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while the air of Paris contained 276 parts. Hence the air of the elevated regions was about two per cent. more impure.

The last page announces two new works by the same author, which are shortly to appear. They are entitled, On the Subterranean Gases, and the means of preventing their pernicious effects ; and-an Essay on Physics and Practical Mining. The zeal and activity of M. HUMBOLDT are highly commendable, and his sanguine temper will prompt to useful enterprises : but he seems to have caught the passion of his countrymen for voluminous publications. Hence that looseness of composition which we remark, that want of method, and those frequent redundancies. In experimental philosophy, it would be hurtful perhaps to adhere strictly to the precept of Horace, nonum prematur in annum : but surely it is the duty of an author to weigh carefully, and to correct and digest his thoughts, before he obtrudes them on the public. It may be doubted even, notwithstanding all the declamation on that subject, whether the accumulation of isolated facts tends really to the advancement, of science. He, whose genius seizes the threads of the connecting analogies, generally founds his theory on properties discovered by himself, or on such as are familiarly known. It is the occupation of the envious to rake into neglected volumes, that they may detract from eminent merit.

Les..e.

Art. III. Installation des Vaisseaux, &c. i.e. The Equipment of
Ships. By EDWARD BURGues MISSIESSY.

Printed by Order of the Minister for the Marine and the Colonies. 4to. pp. 400. and 9 Plates. Paris. 1798. London, imported by

Dulau and Co. ΤΗ

HE precise signification of Installation des Vaisseaux,

which we have translated the Equipment of Ships, will probably be best explained by the following definition which the author has given :-'it constitutes, if we may so speak, the organization of the vessel, in appropriating each part to the nature and bulk of the fixed and moveable objects which are to be placed there, and in adapting it to all the requisites of navigation, attack, and defence *

Under this title, then, the author has comprehended descriptions of the different parts of a ship of war, with an expla. nation of their properties, and of the uses to which each part

* • Qu'elle constitue, pour ainsi dire, Porganisation du bâtiment, en appropriant chaque lieu à la qualité, et au volume des objets fixes et mobiles à y placer, et en le disposant à tout ce que la navigation, l'attaque, et la défense peuvent en exiger.'

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should

should be appropriated ; likewise instructidns for the dispo. sition of the stores, and for the manner of stationing a ship's company to answer the several purposes of battle, of navigation, and of individual accommodation.

The first part of the work is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1. treats of the hold; II, of the orlop-deck; III. and 1v. 'of the gun-decks ; v. of the quarter-deck, forecastle, and upper works; vi. of the tops; and vir. of the exterior, or outside parts of a ship. In these sections, the explanations are clear, and arranged with method.The subject naturally involves an account of customs and regulations observed in well governed ships of war; and the author has shewn the principles on which many of these regulations are founded, and the particular advantages resulting from them.

The second part is composed of tables adapted to the establishment of a ship of seventy-four guns ; which shew the stations of a ship's company at their quarters in time of battle; and their stations for various purposes of maneuvering and navigation. They also contain sundry other lists respecting the interior government of a ship, even to the hammock and mess lists. The whole may be considered in the light of a formula,

designed for shewing every thing belonging to a ship in its 1

proper place. In the tables, the author seems to have gone more into the minutiæ of detail than may be thought necessary for publication : but to the French marine, in its present state, when it derives so little knowlege from practice, such tables may be useful. Many instances may be observed in which they differ from the methods in general use in the British pavy, as might be supposed from the dissimilar formation of ships' companies in the two marines.

The minister of the French marine judged it to be of im. portance to inquire into the merits of this work, and it was referred to a committe of officers for examination. Their opinion has been very honourable to the author, and it does not appear to us that their approbation has been misplaced. In the report, they remark on the inconveniences occasioned by the want of an uniform mode of management; that, every captain being at liberty to adopt his own particular methods, an inferior officer or a seaman finds himself ' a new man' on every change of commander, and, however well experienced, may have his lessons to learn afresh. They add that the author 'proposes fixed methods, which, in practice, will prepare and facilitate the establishment, by an universal regulation, of that order which shall be relatively the same in all the Tessels of the republic.'

The The merits, or the defects, in the regulations of the French marine, are subjects which we wish not to discuss : but we shall notice some of the author's reflections, that are of a less hostile nature, and of more general concern to the interests of navigation,

He has given the following idea respecting the magnitude of ships : i.e. That the extreme limits of size should be determined by the relative proportion between the diameter of the main-yard, and the common standard height of a man of ordinary stature :-because, if the size of the main-yard be too much increased, the difficulty of furling the sail will be insurmountable, especially in cold, wet, or blowing weather ; at which times, the number of men will not make amends for their want of size. The author's argument rests on the supposition that, to whatever magnitude the dinnensions of ships shall be increased, they are to be masted and rigged in the same manner and according to the same proportions as at present. The principle of limitation appears to apply fully to the size of the yard: but new methods of rigging might be contrived. An additional length of keel would admit a greater number of masts ; -and increase of capacity might be deemed an object of sufficient importance to compensate for a diminution in the property of swift sailing.

The observations on the poop of a ship appear to be judicious. The author thinks that it is a matter of ornament, without any utility; and he argues that it obstructs the sailing and working of a ship, by the surface which it presents to the wind; that its elevation and weight, with the addition of the men and furniture necessarily placed there, must be hurtful to strength and stability; and that its suppression would enable a ship to carry larger guns on the quarter-deck. In these ideas, we believe, the opinions of many experienced seamen will coincide.

The wholesome practice of letting water into a ship’s hold to cleanse it, and to purify the air, is too well known to need recommendation : but the author's observations on the subject may be of use.

He advises that the water, as much as is necessary, should be let in at night, and allowed to remain till the morning ; as it will thus prevent the rising of noxious exhalations during the time that the people are at rest.--It might be beneficial to extend this advice to keeping water constantly in the hold; pumping it out clear every morning and evening, and clean water being immediately substituted,

At the end of the tables, is a method pointed out by M. Borda, for ascertaining the degree of stability or stiffness of a

ship,

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ship, before sailing. This he proposes to be done by placing a number of men (in a given proportion to the ship's breadth) close to one side of the ship, and afterward to the other side Temarking, at each time, the effect which such disposition of their weight has in submerging or emerging the midship frame.

A set of plates concludes the volume. They contain repre. sentations of different sections of a ship, of the decks, the hold, powder-rooms, &c. and likewise representations of various parts of a ship's furniture. Those which shew the stationing of the hammocks might perhaps, without injury, have been spared.

The new 'standard of measures is used throughout. The angular measures are according to the new division of the circle, one hundred degrees to the quadrant. For the convenience of those who are not acquainted with the new mea. sures, a small table of comparison with those which were for. merly used is prefixed.

The plan of this work is useful; and in the execution of the first part, which is by far the most important, we see much intelligence and ability. To the tables which compose the latter portion, it may be objected that they are more copious than the purpose of explanation required, and that the same information might have been given in less space.

Capt.B... Art. IV. Lettres Originales, &c. i. e. Original Letters of Jean

JACQUES ROUSSEAU, to Madame De.. ...; to Madame la Maréchale de Luxembourg ; to M. de Malesherbes ; to Do Alem. bert, &c. Published by Charles Pougens., 12mo. Pp. 206. Paris.

1798. Imported by Dulau and Co. London. The majority of these letters were communicated to the

editor by a person for whom Rousseau had a particular friendship and veneration, but the name of that friend is suppressed. The remainder were put into the hands of M. Pougens by the family of the virtuous Malesherbes, and by M. Camus. The originals are to be seen in the library of the Legislative body.--There are also some letters from the Coro sican Butta Fuoco, from De Malesherbes, and from Hume. Those of ROUSSEAU's own composition will, as the editor judiciously thinks, throw light on the character of the writer; if any additional light be wanting.

Not attempting to trace and point out the several events to which these letters refer, we shall only give some extracts from them.

• ROUSSEAU

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ROUSSEAU to Madame

· Moitiers-Travers, 21st July, 1764. ,! You would never have anticipated me, Madam, had my situation permitted me to remind you of me: but, if in prosperity we should go before our friends, in adversity it is only permitted us to wait for them. Absence, and death, which is continually depriving me of some of my friends, render more dear those who remain. There was no need of so sorrowful a motive to confer value on your letter : but I confess, Madam, that the circumstances under which it comes add to the pleasure which at any time I should have received from it. All your past acts of goodness towards me, I recognize in the prayers which you offer for my conversion :--but, although I am too good a Christian ever to become a Catholic, I do not the less consider myself as of the same religion which you profess: for good religion consists much more in what we do, than in what we believe. Let us, therefore, Madam, remain as we are; and in spite of what. ever you may say, we shall see each other again with much greater purity in another world than in this. It would have been a great honour to your government, that 7. 7. Rousseau hau lived and died quietly under it: but the narrow spirit of your petty parliaments prevented their seeing this truth ; and, had they seen it, private interests would not have suffered them to consult the national honour at the expence of jesuitical vengeance, and of the pitiful measures which led to this scheme. I know the nature and extent of their discernment too well to expose them to the danger of a second over. sight ; the first has sufficed to make me wise. "The air of this place I am sure will kill me : but that is unimportant; I had rather die under the authority of the laws, than live the eternal sport of the little passions of men. Madam, Paris shall never see me more : on this

you may depend. I regret extremely that this certainty deprives me of the hope of ever seeing you, except as a spirit : for I believe that, with all your devotion, you think that we shall no otherwise meet again in the world to come. Receive, Madam, my salutations and my respect; and be persuaded, I beseech you, that, dead or alive, I will never forget you.'

! To Madame de LUXEMEOURG,

· Montmorency, 24th December, 1761. "I feel very sensibly all my faults, and I wish to expiate them, Forget them, Madam, I intreat ; it is most true that I cannot live under your displeasure :--but, if I do not deserve that this consideration should move you, let a greater regard to yourself than to mo plead for my forgiveness. Remember that all that is noble and charming should give pleasure to your excellent heart, and that nothing is so noble and so charming as mercy, I at first thought of intreating M. the Marshal to exert his influence in obtaining pardon for me : but I have determined that the shortest and simplest way was to have recourse directly to you; and that I ought not to wrest from your compliance what I wish to owe to your generosity alone. If the history of my faults could plead in palliation of them, I would here resume the detail of those appearances which alarmed me, and which my disturbed imagination exaggerated into realities : but,

Madam,

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