Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub

As the goddess Kali, she appears black | intervening gorges, in which the holy and bloody, with four arms, having two streams have their birth-place-are dead bodies depending from her ears, looked upon with reverential awe as and wearing a necklace skulls, and a a semi-celestial region, not unvisited by girdle formed of the hands of slaughtered the gods themselves. But of all natumonsters. She is propitiated by bloody ral objects, none are esteemed more sacrifices; her service, when complete, holy than the great rivers of Hindostan, not excluding even those of human be- such as the Nerbudda, the Krishna, the ings, and her aid and protection are in- Godavery, and the Ganges. The last, voked by Thugs and robbers. especially, under the name of Gunga, is a favourite object of adoration. Pilgrims will travel thousands of miles to bathe in its sacred stream, or to carry back a supply of its water for the performance of the rites of purification. The ashes of the dead, and the bodies of the living, are alike freed by it from those stains which they would otherwise carry with them into the next birth; and to die on its banks is reckoned a sure passport to heaven.

THE INFERIOR DEITIES.-The seven circles or spheres above the earth, denominated Swerga-surgs, and the seven beneath called Patala, said to be lighted by eight carbuncles on the heads of eight serpents are peopled respectively by gods and demons. The former is said to contain no fewer than 333,000,000 deities. Some of the more distinguished are-Indra, the Indian Jove, who presides over the elements, and is styled "the king of heaven;" Surya, the god of the sun; Agni, of fire; Varuna, of the waters; and Pavana, of the winds. Luxumee,* is the goddess of beauty and of plenty; Kuvera, the god of riches; Saraswatí, the patroness of learning, &c. The Assoors, or evil demons, inhabiting the Patala, or lower regions, are represented as maintaining a ceaseless strug-forms of men or animals. On this docgle to invade the seats of the gods. trine of "the transmigration of souls," the rewards or punishments due to the good or evil actions of a previous life are made to depend; the higher or lower place assigned to the individual in his "new birth" being determined by his antecedent character. In this way, the good man, however humble, will find himself raised, in his next birth, to that station to which his virtues entitle him-while the bad man, however high in rank, will, in a proportionate degree, be brought low. But a degradation lower still is reserved for souls that have been stained by the greater vices. They will be doomed to pass into the bodies of animals possessing kindred habits with their own: the deceitful and cruel, for instance, will assume the nature and forms of beasts characterised by their cunning and ferocity; and they may have to pass through a number of the lower

THE WORSHIP OF ANIMALS. 1.The bull is held to be an incarnation of the soul of a Brahmin-and, as such, receives divine honours; and the cow, as the representative of the goddess Bhavani, is worshipped as "the mother of the gods and the three worlds." No deity is regarded with a more profound veneration than this animal. All its products, including even its dung, are held sacred; and to kill and eat it, is looked upon as worse than cannibalism. Among other animals, monkeys and serpents are treated with sacred rites; and certain birds also, and even trees become objects of worship, as embodying the forms of particular gods. INANIMATE NATURE. - The blue solitudes of mountain peaks-particularly those of the Himalaya—with their * Or Lakshmi, also called Shri or Sri.

DOCTRINE OF A FUTURE STATE.

Having seen how the Brahminical system lodges the spirits of the gods in visible and earthly forms, we need not be surprised to find that the souls of men, after death, instead of being translated into a world of spirits, are only made to become the new tenants of other mortal

grades of animal existence, before they | by hooks passing through the flesh: can again attain the level of humanity. others, again, will go so far as to bury

Besides the rewards and punishments themselves in the ground, leaving only implied in the elevation or degrada- a small aperture to admit the air and tion of the individual, in his successive food; and, indeed, there is scarcely any births, the joys of a heaven and the mode of self-torture that ingenuity could pains of a hell are, in many cases, su-devise, which has not been resorted to. peradded; but these are still of an ex- Pilgrimages. The principal resorts of clusively corporeal nature-the former pilgrims are the holy rivers and sacred consisting of the most exquisite sensual shrines. One of the most celebrated of pleasures, and the latter of the most the latter is the well-known Jagannatha, fearful bodily torments. To escape these, or Juggernaut, in Orissa. It is resorted to atone for past sins, and to attain to by such numbers, that Dr. Buchanan future felicity, recourse must be had to says, that although more than fifty miles the performance of certain meritorious from it, he knew he was approaching Jaacts, such as penances, the bestowal of gannath by the human bones that strewed alms upon Brahmins, and the observ- the way. Of the holy rivers, the Ganges is ance of certain religious ceremonies. that to which the greatest numbers make pilgrimages, particularly at its points of junction with other streams, as with the Bagiruttee at Hurdwar, and the Jumna at Allahabad. To bathe at these places is supposed to atone for even the deadliest sins.

RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCES.

Religious Suicide. Among the different modes in which devotees voluntarily sacrifice their lives, and thereby seek secure happiness for themselves in the next state of existence, the most remarkable is that of throwing themselves down before the car of an idol to be crushed to death by its wheels. The follow

Penance. This is one of the means by which the devotee imagines that he atones for past sins, conquers the pas-ing is a description by Dr. Buchanan of sions, and qualifies himself for absorp- such a sacrifice at Jagannath, to which tion in the essence of "Brahm," the he was himself a witness :-"After the Supreme Mind. The Yogis or Fakirs tower had proceeded some way, a profess to have overcome the world, pilgrim announced that he was ready and, therefore, set its decencies at to offer himself a sacrifice to the idol. nought. They sometimes allow their He laid himself down on the road benails to grow till they become like long fore the tower, as it was moving along, spiral claws, and suffer themselves to lying on his face, with his arms be overrun with vermin, or stung by stretched forwards. The multitude insects, without betraying the slightest passed round him, leaving the space uneasiness; some will never lie down, clear, and he was crushed to death by but continue constantly standing, ex- the wheels of the tower. A shout of joy posed to the fiercest rays of the sun, was raised to the god. He is said to and supported only by a stick, or a rope smile when the libation of blood is under their arm-pits; others mangle made. The people threw cowries, or their bodies with scourges or knives, small money, on the body of the vicor allow themselves to be swung round, tim, in approbation of the deed." suspended from the extremity of a lever,

* i.e., The car of the idol, about 60 feet high.

Begging. The devotee who aspires to a character for superior sanctity, is expected to renounce all the pleasures and occupations of this life, and to depend for the supply of his wants on the alms of others; and these are, in most cases, cheerfully given, as a matter of religious duty. The consequence is, that India swarms with religious mendicants, who absorb no small proportion of the fruits of honest industry.

GLASGOW: PRINTED BY BELL AND BAIN.

IMPORTANT WORKS

In Science and General Literature,

PUBLISHED BY

RICHARD GRIFFIN AND COMPANY,

PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW,

4, 5, and 6 Warwick Square, PATERNOSTER ROW,

LONDON.

39 AND 41

WEST NILE STREET,
GLASGOW.

AIRY.-CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ENCYCLOPEDIA ME-
TROPOLITANA: viz. Trigonometry, Figure of the Earth, and Tides and Waves.
One Volume, 4to, 10s. 6d. cloth.
AIRY.-TRIGONOMETRY.

A TREATISE ON TRIGONOMETRY. By G. B. AIRY, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. New edition. Edited by Professor BLACKBURN. Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. AITON-DOMESTIC ECONOMY.

MANUAL OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY for Clergymen and Other Persons of Limited Income. By Rev. Dr. AITON. Foolscap 8vo, 3s. 6d. half-bound. ANCIENT HISTORY,

Comprising the Political, Social, and Literary Histories of ROME, GREECE, Egypt, ASSYRIA, PERSIA, &c. &c. By ARNOLD,TALFOURD, EADIE, RENOUARD, STODDART, WHEWELL, &c., &c. 10 vols., crown 8vo, cloth, gilt, 31. 13s. 6d. ANECDOTES-LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC.

CYCLOPEDIA OF LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC ANECDOTE. Edited by WM. KEDDIE, Esq., Sec. Glasgow Philos. Society. Cr. 8vo, 5s. cloth. ANECDOTES-RELIGIOUS.

CYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIOUS ANECDOTE; A vast Collection of Facts,
Narratives, and Examples, with Copious Index, and Introductory Essay by
Rev. Dr. CHEEVER. To which is added a Complete Series of Scriptural Texts
illustrated by the Anecdotes. 5th edition. Crown 8vo, 5s. cloth.
ATLASES-HISTORICAL.

HAND ATLAS OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY, in a Series of Twenty-two coloured Maps. With a Series of Historical Dissertations, by EDWARD QUIN, M.A. Imperial 8vo, 12s. 6d.

LIBRARY ATLAS OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY, in a Series of Twenty-two coloured Maps of the World, as known at different Periods. Constructed upon a uniform Scale, and coloured according to the particular changes of each Period, by W. HUGHES, F.R.G.S. With a Series of Historical Dissertations, by EDWARD QUIN, M.A. Fifth Edition, royal 4to, 27. 12s. 6d. half-morocco. BAKEWELL.-ELECTRICITY.

A MANUAL OF ELECTRICITY, PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL. By F. C.
BAKEWELL. Second Edition, enlarged. Crown 8vo, 5s. cloth.
BALFOUR.-BOTANY:

An Introduction to the Study of the Structure, Physiology, and Classification of
Plants. By JOHN H. BALFOUR, M.D., F.R.S.E., Professor of Botany in the
University of Edinburgh. Numerous Illustrations, Third Edition, revised and
enlarged. Crown 8vo, 10s. 6d. cloth.
BIOGRAPHY:

A CYCLOPÆDIA OF UNIVERSAL BIOGRAPHY; Containing a Complete
Series of Original Memoirs of the most Remarkable Individuals of all Times and
Nations. By ALISON, BREWSTER, BURTON, CREASY, EADIE, KNIGHT, NICHOL,
SPALDING, WORNUM, and other Contributors. With 150 Illustrations of Birth-
places, &c. &c. Post 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth.

+

BOOK OF TRADES:

Or, Circle of the Useful Arts. Illustrated by Engravings and Woodcuts, Eleventh Edition, 16mo, 4s. 6d. cloth.

BOOK OF NATURE:

THE BOOK OF NATURE; a COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION to the NATURAL and PHYSICAL SCIENCES. From the German of Professor SCHOEDLER, with numerous Additions, by HENRY MEDLOCK, F.C.S. Third edition, corrected and enlarged. With Copious Index, and 500 Engravings, post 8vo, 7s. 6d. cloth. BRITISH ELOQUENCE:

THE LITERARY, POLITICAL, and SACRED ORATORY of the NINETEENTH CENTURY,
in a series of foolscap 8vo volumes. 3s. 6d. each, cloth.
Literary Oratory.—Addresses at various Literary Institutions.
FIRST SERIES.-ALISON, BREWSTER, HERSCHELL, KNIGHT, DISRAELI, TAL-
FOURD, LORD CARLISLE, EARL STANHOPE, &c.

SECOND SERIES.-BROUGHAM, CAMPBELL, BULWER LYTTON, MACAULAY, MAS-
SON, PEEL, PLAYFAIR, LORD JOHN RUSSELL, SIR JAMES STEPHEN, SCOTT, &c.
THIRD SERIES.-LAYARD, RUTHERFORD, DEAN OF HEREFORD, WARREN,
MONCRIEFF, SHUTTLEWORTH, &c.

Political Oratory.-Parliamentary Oratory during the Thirty Years' Peace. FIRST SERIES.-CANNING, CASTLEREAGH, DURHAM, GREY, HUSKISSON, LIVERPOOL, MACINTOSH, ROMILLY, RUSSELL, WELLINGTON.

SECOND SERIES.-MACAULAY, STANLEY, BROUGHAM, ALTHORP, O'CONNELL, SHEIL, VILLIERS, MELBOURNE, RIPON, PEEL, PALMERSTON, LYNDHURST. Sacred Oratory.—Sermons by the most Eminent Divines.

FIRST SERIES.-Church of England-ARCHBISHOP OF DUBLIN, BISHOPS OF NORWICH and OXFORD, TRENCH, DALE, STOWELL, BICKERSTETH, MELVILLE, &c. SECOND SERIES.-Presbyterian Church-DR. GUTHRIE, DR. CANDLISH, Professors BROWN and EADIE, DR. HAMILTON, and others.

BRITISH EMPIRE.

A BIOGRAPHICAL, GEOGRAPHICAL, AND HISTORICAL HANDBOOK OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. By numerous Contributors. Introduction by PROF. CREASY. With Map and engravings, crown 8vo, 10s. 6d., cloth. BROUGHAM.-WORKS.

THE CRITICAL, HISTORICAL, AND MISCELLANEOUS WORKS OF HENRY, LORD BROUGHAM, F.R.S. Now first Collected under the direct care and superintendence of his Lordship, in Ten post 8vo volumes, 5s. each, cloth.

Vol. 1.-LIVES of PHILOSOPHERS of the TIME of GEORGE III.

2.-LIVES of MEN of LETTERS of the TIME of GEORGE III.

3, 4.-HISTORICAL SKETCHES of BRITISH STATESMEN of the TIME

of GEORGE III., 2 vols.

5.-HISTORICAL SKETCHES of FOREIGN STATESMEN of the

TIME of GEORGE III.

6.-NATURAL THEOLOGY; comprising an Introductory Dissertation of Natural Theology-Dialogues on Instinct-Researches on Fossil Osteology. 7.-RHETORICALand LITERARY DISSERTATIONSandADDRESSES. 8.-HISTORICAL and POLITICAL DISSERTATIONS.

9. 10.-SPEECHES on SOCIAL and POLITICAL SUBJECTS, with Historical Introductions, 2 vols.

BROUGHAM-EDINBURGH REVIEW.

CONTRIBUTIONS to the EDINBURGH REVIEW, POLITICAL, HISTORICAL, and MISCELLANEOUS, by HENRY, LORD BROUGHAM, F.R.S., 3 vols. 8vo, 17. 16s. cloth. BRYCE.-UNIVERSAL GAZETTEER.

CYCLOPEDIA OF POLITICAL AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, forming a COMPLETE GAZETTEER of the WORLD, with Pronunciation, and numerous Illustrations. By JAMES BRYCE, A.M., F.G.S. Post 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. CAMPBELL.-BRITISH NAVAL HISTORY.

Lives of the British Admirals and Naval History of Great Britain from the Days of Cæsar to the Present Time. Fifth Edition, engravings, fcp. 8vo, 3s. 6d. cloth. CHANNING.-WORKS.

Complete in One Volume, 8vo, 6s. cloth. COLERIDGE.-METHOD.

Introductory Dissertation to the Encyclopædia Metropolitana on the Science of METHOD, with a Synopsis. By SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE. Crown 8vo, 2s. cl.

COWPER.-POETICAL WORKS.

The Poetical Works of William Cowper. With Introductory Essay by JAMES MONTGOMERY, and Illustrations, small 8vo, 2s. 6d. cloth, or 3s. cloth gilt. COX.-BIBLICAL ANTIQUITIES.

A MANUAL OF BIBLICAL ANTIQUITIES, OR ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. By the Rev. F. A. Cox, D.D., LL.D. With Maps and nearly 200 Illustrations, crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. cloth. COX.-SACRED HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY,

From the Antediluvian Period to the Time of the Prophet Malachi. Edited by Rev. F. A. Cox, D.D., LL.D. Crown 8vo, 6s. cloth. CRUDEN.-CONCORDANCE

To the Holy Scriptures. Condensed and Revised from the larger Work of Cruden. By Rev. Professor EADIE, D.D., LL.D. Seventeenth edition, 8vo, 5s. cloth. CURIOSITIES OF BIOGRAPHY;

Or, MEMOIRS of EXTRAORDINARY CHARACTERS. BY ROBERT MALCOLM. 100 Characteristic Cuts. Foolscap 8vo, 2s. 6d. cloth. DALGAIRNS.-COOKERY.

THE PRACTICE OF COOKERY ADAPTED TO THE BUSINESS OF EVERY-DAY LIFE. By MRS. DALGAIRNS. Thirteenth Edition, enlarged, foolscap 8vo, 4s. 6d. cloth. DAVY.-AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.

ELEMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. By Sir H. DAVY, Bart, P.R.S., &c. New edition, Revised, by JOHN SHIER, A.M., LL.D. 8vo, 3s.6d. cl. DEWEY.-THEOLOGICAL WORKS.

Complete in One Volume, post 8vo, 5s. cloth.

DONALDSON-LIFE OF A SOLDIER.

RECOLLECTIONS of the EVENTFUL LIFE of a SOLDIER, by JOSEPH DONALDSON, Sergeant in the Ninety-fourth Regiment, foolscap 8vo, 3s. 6d. cloth.

PROFESSOR EADIE'S WORKS.

ANALYTICAL CONCORDANCE to the Holy Scriptures; or, the Bible presented With Synopsis and Index.

under distinct and classified Heads or Topics. Second edition, revised. Post 8vo, 8s. 6d. cloth. BIBLICAL CYCLOPÆDIA; or, Dictionary of Eastern Antiquities, Geography, Natural History, Sacred Annals and Biography, and Biblical Literature. With Maps and numerous Pictorial Illustrations. Sixth edition, revised, post 8vo, 7s. 6d. cloth. COMMENTARY ON THE GREEK TEXT OF THE EPISTLE OF

PAUL TO THE COLOSSIANS. 8vo, 10s. 6d. cloth. COMMENTARY

ON THE GREEK TEXT OF THE EPISTLE OF PAUL TO THE EPHESIANS. 8vo, 14s. cloth.

CONDENSED CONCORDANCE to the Holy Scriptures on the basis of Cruden.

Seventeenth edition. Post 8vo, 5s. cloth.

DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE, for the Use of Young Persons. With 120

Illustrations, fourth edition, small 8vo, 2s. 6d. cloth.

DIVINE LOVE, a Series of Doctrinal, Practical, and Experimental Dis

courses. Foolscap 8vo, 5s. cloth.

EARLY ORIENTAL HISTORY; Comprising the History of Egypt, Assyria, Persia, Media, Phrygia, and Phoenicia. Numerous Illustrations, cr. 8vo, 8s. cl. ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.

FIRST DIVISION. HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN THE
FIRST CENTURY. By Right Rev. SAMUEL HINDS, D.D., Bishop of Norwich,
and Rev. J. H. NEWMAN, B.D. Crown 8vo, 6s. cloth.
SECOND DIVISION.-CHRISTIANITY IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

Part I.-THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN THE SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES, by JAMES A. JEREMIE, D.D., 'Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. 4s. cloth.

Part II THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH FROM THE FOURTH TO THE TWELFTH CENTURY. By Rev. J. M. GUILDING, Rev. J. B. S. CARWITHEN, B.D., &c., 5s. cloth. THIRD DIVISION. THE RISE, ACCOMPLISHMENT, & CONSEQUENCES OF THE REFORMATION; being the History of the Church from the Thirteenth Century to the present time. By Right Reverend Dr. HAMPDEN, Bishop of Hereford, Rev. J. E. RIDDLE, M.A., &c. &c. 7s. 6d, cloth.

« ForrigeFortsæt »