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the wars in which France engaged can no longer exist; and that, therefore, from the establishment of that system, France and the world may hope for permanent tranquillity: or at least, that public peace shall no more be sacrificed to gratify the caprice of private passion.

The reasoning which infers, from the corrupt policy of the monarchy of France in relation to war or peace, that the republican form will be pacific, seems to be rather that of a partizan than a logician.- Granting, what indeed this work is well calculated to prove, that the wars which have scourged Europe, for a century and half, were the result of ambition, resentment, or caprice, and not necessary evils incurred by the wisdom of a protecting government for the public good; does it follow that, because there ceases to be a monarch, or a sole minister, at the head of the state, private passion shall therefore not obtrude itself into the maragement of national concern? Talents, success, activity, address, and sometimes the commission of crimes themselves, will raise individuals to influence and power even in the most democratic governments ; and, when power (or influence, which is power,) is once possessed by the individual, what shall prevent the passions of the republican leader, any more than those of the monarch or his minister, from making war and peace an instrument of gratification ?

M. ANQUETIL confines the application of his remarks to the government of France only : but they are capable of extension ; for what is directly proved on France, in relation to its policy of war, will be found to hold equally with regard to other belligerent and contracting powers; -and the monarchs and ministers of France will appear but to bear their just proportion of those errors or crimes, which all the contemporary governments have equally committed. If, then, the disclosure of the policy which governed the French monarchy could produce, in that country, the salutary effect of convincing its people of the inutility and folly of war, and could thus excite a sincere and perniavent Jove of peace, the same effects might reasonably be expected from it on the other inhabitants of Europe :--but, is it probable that the mass of mankind wil ever be taught this lesson of practical wisdom, which as yet they have no where begun to practise ? To those who enter. tain the high-flying notions of the absolute perfectibility of man, who believe that his passions may one day be rendered

The varying administration of France has undergone fresh changes, since this volume appeared.

+ The elevation of Don parie, which has happened since this article was composed, tends to confirm this predictive supposition.'

completely

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completely subordinate to his reason, and that truth and virtue shall at last become the sole guides of human conduct, such an hope may appear rational: but those who hold the opinion, however comfortless it seems, that man is likely ever to continue the same animal which for so many thousand years history informs us he has been,-a creature compounded as well of feeling as of intellect, drawn by different motives in contrary, directions, sometimes impelled to vice by passion, and sometimes led by reason to the practice of virtue, --such men will pronounce it as absurd to expect that war shall be made tø cease, or even in a very considerable degree be rendered less frequent than it has been, by speculative proofs that it is neither necesar sary nor useful, as to hope that the fixed laws of nature shall yield to the benevolent wish of him who would exclude from · the material as well as from the moral world all that he deems, evil.

If M. ANQUETIL's work, however, be not likely to produce any powerful effect on the political morality of the age, it is. yet highly useful as a valuable historic tract, on account of the able and judicious view which it exhibits of the various wars and treaties which have, in this and the last century, occupied. Europe.

The period comprised in this volume is that between 1648 and 1783. It commences in course with the celebrated treaty of Westphalia, of which it is the more necessary to know the full history, since that treaty has served as the ground work of all those which have since been formed between the European powers. Of the war which preceded it, the cause generally alledged is the religious animosity which, from the beginning of the sixteenth century, raged in Europe between the followers and the opponents of the reformation. M. ANQUETIL acknowleges that fanaticism kindled the flame : but, according to him, it was the interference of the two rivals Charles V. and Francis I. that guided and propagated its destroying power. He glances at the great events which occurred in its progress, and gives a concise and clear view of the motives, intrigues, and negociations which at length terminated in the peace of Westphalia, and in the acknowlegement of the independance of the United States by Spain, their former master. -This peace was confirmed by two treaties signed at Munster, 246h Oct. 1648, which have been not improperly called the Code of Europe, and, as we have already observed, have been made the ground of every subsequent European treaty; as they ascertained and fixed the principles, according to which the relative interests of France and of the empire were to be regulated, and became the depositaries of the laws which were to 13

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govern the Germanic body : as well as of those feudal and Liscal relations, those reciprocal rights of protection and obedience, which exist between the Emperor and his co estates, and between the different co-estates themselves.

The treaty of the Pyrenées, which terminated the war continued between France and Spain subsequently to the peace of Westphalia, is discussed by the author next in order. It was concluded, berween Don Louis de Haro on the part of Spain, and Cardinal Mazarin on the part of France, in the Isle of Pheasants, on the 7th of November 1659, on the twentythird conference between those acute and subtle negociators. Of the celebrated Mazarin, the author gives the following sketch :

Mazarin was already so powerful, when he succeeded in negociating this treaty, that he had only to wish that his power might remain undiminished. He continued, however, to enjoy but for sixteen months the title with which some writers honoured him that of Pacificator of Europe-- as he died in the beginning of March 1661. If we judge by his letters, which are commonly the mirror of the mind, when there exists no particular interest to disguise it, Niazarin possessed all the essentials of a negociator ;-a profound knowlege of history, and of the rights of nations, the talent of discovering his antagonist's character, while he perfectly concealed his own,-great circumspection in offering propositions, and great promptitude and justness in replying to those of his adversary, and a perfect command of his gesture, his eye, and the whole turn of his countenance, which never betrayed a sentiment against its owner's will.–To these qualities were added, what is so useful to a minister, the power

of being gay when he chose, a turn for pleasantry, and the art of rendering men pleased with themselves by a judicious application of applause :-in a word, the rare power of preserving a calm and serene air even amid the agitation of affairs of the greatest moment."

While this treaty was in negociation at the foot of the Pyreriées, Cromwell having died, Charles 2d of England came to the place of conference, in order to solicit, from the representatives of the two confering powers, some aid to facilitate his restoration. The memoirs of the times relate,' says M. ANQUETIL, that Mazarin secretly made him an offer of assistance, on condition that he should espouse one of his nieces. The disdainful reply of the prince drew from the Cardinal something worse than negligence. The whole of his attentions thenceforwards were lavished on the Ambassador from the English Republic, Lockhart ;-he, who, when asked whether he was for royalty or a republic, gave the answer of a true courtier, “ I am the very humble servant of events !"

Seven years only of peace intervened between the conclusion of the treaty of the Pyrenées and the revival of war. In 1667, the

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ambition of Louis XIV, commenced hostili. ties against Spain, which were terminated in 1668 by the Peace

of Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1672, the flames of war again broke out in Europe, kindled by the chagrin and anger of Louis against the United Provinces. In this war, the people of England were involved by the weakness or the dishonesty of Charles Il. who is said to have been bribed by Louis to become his ally. The mani. festoes published by both those monarchs shew how little just cause they had for again disturbing the tranquillity of the world. That of Louis declares that "the ill conduct of the States, General towards him, for some years back, had at length been carried so far that his Majesty can no longer, without sacrificing his glory, dissemble the indignation that he feels against a conduct so little conformable to the great obligations which they owed to his Majesty and his predecessors." That of Charles II. detailed more at large the same kind of complaint which had been published by the French Monarch, and added that those wicked and ungrateful people, the Dutch, “ had exposed in public, and by the command of the States, paintings, medals, and inscriptions of an injurious nature, and full of falshood against him and his subjects.”-It was not wonderful that, in a war begun on such grounds, all Europe should speedily league against the aggressor. The people of England soon compelled Charles to withdraw from the alliance of France, and in a little time there was formed a powerful combination against the victorious Louis.-Much against the inclination of the Prince of Orange, who wished to continue the war in order to extend and strengthen his own power, this unjustly-commenced contest ended in the peace of Nimeguen, signed in that city 17th Sept. 1678.

The celebrated league of Augsburgh, excited by the ostentatious ambition of Louis XIV. and the latent ambition of the Prince of Orange, occasioned the next war in Europe.-Into this league, William of Orange persuaded the Emperor, the King of Spain, the Republic of Holland, the Elector Palatine, Bavaria, and the Duke of Savoy, to enter. Its professed object was to restrain the ambition of the Freneh Monarch : but the real motive which led William to effect it was, accord. ing to the present writer, that Louis might be kept busy on the continent while William, whose sagacity foresaw to what the intemperate folly of James II. of England would lead, might with more ease ascend the English throne in his stead. This league was concluded at Augsburgh in 1586. The confederates soon irritated Louis into hostilities, which commenced in 1688, and a general continental war fallowed ; -which con

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tinued till 5th Feb. 1699, when it was terminated by the peace of Ryswick.

A quarrel concerning the succession to the throne of Spain after the death of its monarch Charles II. in 1700, or rather a wish of the other European powers to divide among them the states of that prince, created the war which commenced between England and her allies against France in 1702. In this contest, Spain, Italy, Germany, France, and the colonies in the eastern and western worlds, endured for nine years all the calamities of war. Peace was at length restored to the exhausted world, by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, on nearly the same terms which had been offered at the beginning of the contest. To this treaty the Emperor would not at first accede. Unwilling to resign his hope of adding the crown of Spain to the honours of his house, he tried the fortune of arms against France for another year; and it was not until Villars took Landau and Fribourg with immense loss of blood, that he agreed to peace in a treaty signed at Rastadt in Feb. 1714.

On the death of Louis XIV. Cardinal Alberoni hatched for his master, Philip the V. of Spain, the ambitious project of adding the throne of France to that of Spain, in the probable event of the death of Louis XV. This design, of which he endeavoured to secure the success by exciting a rebellion in England, and finding employment for the other states which were likely to oppose it, gave rise to the Triple alliance between France, Spain, and Holland, to support the treaty of Utrecht. Alberoni continuing to urge his master to disturb the peace of Europe, an alliance between the Courts.of Vienna, Paris, and London, was formed, and into which they resolved to compel Spain to enter. The object of this Quadruple alliance, as it was called, was to settle all disputed pretensions between Spain, Germany, and some of the Italian Princes. The first three contracting courts gave notice of the treaty to the different partics interested, with three months' time to accede to it, or to take the alternative of war. Spain, no longer able. to resist such a powerful combination, acceded to the treaty, and Alberoni was banished by Philip V.-The minuter difficulties of this treaty were settled in 1725 by the Congress at Combray.

· Of the Congress at Soissons in 1728, in which a general war was prevented by the peace-loving genius of Cardinal Fleuri, and of the consequent treaties of Seville and Vienna, the author next takes a view; and he proceeds to notice the acquisition of Lorraine by France, with the collateral events of the election to the crown and the deposition or renunciation of Stanislaus King of Poland, and the establishment of Don Carlos in the throne of Naples and Sicily.

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