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preciated, it is now proposed to submit the following brief statement respecting it.
OBJECTS OF THE Institution FOR HINDU YOUTH IN CALCUTTA.-From the first, the institution was designed to consist of two departments:- the one, preparatory; the other, of a higher order. The object of the former is to initiate the boys into the elements of Grammar, History, Geography, Arithmetic, and Christianity. The object of the latter is to perfect an acquaintance with Chronology, Geography, and History-natural, civil, and sacred. And the course is intended to embrace, more or less extensively, as growing circumstances may admit, the various departments of Mathematical and Physical Science. But the feature that peculiarly distinguishes the Seminary is, the regular and systematic study of the Christian Scriptures; of the Evidences of Religion, natural and revealed; and of doctrinal and practical Theology-including the corruption and helplessness of human nature; the Divinity of our Saviour; the Personality and Divinity of the Holy Spirit; the reality of Christ's vicarious sacrifice, and the all-sufficiency of his atonement; the necessity of justification by faith alone and sanctification through the Spirit; the resurrection of the body; the general judgment; the everlasting misery of the wicked, and the everlasting happiness of the righteous.
MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION.-While it is confessed that the vernacular languages alone are available for imparting an elementary education to the mass of the people of Hindustán, it is insisted on as a fact, that these languages do not at present afford an adequate medium for communicating a knowledge of the higher departments of literature, science, and theology. This medium is supplied, in perfection, by the English language. Much attention is accordingly bestowed on the cultivation of this language, which, when once acquired, becomes the constant medium of instruction. And it seems providential that there exists an extreme anxiety among a large portion of the natives to acquire a knowledge of English-that native youths generally discover an aptitude for the acquisition-and that, in consequence, numbers have already mastered the language, so as to converse and write in it with considerable fluency.
SOME OF THE CONTEMPLATED BENEFITS.-1. By being put in possession of the English language, the entire circle of European literature and science will at once be thrown open to Hindu youth; and numbers will become qualified to read the Christian Scriptures in our admirable English version, and to peruse treatises on Christian evidence, and expositions of Scripture doctrine directly, in the words of the original author. This surely is no ordinary blessing. This is not to impart knowledge by measure-to bestow it with niggardly hand-to dole it out of our treasury by scraps and fragments, in versions or translations, accurate or inaccurate. No; this is at once to present numbers with the key of knowledge-of all knowledge, literary, scientific, and sacred ;-knowledge, which ages of time and hosts of translators could never furnish-knowledge, which in quantity and quality, the works written in all other languages, living or dead, of the world besides, could not collectively supply. In this view of the case, the English language becomes the great channel of acquisition to the thoroughly educated few; while the vernacular dialects become the channels of distribution to the ordinarily educated many. The former unseals the inexhaustible fountain of all knowledge: the latter serve as ducts to diffuse its vivifying and healing waters over the wastes of a dry and parched land. 2. As the Hindus possess stupendous systems of learning on all subjects -geographies, metaphysics, astronomies, &c. as well as marvellous theologies-all abounding with the grossest imaginable errors, and yet all claiming the same divine origin, and asserting the same title to infallibi lity-it follows, that the inculcation and apprehension of any branch of
useful knowledge must tend to shake their confidence in the truth of their own systems generally ;-and that if branch after branch be communicated, one stone after another will be thrown down from the huge fabric of Hinduism; so that at length, when an extensive course of education is completed, the whole will be found to have crumbled into fragments. Hence it is, that along with the demolition of false systems of literature and science, the Assembly's Institution, from the varied instruction it imparts, must inevitably cause the downfal of Pantheism, with all its blasphemous delusions, and Idolatry, with all its numberless enormities; and simultaneously with the overthrow of both, the abolition of Caste, which for ages has exercised the most mischievous and grinding tyranny over the whole mass of the native population.
3. But, as it is certainly not good simply to destroy, and then leave men idly to gaze over the ruins, nor wise to continue building on the walls of a tottering edifice,-it will ever form the grand and distinguishing glory of the Assembly's Institution that, in consequence of the introduction and zealous pursuit of the study of Christian evidence and doctrine, we shall be enabled to supply a noble substitute in place of that which has been demolished, in the form of sound general knowledge, and pure evangelical truth.
4. Nor will such blessings be confined to the immediate recipients alone. Through these, the blessings gained, must extend and multiply. Should any be admitted, professing Christianity, every principle will be strengthened -every branch of knowledge cultivated and matured. Should others enter, avowing themselves to be still the votaries of idolatry, almost all must become Christians in understanding, and there is the same probability that springs from Christian instruction at home, that others may become Christians in heart. Now, of either, or all of these classes, let one and another be added in continued succession, and the collective mind will at length be freely set loose from its ancient fixed and frozen state, and awakened into light, and life, and liberty. And as life is self-propagating, and light communicative in its nature, we may thus happily succeed in combining the three inestimable blessings-individual good, the everrenovating principle of self-preservation, and the power of indefinite extension. By the process now pointed out, it is clear we shall be able, to the extent of our means, to supply the present grand desideratum, as regards the evangelization of India :-in other words, we shall, through God's blessing, succeed in raising up a body of native agents; from whom, even in the secular offices and relations of life, shall emanate such healthful influences, as must produce the happiest impressions on the surrounding mass. More especially may we succeed in rearing a well-disciplined body of Christian Teachers, who shall diffuse the blessings of a wholesome education throughout the land. And over and above all, in real importance, may we be honoured in qualifying a noble band of Christian Ministers, who shall cause "the glad tidings" of salvation through a crucified Redeemer to sound from shore to shore, with a power and efficiency which it were presumption in nine-tenths of foreign labourers to pretend to emulate.
MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTION.-The Institution has been established, and is supported, by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland ;-with which venerable body rests the supreme control over it. The direct, or immediate management of it, is vested in the Assembly's accredited Missionaries, who are regularly ordained clergymen of the Scottish National Church-together with such assistants as the latter may be enabled to select on the spot. At present, there are three ordain. ed ministers connected with the institution: and when the entire system of instruction is fully organized and completed, the number will be increased to five or six. The mode of instruction adopted, is what has been
termed the interrogatory, or intellectual, in opposition to the old dull mechanical system. The teaching of the junior classes is conducted on the monitorial plan.
SUCCESS ALREADY ATTAINED.-The success of this institution has been triumphant beyond any thing of the same kind hitherto attempted in Eastern India. It was founded in August, 1830. It has been visited constantly by numbers of European residents in Calcutta, of every rank and condition in life. There is an annual examination of all the pupils, in the Town Hall, which is attended by numbers of all classes in society. The Calcutta journals, European and Native, Infidel and Christian, have, year after year, greatly extolled the efficiency of the system of Education pursued, as well as the extraordinary proficiency of the pupils.
Already has one of the pupils been publicly baptized, from the knowledge acquired, and the impressions made, at this institution. Almost all the youths in the two senior classes have become thorough unbelievers in Hinduism; and, at the same time, as thorough believers in Christianity, so far as the understanding, or the head, is concerned. And a few have already begun to manifest symptoms of a nature so decisive, as to prove, that the heart also is beginning to be vitally affected. Such is the nature, and such the tendency, of the system pursued in the General Assembly's Institution-an institution that contains about five hundred Hindu youths all of them of respectable caste, and many of the very highest-and a few belonging to some of the wealthiest and most influential families in Calcutta.
LECTURES ON CHRISTIANITY.-It is proper here to add, that for three years, Lectures on Christian Evidence and Doctrine were delivered to numbers of Hindus, who had acquired, at the Government College, an excellent English education, without religion, and had, in consequence, become perfect infidels. These lectures, and the discussions that arose out of them, led to the conversion of several young men of good families, who are now labouring mightily in advancing the cause of the Redeemer in India. And besides these direct results, there has been excited a spirit of inquiry, that promises to issue in results still more extensive, and pregnant with blessings to the people of that benighted land.
However adequate the funds collected in Scotland and elsewhere, to meet the present current expenditure, they are by no means sufficient to enable us to push the manifold advantages already gained, to their full and desirable consummation. In order, therefore, to secure this glorious end, as well as extend more widely the benefits of the general system, a large increase of resources is essentially necessary. And surely it is enough to provoke the liberality of Christians, when they are told, that the state of things in Eastern India has, of late years, become so decidedly favourable, that nought seems wanting, with God's blessing, but proportionate means, to render the diffusion of sound Christian education rapidly progressive through the length and breadth of the land.
On this subject, the General Assembly's Committee desire at present to make a special appeal.
Let any one candidly peruse the preceding statements, however brief, and say, whether the objects contemplated be not of transcendant import. ance? Let him say, whether the proposed undertaking be not fraught with blessings innumerable to India? And if, from what has been stated, its success be no longer problematical-no longer a mere matter of experiment-ought not all the necessary means to be furnished for carrying it on efficiently, and conducting it to its final consummation?
Now, it is clear, that suitable accommodation must occupy a foremost place amongst the means that are indispensable for this purpose; but at present
no adequate accommodation is provided. If lectures are to be delivered on Christian Evidence and Doctrine, &c. there is no Lecture Room; neither is there any room for School Library, School-Book Depository, Apparatus, &c. For these purposes, the Missionaries have hitherto been obliged to devote a part of their own dwelling-houses. For the use of the Institution, as at present conducted, a large native house has been hired, every corner of which is more than occupied. But, though it is the best that could be had, the situation has been found decidedly unhealthy, and the apartments, from their small size, excessively incommodious; partly from the situation of the house, and partly from the small size of the rooms: these at times become heated to a degree that is dreadfully oppressive to the pupils, and altogether killing to the teachers. During the height of the hot season, the thermometer has been found to rise daily to 105 and 106 degrees, and that too in a half-tainted atmosphere: whereas, in a larger and more airy building, the temperature might be reduced several degrees, and that in a purer atmosphere. Besides, the great number and the scattered position of the present apartments render twofold greater the labour and exhaustion of vigilant superintendance than would otherwise be necessary.
Need the Committee say more? To avoid the hazard and expense of a failure, neither they nor the Missionaries did at the outset ask for buildings of any description? They chose rather to survey the field, and ascertain its capabilities. This having been done, the experiment of cultivating it was immediately tried. And as the result of nearly five years of prayerful labour and patient waiting upon their God, they have now with grateful hearts to report, that through the favour of Him from whom all blessings flow, the experiment has succeeded beyond all expectation. During this period, God has been pleased in an especial manner to further their designs for the emancipation of the Hindu mind. Being able, therefore, to point to a triumphant success,-to several conversions,-to numbers of educated natives that are ready to attend lectures and discourses on the Christian faith,-to five hundred youths under literary, scientific, and religious instruction, many of whom promise fair to exercise a prodigious influence on the destinies of India,-and to hundreds more, who have been actually pressing for admission, and actually excluded for want of space to hold them, they simply crave for the means of providing plain but suitable accommodation in the form of Class Rooms, Lecture Rooms, &c., in order to enable them more vigorously to prosecute operations so happily begun, and so exuberant with the prospect of glorious results. Will the people of Scotland, then, refuse the necessary means? The Committee cannot persuade themselves that in such circumstances a refusal is possible. They propose, accordingly, to open a separate special subscription, to be designated "The Building Fund." And they urgently recommend the subject to the favourable attention of the friends of Missions generally, and the members of the Church of Scotland in particular. It is calculated, that the purchase of ground, and the erection of buildings sufficiently ample for carrying on the preparatory and higher courses of instruction, on so very large and extended a scale, cannot, in a place like Calcutta, cost much less than five or six thousand pounds. Still, considering the real magnitude of the object to be accomplished, it is presumed, it would be difficult to name a more profitable outlet for the benevolence of those who long and pray for the establishment of Messiah's kingdom over the hideous and gigantic systems of Pantheism and Idolatry in Hindustán.
Our readers will hear with pleasure, that the General Assembly have nobly offered to give towards the erection of build
ings for their Calcutta Mission the sum of £4,000, on condition that one-fifth part of that sum in addition is contributed to the object in India. We earnestly hope, that among the readers of the OBSERVER will be found many who will delight to afford their aid in effecting an object so important and necessary, and shall probably next month more distinctly call on them for the purpose of securing it.-ED.
IX.-Vindicatory Letter from Mr. Macleod.
To the Editors of the Calcutta Christian Observer.
Although you stated that the remarks of BETA superseded the necessity of any other rejoinder to your correspondent GAMMA, yet as my name was introduced into your columns as the author of the extract so roughly handled, I trust you will do me the justice, to allow me to vindicate myself from the unwarranted and unjust insinuations of your correspondent. It is insinuated that I had written a falsehood, from base and interested motives, to the injury of the cause of education, and of your periodical. It is true, that I never dreamt, that such a latitude of interpretation would have been given to my remarks, as that assigned to them by your correspondent. My object was simply to demonstrate that the Romanized Hindustání facilitated, rather than retarded, the study of English. I am not aware, whether myself, or the printer, made the mistake; but the extract which has drawn forth the angry animadversion of your correspondent ought to have been "almost any elementary book in English." Now let us subject this extract to critical dissection, and see if it will stand the monstrous interpretation applied to it by GAMMA. The word "almost" means nearly, well nigh. Now the whole marvellous sentence which has subjected me to such ungenerous interpretations, would run thus: "the boy could nearly read any elementary book in English." The word read, in its limited sense, means, merely to pronounce. Now, Gentlemen, I say that the boy alluded to, advanced, in a month, further than this; for there was not a book in the Romanized Hindustání that could be procured at the Lakhnau Depository, but he could read with ease.
But why so much warmth in a case of decided benevolence? Can we not discuss the subject at issue without casting ungenerous imputations upon individuals? In introducing the Romanized system, I have never attempted to retard the progress of the native characters; as I think, that this, in the first instance, would be rather injudicious. But I have never met with any hostility to the Roman scheme, nor yet have I even had the smallest trouble in introducing it into the schools under my charge. I allow that the opposers of the scheme, may be actuated by the most benevolent motives; but it appears that they have not charity enough to ascribe the same motives to their opponents. As the foes of the Romanized system are constantly publishing accounts of its death and burial, I should propose that all its friends should send to the CHRISTIAN OBSERVER, a fair and impartial account of its progress; and to prevent all future cavilling and botheration, these accounts should be signed by at least two disinterested individuals*.
Lakhnau, 18th Nov. 1835.
I am, Gentlemen,
Your obedient Servant,
* We shall be happy to insert such accounts, if our correspondents will take the trouble to prepare and send them to us.-ED.