Tolmen, but the Tolmen and the Cromlech are identical and Druidical. The word Tolmen does not mean Holed-stone, and one of the greatest mistakes made by critics was to suppose that tol here was the same as the Welsh tull, or hole. It is not Tôl-men either, but Tòlmen or Dòlmen. Tòl is the same as the Welsh tàl, but the Cornish tôl is the same as the Welsh tull, or hole. Of the Holed-stones I have seen quite a number, and found them called by the Cornish main-an-tôl, or stone of (or with) a hole. They are a kind of runic crosses with a hole in the middle artificially cut. I used to consider them of Christian origin, judging from the popular traditions respecting them; but they may be the remains of some Oriental worship that visited Cornwall before the Christian era. It is certain that they are not strictly Druidical, and we know that the Christians made use of them. Quære, if the common saying "carreg-a-thŵll," or stone with a hole, refers to this kind of a relic? When a Cardiganshire man wishes to express his contempt for anything that he considers trumpery he exclaims "carreg-a-thwll." Tolmen or Dolmen is one of the names of the Cromlech, and has been correctly translated "pierres levees in French, ie., raised stones--stones hoisted up on pillars. The term Stonehenge, as far as the mere word is concerned, is considered by good Anglo-Saxon scholars to have the same meaning.
I will now turn to the Dolmen of Constantine.
Mrs. Watney will be pained to know, as it is evident that she is not aware of the fact, that this magnificent stone is no more; for a fanatical Sunday School superintendent caused its overthrow and destruction several years ago, and the splendid granite it was composed of was blasted for building purposes. I saw it in all its glory in 1866 and succeeding years, but when I sailed over from New York and visited the spot in 1873, I found the dear old stone gone. It had been photographed, but the negative is not now extant. I have a copy. There was no hole in this stone. In shape it was like an egg, and its size was something astonishing. It looked rather unlike other Cromlechs, for the most of these are flat; yet it must be classed among the Cromlechs. The passage under it was rather small, and its supports were pebbles rather than pillars. Looking at it from a distance one would take it for a logan stone, but I hardly think it ever served as a logan. Tolmen, being Kymmricised, would be spelled Tal-vaen, tall stone, raised or prominent stone, a pulpit, gwydd-va, on which the Bard stood up, like our Yankee on a stump, before the multitude, and delivered his burning oratory or sang his inspiring song to the sound of the harp. The word Tolmen bears reference to the mechanical structure and position of the stone, while Cromlech points to the mysteries. Cromlech means either Stone of Regeneration or Bed of Regeneration, and is particularly connected with the ceremonies of the burial of the dead. I have said so much; and now, ye wise ones, who among you can tell us the real difference in structure, mystery, and ceremonial, between the Cromlech and Logan?
Canaseraga, N. Y., Nov. 12th, 1886.
"LILLI-BURLERO."--In an old Welsh pamphlet in my possession, entitled Caniadau y Cymry, occurs the passage: "chwi wyddoch y gwahaniaeth rhwng hon a'r gân Saesonaeg Lillibullero," &c. Can any of your readers give me particulars of the English song (Cân Saesonaeg) here referred to?
THE WELSH SERMON PREACHED BEFORE PRINCE RUPERT.-The British Museum contains a printed Welsh sermon preached in 1646. Can any of your readers tell me anything of the occasion and the preacher?
THE "HARLEIAN MISCELLANY."-Several rare Welsh tracts were reprinted in this Miscellany. Are any copies of the publication still obtainable? Edinburgh.
THE AUTHOR OF THE "GRAMMAR OF ORNAMENT." He was a Welshman, I believe; but of what parentage and where born? Cardigan.
D. E. JONES.
THE MYFYRIAN ArchæƆlogy.—Does the edition published by Mr. Gee, of Denbigh, contain all that is to be found in the original of "Owain Myvyr." Swansea. INTENDING PURCHASER.
LEWYS DWN.-Some English critics have been very severe on this Welsh herald for his fancifulness and inaccuracy. Are they aware that in addition to the fact that he was Deputy Herald-at-Arms in the English college, his book, the Heraldic Visitations of Wales and the Marches, was published under the authority of Clarencieux and Norroy? Such being the fact, the awkward question will naturally arise-was English heraldry at that time any more accurate? Nay, was not Lewys himself, despite the circumstance of his nationality, an English herald writing on heraldry according to English notions?
Q. Q. Q.
JOHN WALTERS, B.A.-Who was this gentleman, who, in 1782, brought out in two volumes a work entitled Translated Specimens of Welsh Poetry in English Verse ?
"ANTHONY PASQUIN."-This was the pseudonym of one John Williams, who wrote, among other things, a postscript to Anstey's New Path Guide. Can your learned Cambridge contributor, Mr. W. Arthur, whose capital paper on this work I remember reading with so much pleasure in one of your back numbers, give us any particulars of Anthony, who I have some reason to think was a Welshman? Dublin.
PENRY'S CONNECTION WITH THE "MARPRELATE" TRACTS.-With respect to Dr. Rees's dictum, quoted by your correspondent "T.C.U." (x.-562), that "there is not the least shadow of proof that he [Penry] was in any way connected with them [the Martin Marprelate Tracts], save only that they were issued from the same press as his avowed works," may I ask if "T.C.U." or anybody else can tell me whether Dr. Rees could possibly have read the evidence on the subject before he put forth this, as it seems to me, most extraordinary statement?
Russell Street, Bedford Square, London.
THE CRESTS OF WELSH PRINCES, &C.-Can you inform me whether the ancient Welsh princes bore crests? What was the crest of Iestyn ap Gwrgant? What is the history of the Triads?-When and by whom composed?-Is it possible to obtain a copy of the Triads?
THE "MARCH OF THE MEN OF HARLECH."-Can any reader of the Red Dragon give me information concerning the composer of the words and music of "Gorhoffedd Gwŷr Harlech" ("The March of the Men of Harlech ")? I can gather nothing more than that it was composed during the celebrated nine years siege of Harlech Castle, which commenced in 1468.
SIR JOHN BOTILER.-To this knight, who lived circa 1285, there is said to be at the Church of St. Bride's, Glamorgan, an incised slab, showing a dragon crushed beneath the warrior's feet. Can any reader of Y Ddraig Goch give me particulars of the knight, the tomb, the church, or all three ?
THE ROYAL WELSH FUSILIERS.-Thirteen companies of foot raised in 1686 by Lord Herbert, and brought on the establishment in 1689, were commanded first by Colonel Herbert; Colonel Purcell succeeding him. Can anyone give a complete list of the colonels of the national regiment?
THE REV. EDWARD Owen, M.A. (x.-186).--In reply to "Beili Glas' " query respecting the Rev. Edward Owen, M.A., I forward the following particulars, for which I am indebted to Mr. Richard Williams' Montgomeryshire Worthies :-" The Rev. Ed. Owen, M.A., the elegant translator of Juvenal, was the third son of Mr. David Owen, of Cefnhavoddau, Llangurig, near Llanidloes, by Frances his wife. He was born about the year 1728, and was educated at Oxford. He obtained the living of Crosby in 1753. In 1757 he was appointed master of the Grammar School at Warrington, and in 1767 he became rector of that place. He was an elegant scholar, and of a peculiarly benevolent disposition, and was the author of numerous works; amongst others his Juvenal and Persius, two vols., 1785, ran through many editions. He was a friend of Goronwy Owen, the celebrated Welsh poet. He died in the year 1807, aged 79 years, and was buried in Warrington Church, where formerly a marble slab, with a Latin inscription, marked his grave. During a recent restoration' of that church this seems, however, to have disappeared." From his father the Owens of Glansevern are descended. "Beili Glas" is in error in assuming Mr. Owen to be rector in 1818.
New Delaval, Northumberland.
JOHN HY. WILLIAMS.
THE WELCHER OF THE TURF (x.-277, 375, 469).-Kindly grant me space to say that I would rather find "Bristolian's" derivation of the term "A Welcher" to be correct than that which I gave myself. Nevertheless, as I gave it, so I have always understood it to be. The derivation of such terms is always difficult to ascertain, and it is hard to say who is not correct, as your correspondent does. Dr. Brewer (see Phrase and Fable) gives the meaning as I did; he is wonderfully correct, and a good authority. Perhaps "Bristolian" may think proper to reciprocate and give us his authority. Although, like most Englishmen, I delight in seeing the best horse win, I know little, and desire to know little, of the turf or its customs.
HY. G. BUTTERWORTH.
SHEEP SCORING (x,—467, 568).-As a supplement to Mr. Brierley's communication at the latter reference, I send the following, which appeared in the Academy on Nov. 20th of this year :
"The following doggerel lines (as far as can be recollected), which are well known in the West of England, and which are accustomed to be recited for the amusement of children, may prove of interest to philologists as illustrating the principles of popular etymology:
'En-taing pitta-ping, poo knows, they say
In-a-bumptick, to-bumptick, oh kick'em.'
That the above represents (though imperfectly) the Welsh numerals (1—20) will be seen by the following:
“Un (1) deg (10) pedwar (4) pump (5) wyth (8) naw (9) chwe (6) saith (7) un ar ddeg (11) deuddeg (12) pedwar-pymtheg (14, 15) un ar bymtheg (16) dau (ar) bymtheg (17) ugain (20).”
JEFFERSON DAVIS'S ANCESTRY (x.-565).-Mr. T. G. C. Davis, of St. Louis, writing Sept. 30, to the Welsh American newspaper, Y Drych, says: "I have been requested to say what I have learned about the birth-place of the Welsh ancestors of Jefferson Davis, ex-president of the Confederate States of America. His grandfather, Evan Davis, was born, according to the best information, in Flintshire, North Wales, not far from the border. When a few years ago Jefferson Davis was at Penrhyn, in North Wales, he was treated with marked attention by the gentlemen of that part of the Principality. He wrote me after his return to this country, that he was informed by the superintendent of the slate quarry at Penrhyn that about three thousand of the men who worked in the quarry at the time 'claimed kin with him.' Jefferson Davis is perhaps as well descended as any other American gentleman. Let his crest be a lion's head couped quarterly arg. and sa.." Perhaps the foregoing will satisfy your New York correspondent "Bronwen."
ANOTHER NEW YORKER.
THE "GOLDEN FARMER" (x.-565).-William Davies, who, at one time, as "Inquisitive" states, was the landlord of the "Jolly Farmer" public-house, at Bagshot, obtained his nickname of the "Golden Farmer on account of his wealth, and his custom of paying his rent always in gold. Davies was born at Wrexham, whence in early life he removed to Sudbury, in Gloucestershire, where he married the daughter of a wealthy innkeeper, by whom he had eighteen children. Davies was a noted highwayman, but followed the business of farmer to shroud his robbery. He carried on this irregular practice for forty-two years without rousing any suspicion among his neighbours, but one day he was discovered in Salisbury Court. As he was running along a butcher endeavoured to stop him— him he shot dead with a pistol. Nevertheless Davies was apprehended, committed to Newgate, and shortly executed at the end of the same Salisbury Court, Fleet Street. Dying thus on Friday, the 20th December, 1689, he was afterwards hanged in chains in the sixty-fourth year of his age on Bagshot Heath. Particulars concerning him can be found in The History of Sign Boards, by J. Harwood and Co., Holborn. The Weekly Journal, May 29th, 1718, alludes to "Bagshot Heath " near the gibbet, "where the Golden Farmer hanged in chains." GEO. H. BRIERLEY.
SIR EDWARD STRADLING (x.-186).-The following inscription appears in a MS. History of Glamorgan, by Sir R. C. Hoare. The monument is stated to be in St. Donat's Church. "Here lies Sir Thomas Stradling the 2d Bart. of England and the last of the name; he was the second son of Sir Edward Stradling Bart. by Elizabeth daughter of Sir Edward Mansel of Margam Bart. and the younger brother to Edward Stradling Esqr. deposited within this Tomb; he died at Monpellier the 27th Sept. 1738 N.S. and was buried here the 19th March following -by his death the title and family after its continuance here near 700 years became extinct.
"Etatis suæ 28."
MRS. SIDDONS (x.-565).—Mrs. Siddons took her leave of the public in 1812, when she appeared on the 29th of June as Lady Macbeth, her greatest character of all. She was called "The Queen of Tragedy." Sydney Smith, who, by the way, was a personal friend of my father's in his early days, indulged in many witty remarks respecting her. One was that "He never, without awe, saw Mrs. Siddons stab the potatoes." Mrs. Siddons gave recitations, or rather readings, from Milton and Shakespeare on several special occasions after her retirement from the stage, and she played on June 9th, 1818, for Charles Kemble's benefit, in the character of "Lady Randolph." A sister of Mrs. Siddons, Mrs. Hatton, resided at Swansea many years. She wrote several poems and novels under the nom de plume of "Ann of Swansea." She likewise had a sister, a Mrs. Whitlock, who was married to a provincial actor and manager. She went over to America, and performed before Washington when he was President of the United States. I never heard mention of, or read of any of the Kembles, who married a 'Curtis," but as Roger Kemble had twelve children, your correspondent “O.I.O.” is very probably correct.
"A GENTLEMAN OF WALES" (x.-565).-The proverb, the origin of which "Juventus" seeks, is in Grose's Provincial Glossary (1811) given under the head of Kent (p. 72) with the appended explanation :-"Many very poor gentlemen were knighted by Robert, Earl of Essex, in his expedition to Cales, A.D. 1596, when he conferred that honour on sixty persons: for this he was blamed by Queen Elizabeth, as making the honour of knighthood too cheap. As every Welshman is a gentleman, there must inevitably be among them a number of poor ones, as well as among the northern lairds, who have not, till lately, suffered any of their family to engage in commerce or trade. A yeoman was an independent man, somewhat less than a gentleman (a term formerly not so liberally dealt out as at present). A yeoman occupied his own land, killed his own mutton, and wore the fleeces of his own sheep, spun in his house. The yeomanry of Kent were famous for their riches. This class of people is now entirely extinct, the title of gentleman being almost as universally claimed in England as in Wales." Is it not consolatory to know, on Captain Grose's authority, that "every Welshman is undoubtedly a gentleman"?
GEO. H. BRIERLEY.
THE "HAPPY VALLEY" (x.-565).-The "Happy Valley" is the name given by tourists to a little glen through which runs the old road between Towyn and Pennal, in Merionethshire. It is entered by turning to the left at the toll gate on the Aberdovey road, one mile and a quarter from Towyn. The hills, which form an amphitheatre, soon approach so close as barely to leave room for the road and a brook. A narrow vale is then entered, containing meadows and ferns, and enclosed on either side by low hills. The valley is two or three miles long ; the hills then again converge, and the road slightly ascends and passes amongst boulders and rocks for half-a-mile, then the view opens to the river Dovey, and to a fine range of hills. During the descent numerous mountains and glens are on the left, and half-a-mile before arriving at Pennal village the bay is entered that leads to Aberdovey. The locality in question is, doubtless, as retired as any place known to tourists can be said to be.
There is a picturesque spot not far from Towyn, in Merionethshire, and through which the old Machynlleth road runs, called "Dyffryn Gwyn," which sometimes also goes by the name of the "Happy Valley." There is as well a "Happy Valley" at the well-known watering-place of Llandudno, a pretty green sloping valley on one side of the Great Orme, and not far from the pier. This "Happy Valley" is a favourite rendezvous of the visitors to Llandudno, and there nigger troupes, acrobats, and other performers enliven the summer afternoons and attract large audiences.