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successors of Babæuf would re-kindle, dug the bed of the river of blood which has traversed the French revolution ; and it is tủis that has made me look on Voltaire and Helvetius with a different eye from that with which, till now, I had been accustomed to consider them.'
The Clergy, as well as the philosophers, have a chapter devoted to their service; and those who are acquainted with MERCIER's former writings will not require to be informed in what manner they are treated. He prefers the policy of the antients, in not making the sacerdotal function an isolated one, to the moda generally prevailing among the moderns; and he tells us that their apprehensions from the catholic religion, the remembrance of the evils which it has occasioned, its intolerance, the mad rage of its priests, and their secret masses, in which they caballed against the republican government, determined them on decreeing that all religious worship should be free; or, in other words, that the state would not distinguish any particular form of worship with peculiar countenance and protection.'
In one respect, the author has lived to see what he has des picted in his
dream, in the chapter du Temple, viz. the public worship of God on the principles of pure theism: but this is the practice of a small sect, and not the culte adopted by the French nation. However, as may be supposed, the Theophilanthropists are honoured with particular notice, and their principles are displayed. • The text of their Gospel,' we are toid, ' is the firmament of Heaven.' He thus speaks of this sect :
· Everlasting thanks 'be given to philosophy! Reason has triumphed ! Superstition, credulity, and all the mummeries of priesthood, are replaced by natural religion. • Its persuasive voice begins to penetrate every heart.
This pacific religion, of which we nourish already the seeds within us, will, ere long, become the only predominant one. It is practised and taught by the Theophilanthropists.
« The true friends of men are the true friends of God. Plain in their doctrine, as the apostles of Christ, they are humble like them. Like them, the Theophilanthropists are enemies to all pomp and grandeur ; they can only inspire confidence in steady minds, obtain general approbation, and lead on their proselytes.
· Their worship is without any ostentation, and founded on the belief of the Supreme. Being, on the dogma of the immortality of the soul, on universal love, on the reverence due to age, on the natural affection towards parents, and on benevolence.
• This worship is established without any theological disputes, without boasting, and without effusion of blood; for the Theophilanthropists do not compel any one to believe. They inculcate lessons of wisdom in the heart of children; they persuade women to cherisla their husbands ; they teach men to love one another, and to do the good which they wish to be done to themselves. They teach them to consider death as the beginning of immortality, and to look with respect and gratitude to the defenders of their country.'
It does not appear from the chapter entitled C'est le Diable, &c. that either the taste or the morals of the French, in the New Paris, are superior to those of the Old. We are happy, however, on finding in a subsequent chapter that an amelioration has taken place in the Hotel-Dieu ; and that, now, every patient has a bed to himself: the consequence of which is that not more die than two in six days; whéreas, before the revolution, the mortality of this hospital on an average was 13 in a day.
Dy a national lottery, which the author has re-established, the Foundling Hospital is furnished with milk, the sick are Yupplied with broth, and the wounded with lint.
Respecting the Loi du Divorce, we have in the 6th vol.
• This law was planned in 1790, in the dismal pamphlets of the
* By these laws, an absence of only six months sufficed to obtain
In a work abounding with such a variety of matier, it is
the 2d year.
. During his second interrogatory, he asked Chaumette from what country he came?“ From the department of the Nièvre."-
- It is a delightful country.”—“ Have you been there ?”_" No: but I
propose to make the tour of France in two years, and to acquire a knowlege of all its beauties,”
When he saw that the secretary had his hat on in the carriage, he said to him, in a laughing tone : “ When you came to fetch me for the first time from the Temple, you forgot your hat ; you have been more cautious to-day.”
• It was the Breviary that comforted him for all his lost grandeur.'
There is rather an appearance of sneer in this account: but, if it be true that religion was the basis of that firmness which this unfortunate monarch is allowed to have displayed, (no matter what were the particular tenets of his system,) be it recorded to his everlasting honor!
This work contains 271 chapters; and it is not yet finished. Since the publication of it, other changes have taken place ; and it is not improbable that, though the New Paris may be considered as the realization of Mercier's Dream, it may nevertheless, before long, pass away “ like the baseless fabric of a vision,”
Moo-y. Art. XVII, Précis des Evènemens Militaires, &c. i. e. A concise
Account of Military Events, Nos. I–VII. ; to which are annexed
present war, on some of which depended the fate of several nations, and each of which has been in a greater or a less degree connected with the most valuable interests, if not the destiny of Europe, has made them, more than those of any former contest, objects of deep concern and universal attention. The wider range which these military operations have been made to comprehend, and the unusually extensive scale on which they have been conducted, contribute to increase the number of those who regard them with curiosity and surprise ; while the ability with which they have been planned, the courage with which they have been executed, and the many important improvements in the science of tactics which they have exemplified, will secure to them the attentive regard of the military as well as the political historian.
A work, therefore, calculated to give a faithful, a collected, and a clear view of the principal events resulting from these operations, must be not only highly valuable to the reader of
the present day, but a precious bequest to posterity. Such a work, that which is now before us professes to be, and such in our opinion it is :—but it is more than a mere detail of particular operations or events. The authors do not confine themselves to the humble labour of transcribing or comparing the accounts published in the different gazettes: they accompany those details by observations on the nature of the war, on the conduct and plans of the Generals, on the tendency and result of parti. cular successes and defeats, on the relative strength of places and of armies; and they mark the novelties which occur in tactics, and compare corresponding events in former wars with those of the present. To do all this well is manifestly a very arduous undertaking ; but, arducus as it is, the authors have succeeded in a degree which places their labours in this department far beyond those of any contemporary periodical writers; and they have impressed on this interesting performance a character of great military skill, of impartial fidelity, and of philosophic observation.
It is not perhaps possible to convey, by a detached extract, 3 fair idea of the merit of a work destined to describe a series of continued operations. We therefore quote the following passage rather to excite the reader, if military affairs can interest him, to peruse this excellent summary, than to enable him to appreciate, by what he shall here find, the value of the performance. The passage which we select is taken from the oth number, and contains a calculation of the force of the French armies at the time when the revolution in the Directory of the 30th Prairéal took place, and produced a change of Generals, and a substitution of a plan of offensive for defensive operations. (Vide No. 4. p. 243 to 255.)
• In supposing the army of Moreau to have completely effected their retreat into Nice county, after having collected the wreck of that which had been commanded by Macdonald, and on the frontier of France those reinforcements which might have been obtained in Provence; this army, when Joubert came to take the command of it, might have consisted of from forty to fifty thousand men. These were but the remains of a body originally amounting to nearly
• The corps which occupied the entrenchments and passages of Dauphiné and Savoy did not together exceed 25,000.
• The principal re-inforcements, the divisions which had retreated from the Lower Rhine, some fresh cavalry, and the greater number of the conscripts, having been sent in preference towards the army of Switzerland, we may reckon that at this time Massena had at least 6,000 men under his orders.
They calculate at 30,coo men the efficient garrison's of Strasburgh, Mayence, Ehrenbeitstein, and the different corps posted along the Rhire as far as Dusseldorff.
• Gen. Brune, who commanded in Holland, and to whom the Batavian republic had recently given the conduct of its lately organized army, had not under his orders more than from 8 to 10,000 French.
• In a word, the troops near the coast, known by the name of the army of England, did not exceed in all 25,000 men.
• In the interior, remained no more troops than were absolutely necessary for the security of the republican government.
• The total of the republican forces, then, which were effectively in action at the end of July, would be, on this calculation, about 195,000 men.
* To these must be added 20,000 Batavian troops, and 8,000 Spaniards, employed on the coasts; which will make the whole 218,000 men, dispersed along the Frontier from Holland to the Medirerranean.
• It was the strict demonstration of the truth of this result, which we here give but as a rough calculation, that gave rise to the rapid levy of all classes of the conscription ;-and to the resolution of raising the army of the republic to above 509,000 men. This dreadful mode of recruiting an army had once before succeeded, in a situation of extreme danger, like the present ;- it could not now be put in practice but by similar means, and in the agitation of a great crisis. It was a bold experiment, and one of which the effect was likely to baffle all the calculations of political economy, to attempt to draw suddenly from the territory of France an army of 250,000 men, in the flower of age, after eight campaigns, and the loss of above a million of lives. It is worth observation, too, that the 450,000 men of the requisition, which recruited or renewed the French armies in 1794, had been organized, formed into battalions, equipped, armed, and disciplined, in ibe short period which had elapsed since the close of 1793.'
The mention of this novel, and, as it has been called, Illegitimate mode of recruiting an army, leads the authors to a train of reflections on that subject, which mark a profound knowe lege of the motives of a paramount party in a revolutionized state. The then describe shortly the steps which, in France, successively led to the dangerous practice of levy by conscription, and thus proceed :
• In 1799, the party which had regained the upper hand of the Directory measured its efforts by the double danger in which they stood. The new government thought themselves bound to repair the errors committed by the preceding Directory; and if possible, in order that they might be able to offer and conclude peace, to resume that situation in which the former Directory disdained it. They found it still more necessary than their predecessors had done, to strengthen themselves at home by the success of their armo abroad. Why should they not, therefore, try every means to resume offensive operations against the enemy? The difficulty of recovering the ordinary contributions, and the excessive tardiness of recruiting by individual requisition, would no longer suffice; they therefore had recourse to the progressive taxes, and to the conscription, which is properly the organization of the levy in mass proposed to the Convention in the year 1793. Already