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In His Lordship's reference to the Supreme Being, the manner of utterance, not less than the expressions employed, seemed clearly indicative of a true religious sentiment and conviction. The advice to the Directors of Missionary efforts at home, and to the actual labourers in the field abroad, are most valuable, and deserving of mature consideration. It is quite refreshing to the mind, amid all the agitations of the busy theatre of worldly affairs, to contemplate this eminent statesman, thus, at the close of his administration, referring to the God of all the kingdoms of the earth, acknowledging the aids of His grace, declaring his conscious sense of inability and unworthiness, imploring pardon for his errors, and humbly and piously disclaiming the eulogies, however merited and sincere, of the humble Missionaries, who, impelled by united esteem and gratitude, had united to address his Lordship npon his approaching departure.

I beg permission to remark further, that the reply of Lord WILLIAM BENTINCK especially notices as the circumstance most gratifying to him, and most valuable in itself, the union, in this unpretending Address, of the Missionaries of all the different bodies, without reference to questions of either establishment or dissent, modes of worship, or differences of doctrine. In fact, there was here no compromise in any, ofeither principle or order; there was but an harmonious concert of individuals, engaged in a common service of evangelical charity, in an expression of respectful thankfulness to a Governor General, under whose just, impartial, able, and wise administration, all had laboured without hinderance, and with increasing success-a success consequent upon the simple principle of the laissez-nous faire,' carried out into its full extent, and on those public measures of general improvement, whose bearing upon the progress of religious and moral truth, though in few cases direct, have yet been in all indirectly so manifest. I remain, &c.


To His Excellency the Right Honorable Lord WILLIAM CAVendish BenTINCK, G. C. B. and G. C. H. Governor General of India, &c. &c. &c. MY LORD,

We, whose names are affixed, the Missionaries resident in Calcutta and its vicinity, from the Societies of the Established Churches of England and Scotland, and of Protestant Dissenters, beg leave to approach your Lordship with this united expression of our high respect, and of our regret at your approaching departure from India.

The sentiments and language of political adulation, my Lord, are as far from our habitual feeling and habit as they would be derogatory to our spiritual office, and injurious to the moral interests which we subserve. To debateable matters of political science and experiment, therefore, it is neither our duty nor our desire to advert, least of all on an occasion like the present. Many things in your Lordship's administration we appreciate only in silence and enjoyment.

It is as Christian Missionaries, my Lord, that we now approach you. If the general ténor of your Lordship's administration, as well as many of its special measures in particular, have been calculated, as we firmly believe,

to promote the real welfare of India, and to aid forward, whether directly or indirectly, the one great paramount object in which we individually la bour, it would argue in us a culpable indifference to that object itself, or great insensibility to the means of its advancement, were we to omit thus publicly to offer the thankful expression of our respectful homage.

Education, under your Lordship's government, has reached a standard much higher, and made a progress far greater than in any former period of the British rule in India. Measures have been introduced eminently tending to elevate the native character, to call forth the native mind, to excite in it the sentiment of civism, and to interest all in the progress of the common welfare; such as the institution of native juries, and the appointment of natives of talent and character to offices of greater trust and emolument in the secondary departments of justice, as preparatory to still higher advancement. Your Lordship's readiness to receive, and even forwardness to invite, the contributions of individual experience, wisdom, and observation to the general stock of public happiness, has been strikingly exhibited ; and it is a subject of special gratification, that greater security also has been given to the possessions of converts to Christianity, who had, in too many instances, been disturbed by private persecution or legal spoliation; but who will now, it is to be trusted, repose in tranquillity and safety under the shadow of an equal law. These, my Lord, are some of those acts and results of your Lordship's administration, that, under the blessing of Almighty God, have exerted and must continue to exert the most beneficial influence on the moral and civil prosperity of British India.

The abolition of the impious and murderous rite of Satí, by which the foul stain of blood, the blood of the innocent, victims to an unnatural, cruel, and degrading superstition, has at length been wiped away from the front of a Christian government, multitudes of hapless widows and mo thers annually preserved to their helpless families and to society, and a new impulse and direction given to the domestic affections; while the greatest hitherto existing obstacle to domestic education, in which national virtue has ever its origin and cradle, has been at once and for ever removed-this measure alone, one which your Lordship had the wisdom and humanity to resolve upon, the courage and firmness to carry forward to completion, would be abundantly sufficient of itself to stamp an indelible character of benignity and mercy on your Lordship's administration, and for which millions yet unborn will venerate your Lordship's memory.

We may be permitted, also, to advert to the generous aid your Lordship has in so many ways given to plans and institutions of general utility. Schools of instruction, benevolent establishments, schemes of new interest and benefit, have by your Lordship's encouragement and munificence been formed, fostered, or matured,-thus not only conferring the most substantial advantages on present, but securing them to succeeding, generations.

If the departure of your Lordship would, under any circumstances, be viewed by us as a subject of regret, that feeling is greatly increased by a consideration of the cause which has accelerated it, and terminated your government at a period when the most important changes are to be intro duced-changes which your Lordship's experience, firmness, and talent would, we had hoped, have so advantageously directed to a final and successful accomplishment.

We beg your Lordship to receive our united assurance of a grateful recognition of that Divine Providence by which kings rule and princes decree judgment, in those beneficial results to India to which we have adverted, and which the God of all the kingdoms of the earth has called and enabled you to bring about. To that same gracious Power our fervent prayers are and shall be devoutly offered for your Lordship's future health and welfare, We will further only presume to add the strong sense we entertain of the advantages which your Lordship's excellent lady has conferred upon the

society of India, and upon those many institutions which have partaken so largely of Her Ladyship's patronage. The munificence of Lady WILLIAM BENTINCK'S charities, the amiability of her manners, and the example of her virtues, have justly endeared her in no common degree to all. Deeply do we deplore the loss to be sustained in her Ladyship's, as well as in your Lordship's, departure; fervently do we unite in supplication for her health and happiness; gratefully shall we cherish the remembrance of her many excellencies.

Thankful for the kindness with which we have now been permitted to approach your Lordship, we beg you to accept this expression of our sincere and most respectful sentiments and wishes, and have the honour to be, my Lord,

Your Lordship's most humble and obdt. servts.
(Signed,) C. ARATOON, Baptist Missionary Society.
T. Boaz, London Missionary Society.

J. CAMPBELL, London Missionary Society,
W. DEERR, Church Missionary Society.

J. D. ELLIS, Baptist Missionary Society.

D. EWART, Missionary of the Church of Scotland.
G. GOGERLY, London Missionary Society.

J. HÆBERLIN, Church Missionary Society.

M. HILL, London Missionary Society.

J. KRUKEBERG, Church Missionary Society.

A. F. LACROIX, London Missionary Society.

J. LEECHMAN, Serampore Mission.

J. LINKE, Church Missionary Society.

J. MACK, Serampore Mission.

W. S. MACKAY, Missionary of the Church of Scotland.
JOSHUA MARSHMAN, Serampore Mission.

W. MORTON, Incorporated Society P. G. F. P.

G. MUNDY, London Missionary Society.

G. PEARCE, Baptist Missionary Society.

W. H. PEARCE, Baptist Missionary Society.

C. PIFFARD, London Missionary Society.

T. REICHARDT, Church of England Missionary.

W. ROBINSON, Serampore Mission.

T. SANDYS, Church Missionary Society.

J. THOMAS, Baptist Missionary Society.

J. WEITBRECHT, Church Missionary Society.
W. YATES, Baptist Missionary Society.


Returning to my country, and to my friends, I can present to them no testimonial so impressive as your address, that in the discharge of this great trust, I have done nothing to tarnish the national honor, or to forfeit their good opinion and esteem. your lives, the concurrence of so many individuals of different persua Your holy profession,-the excellence of sions give a value to your approbation that is indeed most gratifying. I must, at the same time, recollect that it is part of that charity which you so earnestly teach and practise, to think no evil, and to regard with indulgence, conduct that seems to emanate from good intentions. But even your praise must not mislead me from a deep consciousness and confession of my own unworthiness, or make me forget, that only in humble dependance upon the Giver of all mercies, I can hope by earnest prayer to obtain forgiveness for the unprofitable use I have made of the talents committed to

my care.

[Here His Lordship became deeply affected, even to tears, and was unable, for several minutes, to proceed. The Missionaries were feelingly impressed.]

I have the more reason to feel flattered by your kindness upon this occasion, inasmuch as it proceeds from those with whom, in their public

capacity, I have carefully abstained from holding any communion. The professed object of your lives and labours is conversion. The fundamen tal principle of British rule-the compact to which the government stands solemnly pledged-is strict neutrality. Of this important maxim, policy as well as good faith have enjoined upon me the most scrupulous observance; because, besides disarming the disloyal of his most powerful means of mischief, it tends to give contentment of mind to the good, and to form into one firm bulwark of defence, the confidence and attachment of the whole population. The same maxim of strict neutrality is peculiarly applicable to the question, now so much agitated, of general education. I venture to give it as my firm opinion, that in all the schools and colleges under the support of Government, the principle cannot be too strongly enforced, and that all interference or injudicious tampering with the religious belief of the students, and all mingling, direct or indirect, of Christianity with the system of instruction, ought to be positively forbidden. It is held, I know, by many, that the improvement of the human mind in India, if unaccompanied by instruction in a purer faith, is calculated to destroy that which exists, without substituting any thing in its place. One of our best and most useful prelates, the late Bishop Turner, thought otherwise. His was an opinion in which the Mussalman, the Hindu, and the Christian-all, in short, who believe their faith to be true-ought to join, that the more the mind is enlightened, the better able will it be to appreciate religious and every other truth.

There is, I understand, in England, a large class of excellent persons, who consider as a compromise of principle the protection afforded to the religions of the country, and would gladly induce more active interference on the part of the ruling Power in the diffusion of Christianity. They may be assured that a more grievous error could not be entertained. The recollection of past ages, when conversion by whatever means, by fire and sword if persuasion failed, was the first care of the conqueror, is not obliterated from the memory or apprehensions of the people; and the greatest obstacle to the cause they espouse, would be the distrust any decided intervention of the supreme authority would inevitably create. The extension of Episcopacy was not without objection, as involving the great principle of neutrality. Known as this great dignitary is, to derive his office from the Crown, and bearing always the rank and character of one of the highest officers of the state, it is difficult for the public to see him in his other capacity of head and patron of the Church Missionaries, without having the suspicion that the Government must have some connection with and interest in their proceedings. We may rely with confidence on the exercise of the greatest caution in this respect, on the part of our excellent Diocesan, but that caution is now and will always be particularly called for.

your means.

Being as anxious as any of these excellent persons for the diffusion of Christianity through all countries, but knowing better than they do the ground we stand upon, my humble advice to them is,-Rely exclusiveHis labors, divested ly upon the humble, pious, and learned Missionary. of all human power, create no distrust. Encourage education with all The offer of religious truth in the school of the Missionary, is without objection. It is, or is not, accepted. If it is not, the other seeds of instruction may take root, and yield a rich and abundant harvest of improvement and future benefit. I would give them as an example in support of this advice, the school founded exactly upon these principles, lately superintended by the estimable Mr. Duff, that has been attended with such unparalleled success. I would say to them finally, that they could not send to India too many laborers in the vineyard, like those whom I have now the gratification of addressing.

FAREWELL May God Almighty give you health and strength to prosecute your endeavours, and may He bless them with success !

VIII.-Article on Theology and Natural Science examined, "It is to be presumed that Revelation and Nature, when rightly understood, never really clash, having God for their common Author. But in case of an apparent discrepancy, it is certainly wrong to make Nature, which is lower, the measure and criterion of Revelation, which is higher, and more immediately and directly from God." To the Editor of the Calcutta Christian Observer.


Dr. Hengstenberg, Editor of the Berlin Evangelical Church Journal, and Author of the above remarks, has lived a century too late. The unnatural warfare of Revelation and Philosophy has terminated with the minority of Natural Theology, which has now assumed its place among the matured and perfect sciences; and the melancholy record of the former painful and praise-worthy doubts and pitiable cavils of the real and pretended seekers after truth, are but matters of history, not of present importance, and useful only as beacons for the future.

It is therefore to be lamented, that your correspondent BETA should have so unnecessarily revived the recollection of those evil days, by the republication of an idle controversy between two persons, whose temper, candour, and knowledge, judging from the specimens with which he presents us, are so insufficient to qualify them for their assumed characters of the impugner and apologist of revelation. There can be but few of your rea ders who have not, even on a cursory perusal, detected fallacies in the arguments of both combatants; but it is desirable, and I shall attempt, to prove in detail their unfitness for the great argument, and the safety, nay the propriety and necessity, of the Christian's fearlessly investigating, as far as his opportunities may permit, the ways of God in the creation and preservation of the universe.

Dr. Hengstenberg says, that "A theologian is a layman in natural science;" if this be true, it is the theologian's reproach, and not his excuse, that he should continue in partial ignorance of that host of facts, whose truth was denied, and whose promulgators were persecuted, by the priesthood of former times; but which are now appealed to, as in no wise inconsistent with an enlightened and liberal interpretation* of the holy Scriptures, and as furnishing unassailable proofs of the truth of the attributes of power and beneficence there ascribed to the Supreme Being. It is to be hoped, that the publication of the Bridgewater Treatises, with the emendations which they will receive in future editions, may prove a new era in theological education; and that we shall henceforth hear no more of the dangers of following TRUTH and REASON, whithersoever they may plainly lead us. It should be recollected by those who, to clothe their own indolence and ignorance, delight in the disparagement of that noblest gift of God, that by reason alone, (under divine guidance,) are we enabled to read, and to understand, and to judge of the innate and historical authenticity and truth of the Scriptures themselves; and that in investigat

Was Joshua supposed, by the persecutors of Galileo, to have been thoroughly acquainted with the structure of the heavens? And did they think it a matter of necessity that his mandate to the sun should have been couched in a language conformable to modern astronomy if true, but unintelligible to his hearers, and therefore unfit for the purpose of shewing whose delegate he was? Are we in like manner to be compelled to believe, contrary to the plain evidence of sense and reason, and to the conviction of all living geologists, lay and clerical, that the" days of creation were only 24 hours in length," when other portions of the sacred narrative are so marvellously confirmed by recent discoveries? Were another Moses now to arise among us, and to describe the events of creation, as they really happened; his account, through our ignorance of the true constitution of matter, and of the subordinate agents which it obeys, would appear as contradictory and unmeaning, as a command from Joshua for the earth to stand still. It is easy for Dr. Hengstenberg to say that the geological deductions, referred to in this note, are "notoriously hypothetical:" he might assert the same of the earth's rotation around the sun.


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