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The death of the Emperor Charles VI. in 1740 preceded a new and general war in Europe, originating in the different pretensions of the Arch Duchess of Tuscany, Maria-Tireresa, and of the Electors of Bavaria and Saxony, to the Imperial throne; and also in the claims of the King of Prussia to Silesia, and of the crown of Spain to the kingdoms of Hun. gary and Bohemia. Fleuri, now 85 years old, had suffered the Marshal Bellisle to gain an ascendancy in the French Councils. He asserred the claim of the Elector of Bavaria to the Imperial throne, with an army of 40,000 men. Eng-, land, under George II. supported Maria Theresa with an army of 30,000, but the superiority of the enemy soon compelled him to sign a treaty of neutrality at Hanover in 1741. The Elector of Bavaria was raised to the Imperial throne in 1742: but he died in 1745, and left it vacant for his rival, whose husband, the Grand Duke François Etienne, was elected in the same year. Prussia, after having gathered abundant laurels, was at length satisfied ; and peace was concluded at Aix-laChapelle between the belligerent powers in 1748.

Seven years of tranquillity now succeeded ; during which time, France, cherishing her marine, excited the jealousy of England; and in 1755 the ambiguities in the former treaty, which professed to settle the respective claims of both countries in. America, afforded England a pretext for commencing hostilities. On the continent, she obtained Prussia for an ally, while France secured the aid of the Emperor. Catherine of Russia, who had now succeeded her husband, joined the Emperox and France; and thus the continent became again involved in war. To Prussia and England, the contest was glorious : but France suffered from it in every quarter of the world, and she resorted for succour to the family compact with Spain, concluded in 1761. England, under the genius of Pitt, roused by this prospect of probable danger, hurled defiance at Spain; who immediately attacked Portugal, the ally of England. Portugal was in consequence injured, but England triumphed in her foreign conquests of Spanish possessions.—Tired of war, at length, negociations commenced; and the arms of Prussia forced the Empress to peace, which was concluded at Paris on the 10th of Feb. 1763.

Of the last war between France and England, originating in the aid afforded by France to the revolted Colonies of Amee tica, M. ANQUETIL gives a very able and satisfactory outline; as well as of the treaties of peace and commerce which were concluded at Versailles in 1783 and 1784.- In the progress and issue of that contest, many of our readers yet living were personally and deeply interested ; and they will re-trace, with APP. REY, VOL. XXX, Qo


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satisfaction, in the sketch given of it in this work, the events which once so strongly fixed their attention. We intended to have concluded this article by a transcript from this part: but the analysis which we have already given of the contents of the volume, we find, has sufficiently filled our pages on this subject.. We must be contented, therefore, with adding that, to those who desire to have a general view of the causes which led to the wars that have scourged Europe since the treaty of Westphalia, of the events which led to peace, and of the substance of the compacts which confirmed it, M. ANQUETIL’s per• formance will furnish clear and satisfactory, though concise, information.


ART. IX. Paris, pendant l'Année 1799; i. c. Paris during the

Year 1799. By M. PELTIER. Vols. XX, XXI, XXII. BY Y. various accidents and impediments, we have been obliged

to discontinue our examination of this well written and entertaining Journal, during a much longer period than we intended. The last Number of this work, which has been mentioned in our Review, was CLXXI. vol. 20, (see our 27th vol. N. S. for 1798, p. 554.) since which time, so mang Numbers have appeared as constitute more than three volumes. We must therefore “ fetch up our lee-way,” and try to overa take the author ; whose resources seem abundant, in spite of the interruptions of continental intelligence.

As the political part of a periodical work like this must be temporary, and as, from our being so much in arrears, is must long since have lost its novelty; we shall chiefly point out the literary articles which are most likely to interest English readers.

In No. CLxxII. is a 3d extract from the Memoirs of Mademoiselle Clairon, concerning which work we availed ourselves of M. PELTIER's extracts and those in Le Spectateur du Nord, previously to our procuring a copy of the book itself*. This No. also contains an account of the Institute for arts and sciences founded at Grand Cairo by Bonaparte, with a list of its members and their pursuits.

No. clxxiI begins with miscellaneous literary articles, particularly of new pieces brought on the several theatres; among which we have an account of a curious drama entitled Har. lequin alone. Harlequin has laid a wager of 50 crowns with Giles, his rival, that he would remain immured in his own

* See Rev, vol. xxvii. p. 557. and xxviii. p. 519.


house during 24 hours, quite alone, without going to see his dear Columbine, the daughter of Cassander the fine-drawer, from whom he is only separated by a party-wall; and he is determined to make this sacrifice, that he may gain the 50 crowns, of which he is in great want, in order to smooth some difficulties. The question is, how to fill up three tiresome quarters of an hour which still remain of the stated time; and how to inform his mistress of the motive of his absence. All that the ingenuity of love can suggest to an imprisoned lover is performed. At first, he contrives to make Giles himself carry a copy of the treaty to Columbine in an empty patty-pan. While this is doing, and Columbine is contriving to let him know that she has received the information, Harlequin employs his time in talking to her portrait à la silhouette, (in shadow,) and in singing the most lively witty things on the subject of soli

on love, and on the heart. Among other spirited strokes, the following couplet, on the different places in which the heart is stationed in different people, has been much applauded:

Bien peu d'amis l'ont sur la main,
Beaucoup d'amans l'ont dans la tête."
Few are the friends whose heart in hand is bred, .

But many lovers wear it in the head. Harlequin soon hears the rope of the draw-well which is common to both houses. He flies, and sees the image of his mistress reflected on the surface of the water; he says a thousand gallant things to it, and finishes on espying a letter suspended to a string; which he contrives to seize and draw towards him. This letter acknowleges the reception of his own; but it also informs him that Giles has availed himself of Harlequin's absence to blacken him in the opinion of Cassander, and to gain for himself the consent of the latter, and that, in short, if he does not soon appear, all is lost. Harlequin is on the point of giving up the wager, and climbing up the wall to shew himself to Giles, when he over-hears very distinctly their conversation, in the wood supposed to be at the front of the party-wall, by the help of a pair of double steps, of which he avails himself. He now tries to make Columbine acquainted with this, for which purpose he writes another letter : after which he is supposed to see his mistress at a distance, and, throwing his arms in the form of a telegraph, counterfeits its movements, and gives her to understand that he has another letter to send. A string is then thrown over the garden wall, to the end of which is fastened his letter.

His mistress then speaks to him by musical notes, as if she was talking with her singers; telling him what is doing, and



what he ought to do. At length the time allotted for terminating the wager arrives : he gains the 50 crowns; shews himself on the wall; speaks to Cassander; is furnished with a ladder; the artifice of Giles is exposed; the 50 crowns are paid to Harlequin ; and he descends to his dear Columbine to cosclude the match.

Nothing but the uncommon resources of a great actor can make this kind of pantomime, or rather child's-play, supportable. Laporte, the Preville of the present day, at Paris, had the ingenuity to render this language of signs intelligible and amusing to the audience. Here, many personages are compressed into one. In our Garrick's Lethe, an individual is multiplied into many.

The French reviewer of this piece complains of the obscurity of the following couplet, and calls it an unintelligible arith metic :

Lorsque comme quatre l'on s'aime

Trois fois heureux, deux s'en font qu'un. To do anything four times as much as another is a commor expression in French, as manger comme quatre :-thrice happy, felices ter et amplius, is classical ;-and two fond hearts united in one has been a common metaphor at all times and in all places. It is not the darkness, but the childish play on words, to which a sober critic would here object.

Besides plans, extracts, and abridgments of new dramas, we have an entire piece in this No. called The Prisoner : with much lexicographical criticism concerning a new edition of the Dictionary of the French Academy. Among the metrical pieces in this No. is a pretty poem by Gouvé, entitled Reminiscences, or the Advantages of Memory. This piece has considerable merit, but will not efface the impression made on English readers by the beautiful poem on the pleasures of Memory by Mr. Rogers.

The Number is terminated by an interesting account of a

autiful antique Colossal statue, discovered at Veletri in Italy, soon after the invasion of the ecclesiastical states by the French. The workmanship of this magnificent figure is said to be equal to that of the Apollo Belvidere. It is of white marble, eleven feet in height, and appears to be the representative of Pallas. She is in a martial dress, the drapery descending to her feet.

No. CLXXIV. News from Egypt during the most auspicious period of Bonaparte's expedition. Finances of the Republic. Finances of England. Speech of Lord Auckland on the Income Tax. Affairs of Italy at the beginning of 1799.-We 4


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have neither poetry nor other species of literature in this No. which terminates the 20th volume.

Vol, XXI.-No. CLxxy. This volume begins with an introductory account of the deplorable state of Italy, previously to the re-commencement of the war between Austria and France; with an Appendix concerning the Order of Malta, and the Emperor of Russia's acceptance of the title of Grand Master :-containing also playful poetry-Notices of new French publications-a beautiful fragment on the cultivation of Flowers-English and French Politics.

No. CLXXVI. Political Sketch of the Events quhich took place ir January and February last : Miscellaneous Literature : Account of a very profligate new publication in France, called La Guerre des Dieux Anciens et Modernes, War of the Gods Antient and Modern. M. PELTIER has treated this most licentious publication with proper indignation :- but, though it must excite horror in the breast of every Christian, or every Deist, it has been printed in three several forms, in a most splendid manner, by Didot, printer to the State, and recommended to young people at the Institute by the Director of Public Instruction. We have not seen the book: but it is said that, since the appearance of Voltaire's burlesque poem, La Pucelle d'Orléans, nothing so abominably atheistical, immoral, and indecent, has issued from the press.' The design of the author; the ci-devant Chevalier de Parny, appears to have been nothing less than the turning equally to ridicule the gods of paganism and the mysteries of Christianity. The action is stated to be in the fourth century, when Constantine is at the head of the Roman empire. The Catholic religion, had then begun to shake paganism. The scene is laid in Olympus, at a festival given by Jupiter to all the gods. They were at table when the Eagle came to inform them, that he had seen strangers of a very mean appearance glide quietly by thousands into the sacred precincts of the heavenly abodes. Jupiter sends Mercury to reconnoitre; he returns, and informs them that there are other gods already in high favour with the Romans, furnished with a passport by Constantine, who had assigned to them half of the celestial regions. A general cry is raised; some desired to resist and fight them :--but Japiter imposes silence, and consults Minerva, who is of opinion that these new guests should be admitted ; and Apollo is even for inviting them to dinner. Mercury then sets off, and brings them to table; and here orgies are performed, which are too impious and indecent to be described. The modern gods afterward take possession of that part of heaven which is called paradise. Jupiter, however, alarmed, makes dispositions in Olympus in case of an attack,



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