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hirds of prey.

Vaillant on the Birds of Africa, No. 7, 8, and 9. 559 brown, like an hazel nut. The claws of the corbiveau, it is observable, are stronger and more hooked than those belonging to the generality of ravens.

• This description of the corbiveau shews that this species of raven, if I may so call it, has some resemblance in point of form to

The following observations on their manners and mode of life will confirm the resemblance. Noisy, voracious, daring, social, and dirty, he resembles the raven in his taste for carrion, which constitutes the chief part of his food; and he frequently assembles in large and noisy crouds. These birds raise hoarse and hollow cries, not unlike those of the raven ; and which singularly conform with its shape and manners to the disgusting ideas which we entertain of savage animals, in general, from the aggregate of their repulsive and mournful characteristics. To the habits which I have just mentioned, the corbiveau joins a marked appetite for live prey; he attacks and kills lambs and young antelopes, and devours them after having pulled out their eyes and tongue; he may be seen following troops of buffaloes, oxen, and horses, the rhinoceros, and even the elephant himself. The love of the fiesh and the blood leads these birds to pursue such great quadrupeds, on whose backs they are frequently perched in great numbers. The corbiveau would be a dangerous and fatal bird of prey to these animals, if he possessed strength sufficient to kill them : but, unable to penetrate their strong and solid hides, he contents himself with plunging his beak into the soft parts of the body of the animal, and where the skin has been injured by the vermin who deposit their eggs there. If these quadrupeds then permit the corbiveau on their back, they really derive a benefit from his sanguinary instinct ; a benefit, which they receive with considerable pleasure, in suffering him to remove with the point of his beak the sanguineous larva ; of which the number is so considerable on certain animals, that I have seen many perish from the extreme waste which they occasion.

• The corbiveau fies with great strength, and raises himself very high by means of his long wings. He builds his nest in October, and constructs it in thickets, or trees: the nest is large and hollow, composed of boughs, and furnished in the inside with softer materials. It lays four eggs, greenish, spotted with brown.

• The corbiveau is not a bird of passage, but continues the whole year in the country where he was born. I have seen him in every part of my African travels, though in some places more frequently than in others, and particularly among the Grand Namaquois. He is less common about the city of the Cape, but is to be found in great numbers in Swarte-Land. The female is less than the male, the white of her neck less extended, and the black less glossy, more inclining to a brown colour.?

We shall with pleasure turn our attention to the succeeding numbers of this magnificent work as they make their appear.

S.R.

Art.

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Art. XIV. Annales de Chimie, &c. i.e. Chemical Annals. Nos. 92)

93, 94. 8vo. Paris. 1799. n a paper entitled Observations on the Treatment of Iron Ores

with Coak, by M. GAZERAU, we find some remarks on the different sorts of coak afforded by various kinds of coal; which are just and pertinent: but, at the same time, they are obvious, and by no means calculated to give our iron-masters any farther insight into this important branch of metallurgy.

Memoir in Areometry, by J. H. HASSENFRATZ. Of this paper we shall speak hereafter, when the author has brought his valuable labours to a close.

Analysis of the Spinel. By M. KLAPROTH, translated by M. Tassaert. We have given a summary of the present paper in our account of M. KLAPROTH's second volume :-see Rer. N. S. vol. xxv. p. 579.

Extract of a Report on the Means employed to obtain Antimony from its Ores, by J. H. HASSENFRATZ. Three distinct processes are employed to obtain antimony from its mineralization by sulphur.' The sulphuret is first separated from its matrix by simple fusion. The second process is the sublimation of the sulphur in a reverberating furnace, gradually heated : the metal becomes oxydated during the vaporization of the sulphur, and the grey oxyd of antimony is obtained. The third process consists in placing the oxyd of antimony in a crucible, with half of its weight of tartar. The acid of tartat is decomposed on the application of heat; while the potash in contact determines the fusioni of the antimony and its union in a mass.

In determining the action of the tartar, the author observes that it does not depend merely on the carbone and hydrogene of the tartar; as appears from the effect of dis-oxydation by charcoal, fat, and grapes. Again; it does not depend on the antimony in fusion being covered by the melted potash; as appears from the effect of a combination of vitrifiable salts and earths with charcoal.

The combination of earthy glasses with iron, and the existence of potash in some stones, might suggest the possibility of a similar combination between antimony and the potash of the tartar : but repeated solutions of antimony in the nitrous acid have not afforded any vestige of this alkali.

Nevertheless the tartar, by its action on the oxyd of antimony, fixes it in some way.' Does this fixation arise from the decomposition of the potash; from the action of one or of several of the ingredients of the tartar ; or from some new com

bination

bination of the elements of these substances ? These questions
the author proposes to chemists, assayists, and metallurgists.

From these results, M. HASSENFRATZ concludes that the.
nature of fluxes must have much influence in the disoxydation
of many metallic substances; and that the distinctions among
fluxes, established by the antient chemists, have not been suf-
ficiently examined.

On Dyer's Furnaces, of a new Construction. By B. LAGRANGE. The furnace here described and figured is said to save fivesevenths of the fuel consumed according to the old construction. Those readers, who are interested in these most useful investigations, will compare the ideas of the French improvers with those of Count Rumford.

Account of a German Mineralogical Dictionary. This appears
to be an useful, and almost a necessary undertaking. It is in
seven languages, but is said to be defective in five out of the
seven, and in the English among

the rest.
Abstract of a Memoir on the Method of dyeing Cotton ; and the
Commerce with Scarlet spun-cotton in Greece. By M. Felix.

Report concerning the above Memoir, by M. M. Darcet,
DESMORETS, and CHAPTAL. It is well known that the art
of dyeing cotton scarlet, or turkey-red, was imported into
France by Greek families; that the secret by degrees tran.
spired; and that the process was simplified by the French.
The publication, therefore, of the Greek method, is at present
no otherwise interesting than as it furnishes a curious docu-
ment towards the history of the art of dyeing.

In the paper of M. Felix, are some interesting passage
concerning the people employed in this manufacture. After
having described at length the source of a litigation, which has
lately proved in the highest degree detrimental to the manu-
factory, he thus concludes:

• For my part, I shall never forget what I saw (during my first
journey) at Ambelakia, and in its environs : a numerous population,
supported entirely by the fruit of its labour ; and, amid the rocks
of Mount Ossa, exhibiting the affecting union of a family of brothers
and friends. The fine settlements, established by the Jesuits amid
the forests of Paraguay, transplanted (as it were by magic) wnid,
the precipices and the avalanches of Tempe; the Grecian animosity
mollified: the taste for vain subtleties superseded by the love for
solid studies; national vanity overpowered by generous sentiments;
every large and liberal idea thriving in a soil devoted for 20 centuries
to slavery; the antient Grecian character re-germinating with its
original energy, amid the torrents and the caverns of Pelion :-in
short, all the virtues and the talents of antient Greece reviving in a
corner of modern Greece.
App. Rev. VOL. XXX,

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• Industrious

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• Industrious Ambelakistae ! You have given me great hopes; and I have promised you brilliant destinies. Shall we both, one day, have only to regret illusions ? Be sensible towards the lot of your countrymen. In the excess of their miseries, they turn their looks

your mountains, as if happiness ought to reach them from the same quarter as civilization : their childien, like the children of their early ancestors, coine still to be formed in the school of your Chirons *. Return them Herculeses and Achilleses."

Analysis of Chromate of Iron, from the Bastide of la Carrade. By M. TASSAERT. The mineral here analysed is said to consist of 63.6 parts of acid of chrome, and of 36.0 of oxyd of iron, in the 100. We hope that this curious substance will not be long a stranger to our own country. A fossil into which chrome enters is said to have been lately discovered in Cornwall.

Notice of a Work entitled Chemie Optomatique, or the Art of easily acquiring that Science by aiding Discourse with Plates, l'igures, and Symbols. By F. G. COURREJOLLES. This work, says its reviewer, M. Fourcroy, is the beginning of a great project for presenting the sciences in a new form ; so as to produce, by mere inspection, a strong and durable impression. Although the present performance be far below the perfection which such an undertaking may acquire in time, the efforts of the author deserve the encouragement of chemists. His ideas are exact, and his plan is ingenious.

It would appear, therefore, that this work may be worthy of the notice of some of those E:nglish writers, who are so laudably engaged in providing instruction for our youth. They may

be able to render it truly useful, by introducing those improvements of which it appears to stand in need.

New Researches concerning the mutual affinities of the Earths, both in the moist and dry way. By M. Guyton. In this very curious and valuable paper, the ingenious author presents a number of experiments; whence he concludes that there exists, among all the earths, a tendency to union in both ways. This tendency, according to the degree of elective attraction, determines their precipitation from a common solvent, as also their vitreous composition; that the union of two earths, like the alloying of metals, takes place in virtue of the same law, which excludes the supposit on of a property in one of the bodies belonging to another order of substances; that, on compasing the results of these attractions with solutions by any saline substances, we should be often puzzled to say which of the earths acts on the other in the manner of alkaline or acid • Tic best schools in Greece are at present at Ambelakia.

solvents;

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solvents; since we see lime take silex from potash, potash yield alumine and magnesia, and lime vitrify barytes, as, barytes vitrifies silex ; that the phænomena, in short, which may give rise to considerations of this kind, must be regarded as the effects of that contiguous attraction, which, according to its inequality. in different cases, forms both the bond in natural combinations and the power of those instruments which nature employs to break them.

Historical Note relative to the Invention and the first Trials of Parachutes. By M. A. Brien. In this note, the idea and the actually successful employment of Parachutes is attributed to Montgolfier.

Report of M. DEYEUX respecting Notes presented by M. LEBLANC relative to Nickel. In consequence of these notes, the class of chemistry has been charged with an investigation con cerning the still doubtful nature of Nickel.

M. LEBLANC presumes that it is erroneous to consider this as a peculiar metal: but his experiments are not decisive.

Memoir on Areometry. By M. J. HASSENFRATZ.

Notice of a Memoir by M. FABROŅI,concerning the vinous, putrid, and acetous fermentations, and concerning etherification. By M. FOURCROY. Among the fourteen propositions, deduced from M. FABRONI's memoir, the 5th is perhaps the most important. It is as follows:- Fermentation is merely the decomposition of one substance by another, as that of a carbonate by an acid, or of sugar by nitrous acid. It offers, as in the latter case, a slow effervescence. Fermentation is then an effervescence, which ought to be named vinous effervescence. - To this, M. FOURCROY objects that the comparison with a carbonate, in a state of decomposition by an acid, is not exact; since the disengaged gas is an acid already formed. It is the immediate effect of a cheniical attraction between three substances already composed, and retaining the nature which they previously had.' Now, a ferment is not an acid; nor the fermenting matter a carbonate: the carbonic acid being formed during the fermentation. The term effervescence cannot, without confounding together heterogeneous phænomena, be applied to the action of nitrous acid in sugar; - which, in part, does approach nearer to the vinous iermentation.

On the main opinion of M. FABRONI, that alcohol does not exist in wine, but arises from its decomposition, it is remarked that, though wine cannot be re-composed by adding back the alcohol to the residuum, yet this may be owing to the alteration of the substances forming that residuum, and does not completely prove Q9 2

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