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names gratitude will by no means suffer him not to insert in a proper place. In order to enliven his performance, and make it as entertaining as is consistent with the nature of such a Work, the Author hath interspersed extracts of the history of some of the Eminent Personages of former days, devout, learned, and military short accounts, etymological and chronological, of some places of ancient note, Towns, Castles, &c."


In addition to the Dictionary, Mr. Walters published a dissertation on the Welsh language, pointing out its antiquity, copiousness, grammatical perfection, with remarks on its poetry, and other articles not foreign to the subject. Also, two sermons in Welsh on Ezekiel xxxiii.-11, to which were added:-" Dau Ymofyniad neu Ymchwiliad. Y cyntaf :--Am farn Eglwys Loegr ynghylch cyrhaeddiad y brynedigaeth Gristionogol, neu rinwedd marwolaeth Crist. Yr ail:-Am feddwl St. Pedr, yn yr hyn a ddywed efe, yn a drydedd bennod o'i ail Epistol, ynghylch ysgrifeniadau St. Paul."



DR. COKE, THE BRECON MISSIONARY.-The following is the inscription on the slab of black slate in the Priory, Brecon, commemorating the Rev. Thomas Coke, LL.D. The slab is covered by the inscription cut in Roman capital letters :


Sacred to the memory of the

Rev. Thomas Coke. LL.D, of Jesus College, Oxford,
who was born in this borough the 9th of September,

A.D. 1747. Was one of the Common Council, died in 1770,

filled the office of chief magistrate with
honour to himself and equal benefit to the public.
After a zealous ministry of several years in the
Established Church, in 1776 he united himself to
the Rev. John Wesley, M.A., and preached the Gospel
with success in various parts of Great Britain
and Ireland.

To him were confided the foreign missions of the Methodists, in support of which he expended a large portion of his fortune, and with unremitted vigour encountered toils and self-denial which the Christian world

beheld with admiration.

By the blessing of God on the missions to the
negroes in the West Indies, commenced by him in
1786, a foundation was laid for the civilization and
salvation of that degraded class of human beings.
To the negroe (sic) race upon their native continent
as well as in the island of their bondage
his compassions were extended; and he set
the first example in modern days of efforts for
the spiritual emancipation of Western Africa.
After crossing the Atlantic eighteen times on
his visits to the American Continent and the
West Indian Colonies in the service of the souls
of men, his unwearied spirit was stirred within

him to take a part in the noble enterprise of
evangelising British India. He sailed in 1815 as
the leader of the first Wesleyan Missionaries
to Ceylon, but this burning and shining light,
which in the western world had guided thousands
into the paths of peace, had now fulfilled its
course, and suddenly, yet rich in evening splendour,
sunk into the shadows of mortality.
He died on the voyage the 3rd of May, 1814, and his
remains were committed to the great deep
until the sea shall give up her dead.
His days were past, but his purposes were not
broken off for the mission which he had planned

was made abundantly to prosper. The same love
of Christ which made him long the advocate and
the pattern of exertion in behalf of foreign lands,
constrained him also to works of pious charity at
home, into many neglected districts of England,
Wales, and Ireland,

the means of grace were carried by his private
bounty, or through his public influence, and his
praise is in the Gospel throughout all the churches.
This monument was erected A.D. 1829, at the
expense of the ministers and missionaries with whom he was

united, as a record of their respectful gratitude for the disinterested services, the eminent usefulness, and the long tried and faithful attachment of their now glorified friend, by the appointment, and under the direction of the Rev. T. Roberts, M.A., and the Rev. J. Buckley.

This description of the labours of a Welsh hero may, perhaps, fitly occupy a portion of the pages of the Red Dragon.



SINGULAR WARFARE.-The Chester Chronicle of October 9th, 1846, contained the following :-"A Welsh paper states that at Wainybwlch, Monmouthshire, a deadly warfare has been raging among the bees and wasps, whole clouds of them, to an immense extent, contending together in the air, and completely covering the ground with killed and wounded."



"CARDIFF."-The following notes on the early forms of this place-name, from the pen of the editor, appear in the last number of the Cymmrodor :

(1) In the agreement between Bishop Urban of Landaff and Robert, Earl of Gloucester, A.D. 1126 (Liber Landarensis, pp. 27 seqq.), the form is "Kardi."

(2) In the Annals of Margam, written in the 18th century-the last entry in the MS., which is imperfect, is for the year 1232-we find the name in an entry under the year "MCXXXIV. Robertus frater regis Henrici, et comes Normannorum, Cardiviae moritur, sepultusque est apud abbatiam Gloecestriæ."


So again in the year MCLVII. Comes Gloucestria Willelmus in castello Cardiviae captus est a Walensibus, et Comitissa Hawysia."


A slightly different form occurs under the year "MCLXXXV. Kerdiviae incendio est tradita."

(3) In Annales Cambriae sub anno 1233 (MS. said in the preface to be of the end of the 18th century) occurs "castra de Kirdive." That the Ann. Camb. and the Annals of Margam give the name correctly with v(therein differing from the generality of Lat. MSS.) is no doubt due to the Welsh origin of the two chronicles.

(1) Rotuli Chartarum in Turri Londinensi Asservati, vol. i., pt. 1 (Records, 1837).

P. 149 b. In a grant by King John in the year 1205, the name occurs several times in the form "Kaerdif," and the f was probably intended by the writer to have its Latin or English sound.

On p. 174 of the same vol. the name occurs again, in a grant of the 9th year of King John, in the same form, "Kaerdif.”


(5) In the MISAE ROLL of the 11th year of King John, A.D. 1210, the same form, "Kaerdif," occurs (Rotuli, etc., regnante Johanne, 1844.)

(6) In Inquisitions of the 19th and 21st years of Edw. I. (Calendarium Genealogicum, Hen. III., Edw. I., vol. ii., pp. 755 762) the form is "Kaerdif."

(7) Among Welsh Works, Brut y ywysogion has three references to Cardiff, and each time it is printed in the Rolls edition Kaer (or Caer) Dyf. The MSS. range from the 13th to the 16th centuries.

(8) In Iolo MSS., p. 183, the form is Caer Dyf-"Ffwg ap Gwarin, a elwir Ffwg Morganwg a Ffwg Vegwnt Caer Dyf." This, variously spelt, continued to be the Welsh form to a late period.

(9) On the contrary, in the story of Geraint ab Erbin, as printed by Lady Guest (Mab., ii., 24), we find yny dref a elwir yr awrhonn Kaer dyff."

The common derivation, which connects "Caerdydd" with the Roman general Didius, may fairly be called impossible: if from any such form as Didius the name would have been Caerddydd. Caerdydd has probably been formed from the older Caerdyf by the common colloquial change of f to dd. We hear colloquially "plwydd" for "plwyf," (which 1 have heard in South Cardiganshire), "tyddu" for "tyfu," "hwyddell" and "rhwyddell" (the regular Breconshire form) for "hwyfell," rhoddiau" for "rhofiau" (shovels), "godderbyn" for "gyferbyn." Similarly, in Mabinogion, ii., 402, the son of Taliessin, commonly called Afaon, is "adaon," doubtless to be pronounced "Addaon.” We may "



further compare "Hafod Lwyddog (Cymru Fu, 471) for "H. Lwyfog," “Eiddionyda” (Gwaith Lewis Glyn Cothi, 174) for Eivionydd. This modification seems to justify the connection of "Y Werydd" with "Vergivius." The common word dydd from dyf, dyw, is another instance; and the English forms, cantreth, cantred, from cantref, are to be explained in the same way. This change took place in Cornish too, as is shown by the late form cidni dh for cyniaf, W. cynauaf, On the contrary, the common pronunciation in Connemara of guidh (W. gweddia) in guidh orainn (pray for us), is gweev.




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WELSHMEN AT CAMBRIDGE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.-The following from Bass Mullinger's History of the University is not without interest; it shows, at least, what prejudice could do in the "good old times." Speaking of a certain master of Magdalene College, Mr. Mullinger says

"As an administrator he was noted for his narrow-minded aversion to Welshmen. There is still extant a querulous letter from one of the fellows to Burghley, narrating how the new master had ousted one Johns, their Greek lecturer, from his office, on account of his Celtic descent, and had driven out the college butler for no other reason."

In a note an extract is given from the State papers

"At his first coming it was reported he shuld say he wold roote out all the Welshmen in the colledge. How forward he was herein may appeare in that he never omitted anie opportunitie either to take anie thing from such Welshmen as were in the colledge, or to hinder them of anie benefite that might befall them." W. A.


BYRON'S LETTERS.-In reading the very admirable selection from Byron's Letters, published in the "Camelot " Series, I noted several references to old friends whom the "Notes and Queries" of the Red Dragon have, at various times, invested with fresh immortality. You may, perhaps, find a corner for these jottings. Here, p. 124, for instance, in a letter from Venice, June 4, 1817, we are reminded of the respectable Mrs. Piozzi and her days of Della Crusca celebrity: "To-day, Pindemonte, the celebrated poet of Verona, called on me. He enquired after his old Cruscan friends, Parsons, Greathead, Mrs. Piozzi, and Meny, all of whom he had known in his youth. I gave him as bad an account of them as I could, answering, 'all gone dead,' and damned by a satire more than twenty years ago; that the name of their extinguisher was Gifford; that they were but a sad set of scribes after all, and no great things in any other way. He seemed, as was natural, very much pleased with this account of his old acquaintances." The last remark is typically Byronic. The satire, of course, is the once famous Baviad.


Byron seems to have read everything, and have remembered all he read. Here, p. 178, is an instance of his minute accuracy. Murray, my dear, make my respects to Thomas Campbell, and tell him from me, with faith and friendship, three things that he must right in his Poets (i.e., Campbell's Specimens): Firstly, he says, Anstey's Bath Guide characters are taken from Smollett. 'Tis impossible-the Guide was published in 1766, and Humphrey Clinker in 1771!" This point has already been noticed in the Red Dragon.

In the famous letter to Murray, denouncing Bowles, the champion of "invariable" principles, there is an allusion (p. 217) to Dyer's "Grongar Hill," and a remark on Campbell's plagiarisation of Dyer's "The Present's still a Cloudy

Day." And one more "unconsidered trifle- "Polymetis" Spence, whose Anecdotes were published in 1816, comes in for a hit-p. 130--


You can make any loss up
With "Spence" and his gossip,

A work which must surely succeed

THE PROWESS OF WELSH ARCHERS.-Readers of the Red Dragon have heard of Welshmen's prowess under many trying circumstances. The following narrative from the Itinerary of Richard I, by Geoffrey De Vinsauf, is entitled : "How a Parthian bowman was shot by a Welsh bowman, for not keeping to his agreement." The event occurred before Acre, A.D. 1190, in the third Crusade (that Archbishop Baldwin, accompanied by Giraldus Cambrensis, preached through Wales in 1188). "It chanced, moreover, one day," says the account, "that the slingers and bowmen, and all who were skilled in throwing missiles, frequently challenged one another on both sides, and discharged their weapons for exercise. When the rest had departed from the field in their turns, a Parthian and a Welshman began to aim their arrows at each other in a hostile manner, and discharge them so as to strike with all their might. But the Welshman, aware of his foe's intention, repaid like for like; on which the Parthian, making a truce, approached him, and when within hearing, began a parley. Of what country are you?' said he, and by what name may I be pleased to know you? I see you are a good bowman, and in order that you may be more inclined to tell me, I am a Parthian by nation, brought up from childhood in the art of shooting, and my name is Grammahyr, of good reputation amongst my people for my deeds of renown, and well known for my victories.' The Welshman told his name and nation. Let us prove,' said the Parthian, 'which is the best bowman, by each taking an arrow, and aiming them against one another from our bows. You shall stand still first, and I will aim an arrow at you, and afterwards you shall shoot in like manner at me.' The Welshman agreed. The Parthian having fitted his arrow, and parting his feet as the art requires, with his hands asunder, and his eyes on the mark,


'Lets fly the arrow, failing of its aim.'


The Welshman, unhurt, demanded the fulfilment of the aforesaid condition. 'I will not agree,' said the Parthian; but you must stand another shot, and then have two at me.' The Welshman replied, 'You do not stand by your agreement, nor observe the condition you yourself dictated; and if you will not stand, although I may delay it for a time, as I may best be able, God will take revenge on you according to His will, for your treachery; and he had scarce finished speaking, when in the twinkling of an eye he smote the Turk with his arrow in the breast, as he was selecting an arrow from his quiver to suit his purpose, and the weapon, meeting with no obstacle, came out at the back, having pierced the Turk's body upon which he said to the Turk, 'You stood not by your agreement, nor I by my word.' Animated by these and the like successes, the Christians thought they should preserve themselves for good fortune by bearing all their misfortunes with more cheerful faith, and more fervent hope." Such were the chivalrous civilities of the soldiers of the Cross,

W. A.

"Whose righteous bands Redeem'd the tomb of Christ from impious hands."




OTWAY'S "VENICE PRESERVED."-The prologue to this play has several references to contemporary events. Is this one?

"He [i.e., the author] of black Bills has no prodigious tales,

Or Spanish pilgrims lost ashore in Wales."


AN ELIZABETHAN SONG WRITER.-In his delightful Lyrics from Elizabethan Songbooks Mr. Bullen mentions a certain Robert Jones, "a famous performer on the lute." "Between 1601 and 1611," says Mr. Bullen, "Jones issued six musical works. Two of these-The rirst Set of Madrigals, 1607, and The Muses' Garden for Delights, 1611, I have unfortunately not been able to see, as I have not yet succeeded in discovering their present resting-place. Of Ultimum Vale, or The Third Book of Airs (1608), only one copy is known. The other publications of Jones are of the highest rarity." Can any reader of the Red Dragon give us some information about this poet-composer, and about his works? His verses are charming. I am tempted to give a specimen which will be new to most of your readers:

"Love winged my hopes, and taught me how to fly
Far from base earth, but not to mount too high:

For true pleasure
Lives in measure,

Which if men forsake,

Blinded they into folly run and grief for pleasure take.

But my vain hopes, proud of their new taught flight,
Enamoured sought to win the sun's fair light,

Whose rich brightness
Moved their lightness

To aspire too high,

That all scorched and consumed with fire now drown'd in woe they lie.

And none but Love their woeful hap did me,

For Love did know that their desires were true;

Though Fate frowned,
And now drowned

They in sorrow dwell,

It was the purest light of heaven for whose fair love they fell."

The last line is enough to make a poet's reputation. The mention of this Elizabethan celebrity reminds us that there was a well-known publisher of the same name, and who-for his eternal honour-worked for Shakspere. Who was he? W. A.


[As to the publisher of Shakspeare's poems and his Welsh motto see viii., 200, 303.-ED. R.D.]

THE WORD "OFFEIRIAD.”—I desire to ascertain the opinions of your learned correspondents on the derivation and history of the word "Offeiriad" (Welsh for clergyman), and beg to solicit your and their favour in the Red Dragon.

Whitney's Crossing, N.Y.


A WELSH BARDIC DIRECTORY WANTED.-Do the Welsh bards keep any list similar to the law, medical, or college lists of gentlemen who have received bardic degrees? If not, would not such a list, or, say, a directory be most useful? man signs himself "Ednyfed," for instance. How am I to know who he is, what he is, where he lives, and how, when, and what for he obtained his degree.


Denver City.


THE CHAIRED BARDS OF THE CENTURY.-Where can I obtain a list of the bards who have won chair odes at the great Eisteddfodau of the century?

Denver City.


"ESSYLT."-In a review of Sir Tristrem edited by Mr. George P. McNeill, for the Scottish Text Society, appearing in the Athenæum of January 15th, occurred the passage following:-"There can be little doubt that the English (or Scottish) Tristrem is substantially a version of the French poem (now known only from a few fragments), which seems also to have been the source of all the continental forms of the story. The ultimate origin of the tale still remains obscure.


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