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from all we know and feel, that we are a favoured people. Yet let not a consciousness of our singular felicity lead us into error.'-He thus concludes the discourse : A blessing is set before us, and we feel its benign effects: a curse likewise hangs over us, thongh the period of its fall, we trust, is far remote. Even now does the Sovereign Dis. poser of events seem graciously to withdraw from us its menacing form. Yet let us not forget that grace acts not by compulsion ; but that the will is free, and that if by selfishness, folly, or impiety, we once renounce the blessing, it may be in vain to deprecate the curse.' This is good advice, either in a national or a personal capacity. The sermon is well written : the style is not flowery and declamatory, but accurate and polished ; and it presents, with energy, solid and useful instruction,

Hi. Art. 67.

The Anniversary Sermon of the Royal Humane Society, preached at Grosvenor Chapel, April 16, 1799, and at the Church of Mitcham, June 30, 1799, by the Rev. Richard Harrison, M. A. 8vo. Rivingtons.

In the introductory part of this discourse, the author does not appear to us to exhibit his observations in the most intelligible manner. Among others, we observe the following sentiment concerning our Saviour, as we conclude :-During the forty years he lived with them, he took every opportunity to convince the infidel, and reclaim the sinner.'--The farther part of the sermon, when the preacher proceeds more directly to the immediate object, is suited to the occasion. The text, separate from the miraculous event to which it relates, well accords with the design : trouble not yourselves, for his life is in him. Acts, xx. 10.

The usual Appendix forms a great portion of this pamphlet. Honorary medallions, and pecuniary prizes, are offered for the best answers to some questions relative to the preservation and assistance of mariners : a subject highly deserving of attention.

Hi.

IS.

CORRESPONDENCE. As we remain of the same opinion on the subject discussed by A. Z. we beg to be excused from continuing the argument, in answer to his second letter. We are not conscious of any ground for this correspondent's suspicion that we mis-stated his meaning, nor for his apprehension that we designed to turn aside his reasoning with “ a fool-born jest.” It would be greatly against cur inclination, and contrary to our intention, to treat with contempt any writer who laudably professes to wish for the advantages, not the triumph, of conviction.'

We shall consider the hints of a Constant Reader, but we do not apprehend that we shall adopt the plan which he suggests, for various reasons. The string of queries, contained in his postscript, we have neither the leisure nor the opportunity requisite to answer. An intelligent bookseller would be the proper person to resolve them. 6

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In a letter from the translator of the Travels of Antenor, reviewed in our Number for November, p. 284, he says that we made a mnis. take when we said, “ the English Translator has followed his author's example; and, when pieces of Greek poetry are supposed to be iotroduced, he has generally made use of some translation which had already appeared.”. He observes that these words insinuate not only that the translator has copied where he ouglit to have translated, but that his work contains no original versions ;' (the word generallydid not imply this assertion] whereas the major part of the poetry, amounting to 338 lines, is by the translator, including a version of an original poem of 120 lines, the subject of which is a fable taken from Apuleius. Had he given new versions of Sappho's ode, of those of Anacreon, or of the story of Narcissus, he no doubt I would have experienced the just lash of all critics for his unequalled presumption. To every quoted translation, however, the name of the author is annexed.'

In our strictures on this publication, we certaiuly intended to express our disapprobation of the great licence, which both the author and the translator had exercised, in appropriating well-known pieces, whether with or without acknowlegement, to the composition of a work which professes originality. The candour of the translator, in annexing the names of the respective authors to the poetry which he has borrowed, limits the charge against him to that of compilation : but it destroys the illusion necessary to the interest of the work. We did not calculate the exact balance between the number of original and adopted English verses in the translation, because the merit of the performance hardly seemed to entitle it to be closely scrutinized: but there are sufhcient grounds for our general censure, and we supposed that we were shewing great kindness to the parties concerned, in forbearing a more particular examination.

Fer...I

7 * A letter dated from Plymouth-Dock, and some others, remain

for consideration.

The communication of Thistle is not to our purpose.

Rev. Nov. p. 244. 1. 18. for “plar,' r. place; p. 264. I. 19. for “ reigns' r. reign, with a comma ; p. 271. 1. 14. from bottom, for in a plain, r. in plain; p. 292. 1. 7. take the comma from strango,' and place it after “virtue, in line 3.

o With the Review for January, will be published the APPENDIX to the XXXth Vol. N. S. of the MonthLY REVIEW ; containing FOREIGN LITERATURE, General Title, Index, &c. for the Volume.

P. 363.1.12. for of Luxiner of the laxine.

393.6.23. for 'Gay nur fray.
423.f.is for 'Filiajin. Elias.

TO THE

THIRTIETH VOLUME

OF T F E

M O N T H L Y REV I EW

ENLARGE D.

FOREIGN LITERATURE.

L

Art. I. P. S. PALLAS Bemerkungen, &c. i.e. Observations on a

Journey into the Southern Departments (or Governments) of the
Russian Empire, in 1793 and 1794. By P. S. Pallas. 4to.

ist Vol. With coloured Plates. pp. 516. Leipsig. 1799.
TH
'vis magnificent and instructive work reached us just as we

closed our last Appendix, and too late for us then to
inform our readers of its appearance. We have since perused
it, with pleasure and satisfaction; and we now proceed to give
a detailed account of the observations of this celebrated
traveller and naturalist. We mentioned the existence of the
publication, and that the tour had been undertaken at the
instance of the Russian government, in our last number, viz.
for December, p. 362.

The journey from Petersburgh has no great interest, except for the inhabitants of the Russian Empire : an observation, indeed, which may be frequently applied to the contents of the present volume. We were most attracted by the notice of a great improvement in the distillation of spirit, and of a singular occurrence in nature.-- A M. Suboff is said to increase the quantity of spirit yielded by a given portion of grain, from 5 parts to 64, simply by adding cold water with ice in order to take away the heat of the warm water used in mashing, - After having passed Sokura, says the author, • I found the trees in uncommon confusion. There had been considerable hoarfrosts before Christmas; and afterward, a fall of rain and frozen matter, mixed together, glazed the smallest twigs to two fingers' thickness, and bowed to the ground all the birches APP. Rey. VOL. XXX. LI

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that were still flexible. The branches and tops were covered to the depth of an ell and half with snow, and were fixed in their bent position. The older and inflexible birches, as also the oaks, were split and broken by the load on their summits and boughs, the lateral branches being drawn down to the ground.'

A singular variety of the domestic cat is described (p. 36.) and figured. The author seems to suppose that it may be hybrid animal, intermediate between the cat and the marten. - In the colonies about the Karamysch, they prepare an artificial turf from dung and straw, the former being of no use to the land. Plenty of straw is laid under the cattle, and the dung is put in heaps, where it heats during the winter. As soon as the labours of the spring are over, it is carried to a dry place, near the water, and laid in a bed several feet deep. It is then watered, mixed with straw, and well trodden by oxen and horses. When it is a little dry, it is cut and piled like turf, and, when sufliciently dried, is carried home for use. This preparation is said to burn like pit-coal: but its fetid smoke must be kept out of the apartments; -- which is not an easy task.

In the journey towards Astrachan, an account is given of the culture of the vine; and about Sarepta, wine almost equal to champagne is said to be made. M. Nitschman observed that, on account of the vigorous shouting of the deep-rooted stocks, in this hot climate, the branches should be cut to ten, twelve, or fifteen eyes, instead of a few only, because the lower eyes afford no grapes, while the upper often give three sprouts, each bearing two or three bunches. Some intelligence concerning Sarepta is subjoined. At Astrachan, the traveller remained till the 5th of May; and then, in order not to miss the rare vernal plants, he proceeded with his painter to traverse the waste or desart beyond the Wolga. The description of the remarkable hills of Gypram, that occurs in this part, will interest the naturalist. Throughout the whole of his botanical excursion in these dreary solitudes, the author shews a courage and curiosity which fifty-five years, and bodily infirmities, have been unable to damp.

For intelligence respecting Astrachan, the reader is referred to the circumstantial description of the younger Gmelin : but of its fishery we meet in the present work with the following detail:

• The mouths of the Wolga, and the shores of the Caspian, which equally abound in fish, are to be accounted the true support of Astrachan: the Persian trade, in its present condition, rather tending to the ruin of the city, and the detriment of the state. There scarcely exists a fishery, (except that, perhaps, on the barks of

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Newfoundland) which is so productive, and so advantageous to the public, as those of the Caspian and the river Wolga, taken together. It may be asserted that the whole European portion of the great Russian Empire, and its populous residences, during the fasts of the Greek church, (which, with the weekly fasting days, make up a full third of the year,) are chiefly fed by this fishery ; and many, thousand persons, partly by the capture itself, partly by the conveyance on sledges and boats, are employed and maintained in good plight.'

A tabular view is then presented; and the author proceeds :

* On taking the above sums together, we find that this fishery brings in, merely in sturgeon of different sorts, according to the prices on the spot, an annual sum of 1,368,480 rubles *. Hence we may conclude what immense multitudes of this principal fish, which so abounds in roe, are produced in the depths of the Caspian sea, whence they ascend against the mouths of the streams; no decrease being remarked. The quantity may be deduced from what was told to me, by eye-witnesses of the fishery at Sallian in Persia. As che Persians eat no sturgeon, adventurers rented the stream from the Derbent Chan, Schiek Ali, a son of Feth Ali Chan, for a sum which of late years has been advanced to 25,000 rubles. At the right season, 15,000 fish of the sturgeon kind are sometimes taken with hooks in one day, at the wear which is thrown across the river. When the fishing is suspended but for a day, the fish crowd against the wear so as to be piled up on one another from the bottom to the surface of the river, which is four arschines (28 English feet) deep, and 60 fathoms broad ; till their backs project above the water. The Persian fishery, which has been established only within a few years by the proprietors, occasions an expenditure of about 80,000 rubles, including the rent, and is said to bring in above 200,000 rubles.. Besides this produce of the sturgeon fishery, the produce in smaller species may be taken at half a million, arising partly from the fish itself, partly from the fat.

• The most precious product of the sturgeon fishery is the isinglass from the purified swimming bladders. The exportation is principally carried on through St. Petersburgh by the English, who use a vast quantity in their beer and porter breweries ; as do the Spaniards, Portuguese, Dutch, and French, in clarifying their wines. These nations receive it from the English. According to a list printed by the British factors at St. Petersburgh, from the years 1753 to 1792, there were between sooo and 2000 poodt exported in English bottoms up to 1768; from that year to 1786, from 2000 to 3000 pood ; and in 1768, 6850. The export to other countries has of late amounted to above icoo pood yearly. This almost incredible sale has raised the price of the different sorts at Astrachan itself; and at the Petersburgh exchange, where the best isinglass in 1778 cost not above 36 rubles the pood, it has been carried up to 9o.

• Until 1781, 'no kaviar was exported in English vessels. In 1782 the export began with only 26 pood; and it rose so rapidly that,

• A ruble is about equivalent to four shilings, but fluctuates from that value to half a crown. + A pood contains 40 pounds.

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