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in the next year, it was 1151 pood; in 1784, 1612; in the two next years, rather above 1000; in 1788, above 4000 ; in 1789, 11,254; but in 1790 only 25; and in 1792, 3781. The export to Italy, of late years, has amounted to 10,000 pood, exclusively of 3000 which go to other countries, and of a still larger quantity which thie ports of the Euxine and the sea of Asof send out.

• Suppozing the price of isinglass at Petersburgh to have been above 40 rubles the pood for the worst sort, and above go for the best ; and considering the price of kaviar to have arisen to above five rubles; we see how important the Astrachan fisheries are to the

export trade.'

Some farther considerations on the import trade of Astrachan follow, and some account of the manner of dyeing with madder, in addition to what the author had published in his Nordische Beycrage. This is succeeded by a description of the culture of the vine at Astrachan ; and the manner of worship of some Indians is then related ; which consists principally in a presentation of symbols of the four elenients to the idol.

The Nymphea Nilumbo grows in great abundance at the mouth of the Wolga. The flowers have a delicious smell; and water distilled from them acquires a fine durable scent of ambergrease. If the hands and face be washed with it, the skin becomes so soft and fine, that this distilled water ought to be introduced as an innocent cosmetic.'

From p. 234 to 254, we have an historical account of late occurrences in the disturbed kingdoin of Persia : which we pass over, as less connected with the immediate subject of the work.

Under the head of Travelling Observctions at the Caucasian Mountains, the most important relate to a sulphureous spring, and the mountain Bechstan. Next follows Information concerning the Inhabitants of Carcasus, particularly the Circassians. We shall select those remarks which we judge to be the most generally interesting, from what Dr. PALLAS has furnished in addition to the numerous accounts already published, respecting the various tribes who are crowded together in this mountainous district. These, as far as the northern side of the mountain, are thus classed by the present author, partly follow. ing Guldenstadt:

1. The six tribes, or inhabitants of the smaller Abassa. These were Christians, but their nobles now acknowlege the Mahometan religion. Their manners, clothing, and way of life, resemble those of the Circassians; and there is some similitude in their language. They likewise practise agriculture, though they live more by pasturage. They are celebrated on account of their large and fine breed of horses; and they would be rich, in their own estimation,) if they were not


incessantly plagued by the encroachments of the Circassian princes.

II. The inhabitants of the great Abassa. On this side, the Natuschaki are the most powerful. They live in the recesses of the mountains, which are universally covered with light woods. In course, they plough but little : but they ought, on account of their fine pastures, to have more flourishing herds., Their incessant feuds, however, and their propensity to pillage, prevent them from even thinking of any regular plan of eco. nomy. They are at variance with all their neighbours, the Saninzi excepted. They are badly clothed, and live wretchedly : but they raise some rye, and at times keep swine, which is not the case with the other tribes in these regions. In their small faces, their laterally compressed heads, the shortness of the lower part of the countenance, and their prominent noses, all the Abassinians display a peculiar national character. They have dark brown hair. They appear to have been very antient inhabitants of the N. W. side of Caucasus, and to have spread themselves farther, till they were forced by the Circassians into the mountains, and by constant wars had been reduced to a petty tribe. Their language has no affinity with any known European or Asiatic tongue. They appear to have formerly been given to rapine ; and they are probably the very people who, according to Strabo, practised piracy in this quarter.

III. The warlike nation of the Circassians inhabits more the advanced parts of nount Caucasus, and spreads into the contiguous beautiful plain, whence it has expelled or subjugated the former natives. - The Circassians are a species of knights, observing a complete feudal system among one another, and towards their subjects': such as the German knights formerly introduced with still greater inhumanity into Prussia and Livonia. Considered in this view, and on the supposition that the chiefs and nobility alone constitute the nation ; that their subjects are almost all slaves of conquered nations, who have adopted the language of their masters, and as such are mildly treated; and that a free courageous knighthood cannot endure a foreign yoke without the greatest repugnance; we should judge with more indulgence concerning their aristocratical constitution, their constant wars, and their resistance formerly against the Khan of the Crimea, and now against Russia. It is fortunate that their internal feuds, and the division of the power of this heroic race among a number of petty chiefs, render them less formidable ; and it were to be wished that, without impairing their bravery, they could be brought to be good vassals, and somewhat accustomed to order ;-in which case, they would turn out as resolute Jight cavalry as ever took the field.


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The part of this nation which concerns Russia is that which is settled on and near the Caucasian line. Since this line was formed, it has sometimes been on terms of amity, and at others has had bloody contentions with Russia : but now, according to the last treaty with the Porte, it is reckoned subject to the Imperial crown. This portion of the Circassians is known under the title of the larger and smaller Kabarda.

The Kabardinians hold themselves to be of Arab origin :perhaps they are the remains of the armies, formerly sent by the Chalifs against Caucasus. Others deduce them from the Mamelukes. General tradition, confirmed by still subsisting names, shews that they formerly inhabited the Crimea.

The nobles are divided into antient noble knights (Ritteradel) and nobles of nobles.- The Circassians in general, and particularly the Kabardinians, live in villages, which they quit from time to time on account of the accumulation of filth, their insecurity, or other inconveniencies. They carry with them only their best wood for spars and wheelwright's work, and burn the rest. They then seek some other commodious spot. When they build at any distance from water, they conduct a canal by embankments from the nearest brook, in which business they are as expert as the Crim Tartars. They build their habitations near together, in one or more circles or parallelograms: so that the area within constitutes the common spacious yard for cattle; this has only a single gate, and is surrounded, and in some sort defended, by the houses.The men usually dwell in a separate apartment, and do not willingly appear with their wives in the presence of strangers. The Circassians are, generally speaking, a hand. some people. The men, particularly the chiefs, are commonly tall, slim, very slender above the hips, small in their feet, and stout in their arms. They have for the most part a Roman and martial air, but in some a mixture of Nogai blood is visible. The women are not all Circassian beauties, but they are gene. rally well made, fair-complexioned, dark-haired, regwar in their features, and among them are to be observed more beauties than frequently occur among an uncivilized people.

They are very cleanly in their villages and houses, as also in their clothes and diet. It is a known fact that a corset, or broad belt of undressed leather, is sewed (among more distinguished persons, it is fixed with silver clasps,) from below the breasts to the hips. This girdle must not be laid aside till the wedding night, when the bridegroom himself removes it with a sharp sword, often at considerable hazard to the bride.- For the sake of their shape also, the girls are kept low, being supported only with a little milk and cake. According to the


Circassian and also to the Turkish ideas of beauty, a woman should be drawn very small over the hips, and have the belly projecting downwards.

The men also endeavour to render the waist excessively slender, by the belt to which the sabre is appended. They have all very small feet, from inclosing them as tight as possible in socks of morocco leather, which give them the air of dancers, and with which they sit on horseback.

The chiefs and knights have no business but war, pillage, and the chase. They live like gentlemen, ramble about, frequent carousals, or concert freebooting schemes. The knights keep the people in order, avd are in nothing bound to the chiefs or princes, except in military service. The peasants or subjects, who yield blind obedience to the princes and knights, and hold life and property at the will of the former, are transmitted by inheritance : but no instance has occụrred of theię being sold. These people, and the slaves taken in war, who afterward fall into the class of the commonalty, plough the land with large ploughs, feed the herds, carry wood, build the habitations, reap, and make hay, which in winter is commonly eaten on the spot. In harvest, they are assisted by the women and grown-up girls, who are not kept so close as among the Criin Tartars.

Among the peasants, every man must mow and carry hày for three days, for the nobleman or prince,-cut and carry wood three days,- and deliver seven sacks of millet for every ox that he possesses. A bridegroom of this class must also give two cows and two oxen to his lord. The inhabitants of the mountains, whom the Circassian princes have rendered tributary, give for each family a sheep, or its value. Every one who has a flock, be it great or small, must give a sheep in summer, at the time of encampment, to the prince : for which the latter keeps open table.

In general, the prince, although he is bound by no laws, must endeavour to deserve the love of his subjects, and their 'attachment in war by liberality, hospitality, and kindness. He may ennoble a deserving subject. On occasion of great undertakings, he assembles the nobles, and by them the decisions of the assembly are notified to the people. The number of Circassians it is difficult to determine.

Reckoning the tribes beyond the Cuban, they amount to a considerable power ; which, considering their bravery and military spirit, would be dangerous, were it not divided among so many disagreeing princes.

The two opposite customs of hospitality and the lex talionis are held sacred among the Circassian knighthood, and most other L14


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people of Caucasus. The former is reduced to fixed prins ciples; and every one who finds himself under their protection is perfectly secure against all molestation. The host guards him with his own and his people's life, furnishes him with an escort, is answerable for him to his kinsmen, and the murder of or insult towards the guest is punished as severely as in the case of a relative. A stranger who puts himself under the protection of a woman, or can touch the breast of a woman with his mouth, were hc an enemy, or even the murderer of a kinsman, is spared, and protected as if he were a member of the family.

The lex talionis is just as conscientiously practised among the Circassians. The next 'heir or nearest in blood, even though at the time he be a child, must take vengeance either openly or by guile, for the murder of a kinsman, if he will not be expelled from society. The price of blood is called Thlil-Uesa. Princes, however, and nobles, accept no price, but require blood for blood.

The education of the children of the princes is calculated, from the earliest infancy, to stifle every feeling of affection. Sons and daughters are delivered on their birth to some nobles man, often not one of the richest. The parents, particularly the father, never see the boy till he is capable of bearing arms, nor the girl till after she is married.

The Circassians practise agriculture, and particularly pastur. age. They principally sow millet, of which they not only make various preparations for food, but also a liquor which they call Hanthups. They likewise cultivate maize, which, on journeys and expeditions, serves for aliment in case of need. They plant several garden vegetables. The women make a very stout yarn out of the wild hemp, but they have not the art of weaving linen cloth.

The care of horses constitutes, as one may expect among roaming horsemen, the most important department of their rural economy. To this they attend with as much care and zeal as the Arabs. They aim not merely at beauty, but also at strength, ability to endure hunger and fatigue, and speed; since the success of their expeditions depends on the quality of their horses. Almost every princely and knightly family boasts of a particular breed of horses, and burns their mark upon the hips of the true bred foals. In this respect they are so conscientious, that he who should fix the mark of a noble race on an ordinary foal must pay for the fraud with his life.

The Nogai, or Cuban, Tartars, the remains of the formidable race of Monguls, a mere pastoral tribe, wander near and among the Circassians. They are so reduced as scarcely to


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