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on account of their ignorance, cupidity, indolence, &c. Mr. M. has known this in the case of Native Christians under his own care. Again, the Bible alone is not enough to feed and maintain the lamp of spiritual life and affection in these people: of course, because their minds are not sufficiently expanded, their moral characters elevated, or their talents equal to its investigation and application. They need to have its strong food reduced and diluted for their weak powers, and its doctrines and precepts elucidated, expanded, detailed, and enforced upon their consciences and affections. Books of religious and moral instruction, composed in a simple style, and embodying familiar illustration, are therefore required. Save a few tracts, few of which are designed for Christians, and one or two small books, there is absolutely nothing of the kind required as yet provided for our converts. No helps to devout meditation, and to prayer-no details of Christian morals and doctrines, beyond the mere skeleton of some meagre catechism. Simple devotional and explanatory comments upon the Gospels, or some of the epistles, are great desiderata in this view.
4th. Mr. M. thinks that the adaptation of means to the end in Missionary labour has not always been sufficiently regarded. Talents, attainments, tastes, habits, &c. are various-one man would form an admirable teacher of youth, who would not be equally fitted for adult preaching, and vice versa. The inclinations and previous studies of one person fit and dispose him for translation, or composition; another has little or no peculiar disposedness or qualification for that line of labour, who is admirable in direct addresses to the heathen, and so on. But it may be apprehended, that the great principle of success in the application of the human powers, the division of labour, which has been universally acknowledged in all other departments, has been much overlooked in assigning Missionary duties. All have been alike expected to apply themselves to all kinds of labour, preaching, translation, composition, schools. The consequence has been, that too many objects, and some of them those for which natural and acquired qualifications have been less than requisite to success, have marred many a Missionary's usefulness, constrained his habits, thwarted his inclinations, and defeated much of the great object in view. No department of Missionary duties ought to be considered irrelevant. He who translates or writes a book or a tract, who conducts a Christian school, who prepares school books, &c. is as positively engaged in his proper work as the preacher; only each in his own order without confusion, impatience, or oversight, according as the Spirit has ministered to each. Evangelists, teachers, interpreters, &c. all conspiring together to build up the living stones, for the living temple, on the foundation of Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ being himself the true corner-stone. Every Missionary should be selected for that department of labour for which his tastes, habits, and previous occupations best qualify him.
Rev. J. HÆBERLIN conceived, that in proportion to actual labour had been the success-that real success will be always equal to real labour. Hinduism is in its very spirit opposed to Christianity, and therefore obstacles to success here are greater than in other countries. Few will break through civil obstacles such as caste. General weakness of native character an obstacle to reception of the Gospel. But the greater the number of Native Christians, the more rapid will be the success.
1st. Disapproved of English preaching in Missionaries to the heathen, as a provision is already made for European Christians.
2nd. Schools. Success equal to all expectations. However, as conversion is not the direct object of schools, so non-conversion is not the rule of success. As to the utility or success of schools, Christian teachers indispensable; rather give up Schools than employ heathen. One
Mission School always desirable, at which the Missionary might attend daily, &c.
3rd. The Missionaries had not always remained steadfast to the object of direct conversion; generally their labours have been those of a Minister, not of a Missionary. As philanthropists, we must encourage sciences and arts, books, &c. All very useful, but not the direct object of Missionary labour.
4th. Too little preaching to the heathen. Matter of great regret that so little has been done in this way for the million of heathens in and near Calcutta. The few sermons now preached can scarcely tell upon so large a community.
5th. Some too strict in accepting candidates for baptism, and too lax in discipline afterwards. Baptism ought to be given to those who desire it; we cannot see into the heart-too many difficulties ought not to be thrown in the way of inquirers.
Rev. J. CAMPBELL thought that the success of the gospel in India has not been equal to the means nominally employed. When we consider the time that has elapsed since the commencement of Missions in India, the number of Missionaries that have been employed, and the vast sums of money that have been expended, and compare the success that has followed with that which has attended the labours of Missionaries in other parts of the world, we must confess that the amount of good is not equal to what might be expected. But on the other hand, it ought to be remembered, that many of the Missionaries who come out to India, though usefully employed in their several spheres, are not actually engaged in direct Missionary labour; besides, few have lived or remained long enough in the country to become familiar with the language, habits, and customs of the people. If these drawbacks were taken into consideration, and the degree of success compared with the actual amount of labour employed, which is the true criterion to judge by, it would then, he thought, be found, that it has been fully equal to what might be expected. The principal cause (so far as means are concerned) of the want of success, is the paucity of preachers. While other means which are within our reach ought not to be neglected, yet we ought to remember that the preaching of the gospel is the grand means commanded by God himself, for the conversion of sinners, and which has been particularly blessed by him to that end, in all ages of the Church. Missionaries require to be more thoroughly acquainted with the language of the people among whom they labour, and this ought to be made an object of the first importance by every Missionary on his arrival in this country; for he conceived that until there shall be a greater increase of preachers well acquainted with the native languages, any remarkable success could not reasonably be anticipated.
Rev. G. PEARCE.-It must be acknowledged, that the difficulties in spreading the Gospel in India are very great, perhaps in no country greater. Still he could not consider the success that has been realized equal to what the Scriptures warrant us to expect. Within the last forty years, not less than one hundred Missionaries of evangelical sentiments, of different denominations, have come to this presidency. Mr. P. was inclined to think, that the preaching of the Gospel, and the simple diffusion of evangelic truth, had not been sufficiently attended to. The spread of know. ledge of other kinds, very useful in its place, but having no direct influence on the conversion of sinners, had occupied a considerable portion of the time and strength of Missionaries. Of the best means for the conversion of sinners, we have the best example in the rule given by the Saviour, and the conduct of his Apostles. He commissioned them to preach the Gospel, and that only, to the world. The Apostles imbibed his spirit, and fully acted up to the commission of their Lord. Their motto was, We deter
mine to know nothing among men save Jesus Christ, and him crucified; and their lives exemplified their strong attachment to it. So scrupulous were they in respect to being drawn aside from the work of promulgating the Gospel, that they would not suffer their time to be occupied in the distri bution of alms to the poor, but committed it to the care of laymen. The same reasons might have been advanced then, for the diffusion of worldly science as are advanced now; but Christ and his Apostles left worldly science to others. They had full confidence in the virtue of the Gospel alone, declaring it to be the power of God to salvation to every one that believed. The subsequent history of the Church seemed to Mr. P. to bear him out in his views. Every grand reformation of men has been effected by the Gospel only. The spread of religion among the early Albigenses and Waldenses; the glorious Reformation in Germany in the days of Luther; the rise and progress of Protestantism in England; the conversion of the Greenlanders, and of the North American Indians, are all so many proofs of what may be effected simply through the diffusion of evangelic truth. He could not help thinking, therefore, that if there had been more labour bestowed on the spread of Gospel truth, we should have witnessed a much greater number of converts; and he thought it worthy of consideration, whether God may not have withheld his blessing from us, because we have not sufficiently attended to the commands and examples which he has given us, to re gulate our efforts for the conversion of men.
Rev. J. WEITBRETCHT (from Burdwan), preferred listening to the sentiments of others, to saying anything himself.
Rev. THEOPHILUS REICHARDT remarked, that having been anticipated in many remarks by Mr. Yates, he would confine himself entirely to what had fallen under his own observation. Humanly speaking, he should say, that success in Missionary labours in India is not adequate to the means bestowed, but it answers to the amount of labour really devoted to it. It was now just 13 years since he arrived in Bengal; and since that time Missionary prospects had considerably improved. The Missionaries then labouring were but the pioneers of an army, preparing the road for successive labourers, and encountering the greatest obstacles, as well as the excited enmity of the people. The gospel had then been scarcely introduced into any of the Missionary schools. On one occasion, when the Rev. Mr. JETTER introduced the Gospel of St. Matthew into one of them at Calcutta, the attendance of the boys was reduced in a few days from 70 to 20 ; and only after some months' perseverance, and the absence of any harm arising from the perusal of our Scriptures, did the boys gradually return to the school. Tracts, in which the name of Jesus occurred, were thrown away by the people, and at all times received with great hesitation. The preaching in the chapels was attended by very few, and by them merely from curiosity; and at all times the preacher was interrupted, insulted, and opposed, even by the meanest and most illiterate of the people. In these particulars how great is the difference now!
India, Mr. R. observed, differs very widely from other countries on account of caste, which he considered as the devil's strongest fortress. In other countries, where no such barrier exists, Missionaries have much easier access to the people, and have uniformly met with more success. For instance, in Barmah, amongst the Hottentots, the Sandwich Islands, the Society Islands, at Sierra Leone, and other places, where thousands have been converted to the Christian faith. But here, though many admit the truth and excellency of Christianity, caste prevents their making an open profession.
With regard to the number of Missionaries engaged in preaching the gospel, Mr. R. referred to the Church Missionary Society. Since 1815, that Society had sent to Bengal alone (exclusive of the Upper Provinces)
13 Missionaries, who had been more or less engaged in direct labours among the heathen. But through the premature death, or early return of many, and through most of these Missionaries having been much engaged in superintending schools, the time and labour given to the direct preaching the gospel to adults has been but inconsiderable.-Yet their success had been encouraging, their exertions having been crowned by the conversion to the Christian faith of nearly 600 persons.
Preaching to mixed crowds only, Mr. R. could not consider as very useful; because such congregations consist of the mere passers by, who, like the Athenians, desire to hear some new thing, or are unprepared to enter with their minds into the serious truths delivered on these occasions. Addresses delivered in chapels near the roadside, or in private rooms, he regarded as excellent, especially when followed up by a native preacher. These latter can be made very useful, in explaining the gospel to the simple-minded in their own manner and language. He would here suggest as desirable, that each Missionary should have a good chapel in a public place, with a room attached to it, for speaking privately to inquirers. In this chapel the Missionary devoted to preaching ought to spend the greater part of his time, so that he may be easily found by the people. He might sit there from 8 till 12 A. M., and from 4 to 7 P. M. every day, and have a native preacher with him. Here they might read and preach the gospel alternately, as there are always new hearers arriving. În this way, Mr. R. had no doubt, a greater knowledge of the gospel would soon be spread. Many Missionaries have probably commenced preaching in the language too soon, before they had sufficiently acquired the proper terms and idiom of the language. They were thus unintelligible, and sometimes ridiculous, to the natives. The higher classes of the natives too, have been hitherto too much neglected, and the gospel has been preached not so much to "the poor in spirit," as to the poor in purse. This arose from mistaken views. Mr. R. felt confident that if the Missionaries had directed their attention more to the respectable and opulent natives, and sought intercourse with them, more substantial success might have attended their labours. The lower classes are literally too ignorant to understand their own religious terms; they are besotted by want and wretchedness, as well as grovelling ideas; and their motives for turning Christians may in many cases be justly suspected as arising from sinister views. But the richer classes are better educated, more polite, possessed of more enlarged ideas, and better able to enter on the consideration of the sublime truths of Christianity; and therefore they are the proper subjects of a Missionary's attention.
Mr. R. felt convinced that Missionaries in India had been too sanguine as to their expectations of success. They are not warranted to be so. Considering the gifts and powers which the Apostles possessed, their success was not very great; and even the preaching of our Lord, "who spoke as never man spake," produced for him but few followers. Why should we then, with all our infirmities and short-comings, expect much success? We ought rather to feel fervent gratitude to God that we see as much as we do, and be encouraged henceforth to redouble our exertions, "to be steadfast, immoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as our labour shall not be in vain in the Lord."
The churches of native converts are still in a very low state, arising from the previous bad habits and evil customs of those of whom they are composed. Native Christians require very firm treatment, together with much gentleness and parental consideration; making every allowance for preconceived prejudices, wrong views, and wrong principles. Decided evil and vice among them ought to be sternly opposed, and on no account tolerated. Strict church discipline ought to be adhered to,
and immoral members carefully excluded, that they may not corrupt the Church. Most Native Christians are little better than nominal professors; they require plain dealing, and the explanation and application of the elementary principles of Christianity, in order to produce in them just principles of action, right motives, and purity of life. present little fruits can be expected from them, and but few are fit to be employed as Native Readers and Catechists.
In regard to Missionaries who have been engaged in teaching in schools, translating, composing books and tracts, &c. Mr. R. conceived that they have been usefully and rightly employed, provided they did not make it their exclusive business. Any little spare time from more active exertions should certainly be employed by the Missionary in improving his knowledge of the language, manners, customs and habits of the people, and in composing useful tracts and books of instruction, in which department the Bengali language is still lamentably poor; and had it not been for the industry of some of the former Missionaries, we should have scarcely any books to facilitate the labours of the present Missionaries. The Missionaries have not sufficiently endeavoured to visit the Natives in their own houses, as friends, and on their own terms, conversing with them freely on many matters not immediately connected with religion, and thereby showing the Natives the difference between European gentlemen possessed of religion, and those who have none. This would have tended to make the European character amiable in their eyes, and remove much prejudice, in consequence of the bad lives, imperious conduct, haughtiness, and total want of religion among many of all classes of Europeans. Indeed, in former times the Natives thought, and justly too, that the Europeans had no religion at all. The Sunday was universally neglected and profaned, and no external marks of religion appeared. Scarcely any European was ever found by his servants on his knees; and as they did not witness any rites of religion, themselves placing all religion in externals, they naturally supposed us to be a set of infidels.
With regard to Schools, for which branch of Missionary labour Mr. R. himself was once a strenuous advocate, he observed, that he now felt convinced, from his own experience and observation, that they were of no use, if not conducted on right plans. Missionary Schools in which the gospel is taught by heathen teachers are a paradox, a preposterous idea, He felt grieved to think of the great amount of money which had been squandered on them in vain!! From all the Schools of the Church Mistionary Society, and the many thousands of boys that have been instructed, scarcely five or six of them have become Christian converts! The reason of this is, that in the absence of the Missionary the gospel is taught like we teach the system of Greek and Roman Mythology, and the Missionary's instructions are counteracted in secret by the heathen teachers. Mr. R. would either have Christian teachers, or no schools at all. Heathen teachers ought on no account to be employed. If Missionaries must have schools, let them have one or two, and let them have Christian teachers, many of whom may now be found; and if the Missionary give them his daily superintendance, and some personal instruction, he will see more real good done by one school, than by twenty with heathen teachers.
In conclusion, Mr. R. recommended that all Native Schools under the charge of heathen teachers be abolished, and that instead of them there be established in each Mission, a Christian Boarding School, for the education of young Native Christians, the most intelligent of whom should be so instructed, as that, if they proved pious, they might be employed as Catechists and Native Preachers. In this way, the Missionaries might be provided with most useful assistants, and great success might be expected from their labours. Much has already been done by some of them who