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The following felicitously executed translation of a widely known verse of Morgan Rhys, of Llanfynydd, has been sent us by the Rev. H. Elvet Lewis, of Hull:
Dy hen addewid rasol
A gadwodd rif y gwlith
Thy gracious ancient promise
Has saved a countless host,
Palm Sunday, known throughout Wales as Sul y Blodau, received this year a quite unwontedly general observance. The touching lines which follow have been sent us in commemoration of the occasion :
"FLOWERING SUNDAY," 1887.
Nay, gaze on us a little space,
And all the dead day's "tender grace."
The Marquess and Marchioness of Bute, being desirous that their children should be taught the Welsh language, have engaged Miss Hughes, daughter of Mr. Thomas Hughes, Albert House, Tregaron, as a Welsh governess.
Mr. Fred. A. Grey, a Welshman, Assistant Inspector of Mines for Lancashire, has been appointed Inspector for the South Wales District, the Government having decided that in future Welsh speaking inspectors shall fill such appointments in the Welsh district.
Among a list of blunders in examination papers contributed by "Mark Twain " to the April (fool?) number of the Century is the one: "Abraham Lincoln was born in Wales in 1599."
The following stanzas, masterly in point of composition, appeared in a recent issue of the Weekly Mail published at Cardiff. They are from the pen of one of the first of living Welsh Bards, the venerable "Nathan Dyfed," of Merthyr. The English (possibly also the Welsh, but certainly the English) reader should be told that the "Gildas" and "Gildas Cymru " mentioned therein is the bardic title of his humble servant the editor of the Red Dragon, whose native modesty will not permit him to make any attempt to translate the highly flattering references to himself contained in the Ode. The "measure," it will be perceived, is that of the stirring "March of the Men of Harlech :"-
"Y DDRAIG GOCH A DDYRY GYCHWYN."
Henffych well! hen "Ddraig " y
Erch arwres myr a chreigiau
Seiliau'r Ynys wen."
Rhudd ellylles, echrys genfil,
Drwy ei dyrnod den.
Lluman "Buddug" chwyfiai'n glaerwyn,
Drwy'r "Ddraig goch ddyroddai'r cychwyn,"
Buddugoliaeth! baeddu gelyn,
Pawlyn bretyn brad.
Dan ei swyn y dewr "Gaswallon,"
Gwyllon fleiddiau'r gad.
"Hamon" fawr a'i had.
Ei chlaer lug enhuddai'r gelyn
Addwyn "Cymru fu,"
Ddarwain dudded ddu !
Huan llachar Cymru,-
Llwch y Phenix fyn ddatguddio
Ar ol mil a mwy o flwyddau,
Fel 'cawn faith gyd-fyw;
Ein "Draig Goch" yn awr eheda
Llywia er ein llwydd ;
"Gwlad y Gân," a'i llaeth a'i llymru,
'N rhad, a'i ranu'n rhwydd.
THE WELSH LANGUAGE
SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES.
To return to firm ground. The language of Gower and Pembroke is very good Saxon. In Gower the words which are not English are Welsh, and the Welsh words probably form fifteen per cent. of the total vocabulary. Mr. Purnell has given us specimens of the Welsh in English Pembrokeshire. The Rev. J. P. Morgan, Vicar of Carew, in a letter to the writer supplies two Welsh words from his parish and a Welsh idiomatic form literally translated-" Not you do that"-"Na wn'newch hynna." At Narberth the phrase is "Not do that." A glossary of the common words now in use would probably reveal the presence of as great proportion of Welsh in Pembroke as in Gower. In both Gower and Pembroke the followers of the Norman Lords were Englishmen, with some admixture of mercenaries from abroad. There exists no shadow of evidence of a Flemish colony in Gower. The Pembrokeshire colony was probably limited to Rhos, with head-quarters at Haverfordwest. The Flemings at Haverfordwest in 1188 were of so little importance in the eyes of Giraldus that he did not think it worth his while to preach to them in their own tongue. The good archdeacon had his eye on the bishopric of St. David's, and more perhaps for the benefit of the Pope and the College of Cardinals than of his countrymen, he carefully records that the people sobbed, they shed innumerable tears of holy delight, as the result of sermons in French and Latin, of which the congregation generally, it is slily hinted, comprehended not a single word! There is no reason to believe that any Welshman who was ready to put up with the new order of things was forced to leave either Rhos or Haverfordwest. It was the policy of the Barons to conciliate the natives. other hand, the natives, as all other peoples in similar circumstances have done, accepted the inevitable and made the best use of their new position, both commercially and politically, and learnt to live in peace with their powerful and wealthy enemies.
The registers of the parishes throughout the county and the
records of Tenby throw a very important light on the past state of the population. For some reason or other, however, few of the registers are of very ancient date. Browne Willis tells us that to his " great surprise" he was "given to understand that no register of this kind has ever been attempted here (St. David's) yet, this practice being scarcely observed at any place in these parts to this day, and in none anciently." The first date in the register of Narberth is 1790; Uzmaston, 1720; Carew, 1718; Haverfordwest (St. Thomas) and Wiston, 1715; Bosherston, 1670; and Llawhaden, 1654. An analysis of the names recorded in the first fifty years gives the following results: In Narberth, Llawhaden, Wiston, and St. Issells (Saundersfoot), about two-thirds of the names are Welsh, or else patronymics such as Jones, Thomas, Davies, which are much more common in Wales than in England; at Uzmaston, near Haverfordwest, the English names are a little more than double, and at St. Thomas, Haverfordwest, and Carew not quite double the number of Welsh names.* The Rev. Charles Morgan, rector * In the Burial Registe. of the Parish of St. Thomas, Haverfordwest, occur the following names between 1715 and 1765 :
Hoar, Jones, Howell, Taylor, Owen, Tucker, Methy, Davies, Powell, Williams, Jenkins, Rees, Hiers, Harries, Phillips, Clun, Davies, Nicholls, Sais, Lewis, Hood, Lloyd, Thomas, Stephens, Edmond, Deadmond, Gilman, Payne, Levett, Jacob, Gibbs, Evans, Davids, Banner, Reynolds, Morgan, Walker, Bates, Fowler, Bowen, Smith, Higday, Gullam, Steeven, Lawrence, Hughes, Jermin, Robin, Wells, Harris, Richards, Morris, Nash, Edwards, Barnardeston, Philipps, Penry, Argos, Brand, Roberts, Hemcocks, Walters, Griffith, Summers, James, Wade, Caine, Glover, Suttle, Murrow, John, Duberlin T., Greenish, Andrew, Hake, Woolcock, Reese, Gibbons, Wilkin, Duggan, Cadogan, dams, Tanner, Garrat, Parrots (?), Horn, Price, Mathias, Parsoll, Crawford, Protheroe, Brown, Roach, Bedford, Luntley, Sandon, Bateman, Stokes, Dunham, Berron, Ffollands, Dalley, Sadler, Wright, Collins, Cambold, Pricket, Smith, Church, Meredith, Parry, Clark, Emment Bennett, Moore, Eynon, Jackson, Gwyn, Cosins, Tidd, Marychurch, Burt, Wear, Sparks, Crowther, Childs, Rolley, Devereux, Whittom, Millers, Allen, Pawlet, Francis, Priket.
The following names are from the Baptismal Register of the same Parish during the same period :
Griffith, Hoods, Roberts, Davids, Browne, Morgan, Martin, Thomas, Levett, Webb, Sayce, Allen, Harris, Lewis, Jones, Jenkins, Pine, Banner, Philips, Richards, Power, Wilkins, Owen, Nicholas, Howell, Nash, Edwards, Carns, Robbin, Donovan, Deveraux, Smith, Hugh, Lloyd, Williams, Gibbs, Rogers, Brooks, Wilkins, Crishley, Garret, Woolcock, Gwillim, Miles, Wilkinson, Clun, Cadogan, Crowther, Duberlin, Methy, Jacks, James, Bowen, Lavers, Edmond, Nichols, Davies, John, Hire, Jermin, Bevan, Gullam, Morris, Duggan, Andrews, Lucy, Gwyn, May, Eynon, Mends, Patrick, Collins, Hughes, Tucker, Jackson, Higden, Bateman, Webb, Reynolds, Garrads, Scott, Price, Vaughan, Morrow, Rowlands, Beynon, Ffollands, Waters, Pricket, Summers, Child.
In the Parish of Carew, with Redberth (otherwise Rhydberth, Redbert, and anciently Ridpert), the names on the Parish Register, from 1718 to 1768, being the earliest in the vicar's custody, may be classified as follows:
1. Decidedly Welsh Names.-Eynon, Bevan, Llewhellin (or Whelling), Hughes, Morgan, Griffith, Owen(s), Gwyn, Price (once Prees), Howell (Evan(s), Perry, Lloyd, Rees, Prickett, Pricket, Jenkins, Beynon, Cradock, Powell, Pruddero (sic), Rice, Bowen, Hugh, Parry, Vaughan, Tew, Duggan (Cadwgan), Clyne.
2. Patronymics more common in Wales than in England.-Williams, Philipps, Rogers, Jones, James, David (Davids, Davie. Davies), John, Lewis, Thomas, Richards, Morris, Harry (Harries), William (Williams), Edwards, George, Roberts, Matthias, Joseph, Adams, Andrews, Rowland, Peters, Arthur (Artor, Arta), Stephen, Edmond, Reynolds, Matthews, Herbert, Moses.
of Bosherston, finds that in the period between 1670 to 1677 in his parish English names predominated over Welsh in the proportion of three to one.
The only Flemish name in the lists is Holland, which perhaps appears also in the form of Ffolland or Ffollant. The French are represented by Duberlin, Devereux, Franklin, and possibly by a few others.* The list of mayors and bailiffs of Tenby for the period between 1402 and the reign of Elizabeth consists of five hundred and thirty-nine English, eleven French, and two hundred and thirty-three Welsh names. Mr. Herbert Hore,
who has published this list, claims for the Flemish five names, De Wilkin, Adlard, Fernand, Yencks, and Jenkin! "The list,' says Mr. Hore, "is of some historical value, as showing that families of other than Welsh origin were for a long period in the ascendant. . The scarcity, however, of Flemish names in a town where Flemings are said to have settled is remarkable." What is true of Tenby, Narberth, Llawhaden, Wiston, Bosherston, St. Thomas, Haverfordwest, and St. Issell's is equally true, in all probability, of every parish in English Pembrokeshire. From castle, garrison, religious house, and parish church, English influence radiated in
3. Local Names.-Nash, Laugharne.
4. Decidedly English Names.-Rowe, Seaborne, Hitchins, White, Yates, Roach, Phelps, Jermain, Webb, Hoocks, Higgins, Sim(b)lett, Hyer (Hier), Grant, Ormond, Wilkin(s), Hawkins, Lawrence, Dyer, Smith, Allen, Bartlett, Saunders, Gwyther, Merchant, Codd, Leach, Hilling, Gibbon, Palmer (Pawmer), Scurlock, Mason, Collins, Millart, Millar, Husband, Baths, Skone, Merryman, Read, Parcell, Froyne, Elliott, Picton, Hopley (Hopla), Twiny, Signet (Sinnett), Martin, Wocock (Wolcock, (Woolcock, Woollcock), Long, Alleyne, Fowler, Hill, Morse (Morce), Eastance, Storks, Jordan, Fletcher, Voyle, Garret, Brin (Brine), Parrott, Harts, Follands (Follant), Coale (Cole), Higdon, Rossiter, Dubberlin, Young, Mabe, Easemond, Oriel, Taylor, Kenrick, Helton, Sidwell, Higgins, Murth (Morch, Myrth), Barber, Roblin, Day (Dey), Seare, Purser, Pridy, Wogan, Cambrick, Tasker, Furlorg (Forlong), Ferrier, Vittle, Moss, Whitto (Whittoo, Whitta, Whittaa, Whittaaw!!!), Scall, Waters, Angel, Trump (?), Prout, Kennedy, Hutson (sic), Holland (Hollent), Brunning, Conner, Wane (?), Philpin, Bedoe (sic), Tucker, Matha, Scourfield, Hay, Train (? Frain), Gates.
In the Parish of St. Issells, Saundersfoot, near Tenby, for the first thirty years the surname of John occurs in the Parochial Register 16 times, Parsel 16, Morris 22, Thomas 38, Davies 18, Griffiths 20, Philip, Philipp, Phillip 12 times each; Rees 15 times, Morgan 12, Lewis 7, James 12, Bowen 8, Llewellin 7, Williams 10, Hughes 2, Mathias 3, David 6, Lloyd 5, Jones 5, Evans, 5, Howel 6, Pugh 3, Eynon 2, Powel 3, Beynon 4, Richards 3, Jenkin 2, Harries 4. Walters 6, Smith 7, Butterfield 8, Nash 10, Gunter 4, Brace 6, Cozens 5. Brinn 3, Childs 3, Gwyther 5, Hamson 6, Hilling 3, Callen 7, Tasker 2, Robeston 3, Welch 4. Also the following names occur once or twice:-Canton, Badam, Hitchings, Vinden, Mends, Hodge, Prout. Millar, Scourfield, Treharne, Hurt, Langrets, Allen, Crocket, Hall, Martin, Mason, Voil, Lambrook, Phelp, Cole, Webb, Merriman, Shadrach, Ormond, Oriel, Green, Absolom, Slocum, Longures, Savin, Sutton, Smyth, Smith, Lawrence. The following are common names about here now:-Thomas (very common), Nash, Gwyther, Davies, Parsell, Cozens, Tasker, Cole, Childs, John, Badam, Briun, Walters, Griffiths, Williams. We have also Pulford, Mason, Gunter, Craig, Hilling, Morse, Edwards. Very few Joneses about here.
*For the statistics of the parishes named I am grateful to the Rev. J. P. Morgan, of Carew, the Rev. J. G. Lloyd, of Wiston, the Rev. Richard Bowcott, of Llaw. haden, the Rev. G. C. Hilbers, of St. Thomas's Rectory, Haverfordwest, the Rev. W. B. Thomas, of Uzmaston, the Rev. Charles Morgan, of Bosherston, the Rev. F. O. Thomas, of Saundersfoot, and Mr. John Davies, of Narberth.