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Sir William Waller's men, who were taken prisoners by this Captain Jones his men, were sent to the same inn and lodging where Jones drank those healths. But soon after, Sir William's forces routing Jones, took two hundred of his horse and pursued Jones into Devizes; who, flying on horseback towards the same inn, one of Sir William's soldiers there imprisoned, just as he came before the inn door, seeing him flying, and the Parliament's forces pursuing, having his pistol charged, shot him in the head. Whereupon he fell down from his horse at the same docr where he drank those healths, more to his own than Sir William's confusion. There he lying dead in the street, the innkeeper informed Sir William what healths he had there drank overnight before, and what a just judgment was now befallen him in that very place. With which Sir William and divers gentlemen with him were much affected. This is attested by one Captain Brummidge. a gentleman of quality, an ear and eye-witness to all these premises, who was present with Sir William in the Devizes when this judgment befell this healthquaffing cavalier."
In Mr. Brill's excellent history, Military and Municipal, to which I am indebted for these particulars, there is a quaint print of two lusty, half-drunken troopers clinking their glasses, while a fire-eating captain stands with his drawn sword threatening a fourth cavalier, who, on his bended knees, holds reluctantly the glass, apparently squeamish of his liquor, or the health dictated by the captain. The frontispiece to this volume has the gallant trooper falling back over the crupper of his powerful charger; the Roundhead prisoner at the door of the inn holds the discharged pistol with which he has shot his enemy, while Waller's horse are seen in the background spurring on in pursuit past the market cross. The following is Waller's despatch relating to the skirmish :
"To William Lenthall, Esq., Speaker of the House of Commons. Downton, 26 of March, 1645. 'Sir,-In regard of my Lord Goring's labouring to impede my march, I went to Lavington, and thence upon the advance of a long march over the Plains, I came safe hither. On my way between Calne and Lavington, I passed by the Devizes, where the enemy's horse sallying out, we charged them and beat them into the town, falling pell mell in with them; for if we had any fort, I might have bid fair to have taken the castle. We took a lieutenantcolonel and divers officers and many prisoners, and two hundred very good horses. Cromwell, I hear, is advancing from Ringwood towards Dorchester. I am now going after him to hear in what condition he is as fast as weary legs can carry me. Our want of money is extreme. Your humble servant,
"There was then serving under Sir Charles Lloyd a grim Welshman, named John Gwynn, who had followed the King's standard throughout the war, and whose relish for fire-eating in his royal master's service, judging by his own report, was a passion incapable of being satisfied. As soon as the Devizes garrison had recovered from the consternation into which Waller had thrown them, Captain Gwynn and his brother officers meditated reprisals, and the Parliamentary general's retreat towards the capital seems to have furnished them with the required opportunity. Let the captain speak for himself :
"When a party of Waller's horse beat up our quarters at the Devizes, and furiously scoured the street, giving no quarter to any soldiers they met, then I ran and leaped across the street of such a sudden by them as to escape both their swords and pistols, when they killed Captain Jones with others, and shot Ensign Garroway in the neck. And to be quit with them, a knot of my own associates, officers and reformadoes belonging to the garrison, came to pass away an hour or two with me at my quarters, and there contracted to make a party to go and fall upon Waller's rear-guard at Marlborough town-end; and withal, strictly resolved that not a word should be spoken after our swords were drawn, but all to march on in order, and unanimously to sing a brisk lively tune (being a great part of their design), and so fall on, singing :-As they did-beat the enemy, and pursued him through the town at mid-day, and market-day too; which so rejoiced a number of loyal-hearted market-people, that their loud shouts gave an apprehension as if an army had come to second them. This strong alarm did so discompose their whole camp, that this small party had time enough to make good their long retreat, and to bring with them their well-deserved prize they so bravely fought for, of prisoners, horse and arms; without the loss of a man and but two slightly wounded." At the end of the memoir the notes of the tune are given,
which Sir Walter Scott observed re: embles the old Scotish air, "Up in the morning early."
Sir Charles Lloyd surrendered Devizes Castle in capitulation to Oliver Cromwell, September 24th, 1645. I may, perhaps, be permitted to write further of the gallant Gwynn, for surely these brave Welshmen who fought for King Charles should be remembered.
HY. G. BUTTERWORTH.
PENRY'S CONNECTION WITH THE MARPRELATE TRACTS (xi.-87).-" Oxoniensis asks if "T.C.U.," or anybody else, can tell him whether "Dr. Rees could possibly have read the evidence, &c.,"implying, of course, that the Doctor had not done so. Now as nobody else has sent in a reply, and as Dr. Rees is dead and cannot help us, perhaps I may be allowed to say that I do not think Dr. Rees would have used the strong form of words that he did without being convinced, on what appeared to him good grounds, of the truth of what he said. But here is another opinion, also strongly expressed. John Hunt, in his History of Religious Thought in England (1870, vol. I., pp. 82, et sq.), who has examined the Marprelate controversy closely, says, "The persistency with which the Marprelate Tracts have been ascribed to Penry is a notable instance of the recklessness with which men write history when they have a purpose to serve. There is nothing in Penry's character or his writings that gives any countenance to the conjecture that he was Martin Marprelate.' See also Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, ii., p. 68.
IOLO MORGANWG'S TOMB (xi.-374).-There is no mystery. There was no lettered stone when Waring wrote, and there was none when Mr. Thomas Stephen wrote, many years later (1852), calling attention to the fact; but there was soon after (1855), and there is now. I don't see, however, how the inscription on the tomb can be decisive in the face of other conflicting testimonies. Moreover we are not sure what the inscription means. It says Iolo was born March 10, 1746, O.S. The "O.S." was omitted in the account given in the Red Dragon, but the meaning of the O.S. is altogether uncertain. It is a question whether it affects both the day and the year, or one only, and which? Naturally one would say March, 1746, O.S, means March, 1747, N.S.; and Mr. Stephens says it is more than probable Iolo was born in 1747, as he says himself he was twenty-three in 1770. The Rev. D. Silvan Evans says he has seen it in Iolo's own handwriting that he was born March 10, 1747. Now if this date is correct, he was not eighty when he died December 18, 1826, but in one of his last letters Iolo says he "is in his eighty-first year, that he has been confined to his house three years, and is a complete cripple."
Some years ago I had the curiosity to inquire what the Register at Llancarfan had to say on the subject, and the worthy Rector replied that the leaves corresponding to 1746 and 1747 had been so damaged by water many years ago as to have become illegible.
Here is another discrepancy. Stephen says Iolo married Margaret, daughter of Rees and Elizabeth Roberts, of Marychurch, June 3, 1781; on the other hand, the Rev. D. Silvan Evans states that "Iolo and Margaret were married and registered at St. Mary's Church the 18th July, 1781; that Elizabeth, their eldest daughter, was born May 4th, and registered May 9th, 1790, and died April 4th, 1793."
A UNIVERSITY AT BANGOR (xi.-373).-Bangor ("high choir") is a Welsh word equivalent to monastery" or "monastic college.' Thus we find mention of Bangor Aidan-"the College of Aidan or Aedh;" Bangor Elbod—“the
College of Elbod," &c. This has occasionally led writers astray, as eg., Montalembert (Monks of the West, Bk. viii., c. ii.), followed by Charles Kingsley (Hermits, p. 249), who have confounded Bangor Iltyd, i.e., Illtyd's college at Llantwit Major, with Bangor Iscoed on the Dee, on account of the similarity of the names. There is also an Irish Bangor in Ulster. The present Bangor in Carnarvonshire is properly Bangor Fawr ("the Great College"), or Bangor Deiniol ("the College of Deiniol"). Deiniol, the son of Dunawd, founded a monastic college there in the sixth century, which became noted. (See Rees's Welsh Saints.) The Irish annals contain references to this college, e.g., Ann. Ulton. A.D. 631 (632)-Combustio Bennchoir Moer in Britannia. Ann. Tigem. A.D. 672-Combustio Bennchoriæ Brittonum. Ann. Ulton. A.D. 671-Combustio Bennchari Britonum. As these Colleges were built of wood, their destruction by fire would not be an uncommon or extraordinary incident. Bangor in Deiniol's time became the see of a new bishopric, founded by Deiniol with the aid of Maelgwn Gwynedd, Prince of Gwynedd. Deiniol died in 584 (Annales Cambria, cxl. Annus, Dispositio Danielis Bancorum), and was buried in the Isle of Bardsey. Bangor, therefore, was known as a "centre of learning as early as the sixth century. It is not probable, however, that the quotation from John Case, which your correspondent "W.A." gives, has reference to Bangor in Carnarvonshire, but rather to Bangor Iscoed on the Dee, near Wrexham, the destruction of whose monks is a notable event in Welsh history and in the annals of the ancient British Church. The story is told by Bede (Historia Ecclesiastica ii., 2). In 613, Aedelfrid, or Ethelfrith, a pagan Saxon, King of Northumbria, came against Wales, and was met by the Welsh at Chester. Before the battle he noticed a party of monks, who were praying for the defeat of the pagans. "Most of them," says Bede, "were from the monastery of Bangor, in which it is said there was so great a number of monks, that when the monastery was divided into seven parts with governors (rectores) set over them, none of these parts had less than three hundred men, who were all accustomed to live by the labour of their hands." Ethelfrith commanded that the attack should be made first upon the monks, and about twelve hundred perished, and only fifty escaped. This is supposed by Bede to have fulfilled the prophecy of Augustine, who foretold evil to his opponents, prominent among whom were the monks of Bangor Iscoed under their leader Dunawd. William of Malmesbury speaks of ruins at Bangor Iscoed, "Sunt certe adhuc (twelfth century) ibi tot semiruti parietes ecclesiarum, tantae turbae ruinarum, quantae vix alibi," which may, however, be a statement due to confusion with the ruins of a Roman town, Bovium. Leland in his Itinerary says that the ruins of Bangor Iscoed were partially visible in his time. E. J. NEWELL.
[Mrs. Helen Watney is thanked for a reply on the same subject.]
PEGGY EVANS, OF LLANBERIS (xi.-372).—I can only quote the passage from Pennant's Tour at second-hand respecting Margaret Uch Evans. I hope some reader of the Red Dragon will be enabled to supply other information as reliable, and not so well-known. This Amazon, who lived near the end of the lower lake, died in 1801, at the age of one hundred and five, and, says a Welsh tourist, "she was the last specimen of the strength and spirit of the ancient British fair." "This extraordinary female," says Pennant, was the greatest hunter, shooter, and fisher of her time; she kept a dozen, at least, of dogs, terriers, greyhounds, and spaniels, all excellent in their kinds. She killed more foxes in one year than all the confederate hunts do in ten; rowed stoutly, and was queen of the lake ; fiddled excellently, and knew all the old British music; did not neglect the mechanic arts, for she was a good joiner; at the age of seventy was the best wrestler in the country, so that few young men dared to try a fall with her. She had a maid of congenial qualities; but death, that mighty hunter, at last earthed this faithful companion. Margaret was also blacksmith, shoemaker, boat-builder, and maker of harps. She shod her own horses, made her own shoes, and built her own boats, while she was under contract to convey the copper ore down the lakes. All the neighbouring bards paid their addresses to Margaret, and celebrated her exploits in pure British verse. At length she gave her hand to the
most effeminate of her admirers, as if pre-determined to maintain the superiority which nature had bestowed on her."
[Mrs. Helen Watney is thanked for a reply on the same subject.]
HY. G. BUTTERWORTH.
WELSH NAMES OF STREAMS (xi.-277).-A friend suggests the following derivations :-Llwchwr Llwch-ddwr, i.e., water of the lake, llwch being the same as Scotch "loch." Cf. Tal-y-llychau, and Llan-llwch, both in Carmarthenshire. Gwili-gwy-lif, flow of water. Amman=wy (gwy)-maen, strong water. Or am may be the root seen in the Latin am-nis. Dafen.-May not this be du-afon, black river? I prefer, however, regarding the -en as a feminine ending, the Daf being the same as Taf. Taf-wys (Thames).
Ogwr seems to me to be a short form of Ogwy Fawr; there is an Ogwy Fach. Ogwy Fawr in English naturally becomes Ogmore, which is always used. Aberogwy Fawr is shortened in colloquial pronunciation into Aberogwr and Brogwr. My good old friends in the Vale of Gwlad Morgan are very autocratic in their dialect. Who, without knowing it, would suppose that Bradlon stands for Broad Land, Llechyard for Llidiard, and Lisworney for Llys y Fronydd. Ogwr for Ogwy Fawr is nothing to that. Ogwr cannot be the original name of the stream, because for Ogwr Fawr we should then have Ogwrmore. Also Ogwr is not a simple word. It is evident that Ogwy is the old word for the stream. The attempt of local philologists to derive it from Eog-wy, salmon water, is in vain, as it is a cognate of aqua, which is represented in French by the very soft form of eau.
The consonants and ch have been much used, in various forms, to express "light " and "water." To express water we have lacus, loch, lough, lake, llwch, llychwr, in different languages. To express light we have lux (lucs), luces, lluched (lightness), licht, light, golwg, llygaid (organs to use light); oculus is another form with consonants transposed as cithara and crwth, chitone and tunica, barrel and balir, casglu and clasgu. From oculus we have ogle in English, oeil in French, Germ. Ange, Engl. eye hence it appears that licht, llygaid, llyched, eye, are but the same word in different forms.
How are we to explain that Uwch in Welsh is used for dust, as well as for a collection of water? Is it not from the fact that pools of water, on roads, for instance, are dried up, and the alluvial deposit thus left becomes hard, and when trodden becomes dust and is blown about by the wind? No other explanation suggests itself to me. The "m" should never be doubled in Aberaman, Cwmaman, Brynaman, Amanford, as is evident from the Latin cognate amnis, and Welsh
J. BOWEN JONES, B A.
THE "HARLEIAN MISCELLANY" (xi.-87).-Copies of this work occasionally turn up in the catalogues of second-hand booksellers. Here is a "lot" appearing in the collection of Mr. Wm. Blackledge, 7, Whetstone Park, Lincoln's Innfields, W.C., who has just sent me the most recent edition of his catalogue :
"Harleian Miscellany, or a collection of scarce, curious, and entertaining Pamphlets and Tracts, as well in Manuscript as in print, found in the Earl of Oxford's Library, interspersed with Historical, Political, and Critical Notes, 8 vols., 4to, mottled calf, gilt, fine copy of the scarce original edition, with list of Subscribers, £4 4s. 1774-6.
"This valuable, political, historical, and antiquarian record, an indispensable auxiliary in the illustration of British History, contains between 600 and 700 rare and curious tracts."-LOWNDES, Willett's sold for £11; Marq. Townshend's, £13 13s."
THE FAIR MAIDS OF BALA (xi.-372).—I think "Taffy" alludes to Lord Lyttleton, who said that some of the prettiest girls he ever saw in all his life were at Bala, and who, when writing of a fish called the "gwyniadd," stated that "its
flavour was so delicate, it surpassed even the lips of the Fair Maids of Bala." From what I know of my countrywomen, the Welsh peasant girls, I opine that his lordship's noble ears would have tingled considerably if he had ventured to test the comparative value of the two articles, unless the Welsh maids of one hundred and fifty years ago were very different to the Welsh girls of my childhood, for they were particularly shy of a Saxon lover, and certainly would have deemed a kiss proffered by a "gentleman an insult. Can anyone tell me what fish the "gwyniadd" is? A white fleshed, or silvery scaled one, no doubt from its Welsh name. Can it be the "sewin" of our Carmarthenshire rivers? The whiting is a sea-fish, so the "gwyniadd" cannot be identical with it.
Berry Grove, Lyss, Hants.
"WHO IS HE?" (xi.-372).-Lewis Morris, surely. This is only guess work on my part; but I am told that he is all "Extremely Curious" quotes in personal appearance, and he is Welsh, is he not? Someone told me he was a native of Carmarthen.
[Mr. Lewis Morris's residence is at Penybryn, Carmarthenshire. personality quite familiar to us. We met him very recently at Narberth, in Pembrokeshire. He may be the individual of whom Extremely Curious" is in quest, and whom the Fortnightly reviewer describes ; but, like the Scotchman, we must confess to having our "doots" on the subject notwithstanding.ED. R.D.]
THOMAS THOMAS (xi.—373).—In Johnson's "ypographia, p. 600, under the heading "Cambridge," may be read: "In this University they received the art of printing early, but it is uncertain who were the persons that brought it thither. John Siberch, in 1521, settled here, and stiled himself the first Greek printer in England; yet though there is much Greek letter in his books, there is not one that is wholly of that character. As Erasmus was then resident at Cambridge, he no doubt took care of his own works In July, 153, King Henry VIII. granted to this University for ever, under his great seal, authority to name, and to have three stationers and printers of books, alyants and strangers not born within, or under his obedience, and they to be taken and reputed as denizens. Notwithstanding this favourable licence for the encouragement of the press, no books appear to have been printed here after the year 1522 to the year 1584, the space of sixty-two years, when Thomas Thomas, M.A., and formerly of King's College, in this University, took up, and followed the business of printing; and was, besides printer to the University, author of the dictionary which bears the name of Thomas Thomas. He died in 1588."
T. H. THOMAS