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58

Cransies.
Tubabitants. Acres.

Proportion, Towns included.
Durham
80,000 610,000

8 acres to s inhabitant. Derby 125,000 720,640

5 8-10ths do. Stafford

250,000 780,800 3 1-10ths do.
Hereford

90,000
781,449

8 7-10ths do.
Lancashire

425,000 1,129,600 2 6:10ths do. Kent

200,000

893,600 4 r.half do.
Norfolk
220,000 1,094,400 5

do..
Berks
119,000 436,430

3 3-4ths do.
Essex
320,000 1,240,000 4

do.
Cambridge 83,000

.443,300 5 3-1 oths do. Rutland

20,000 105,000 5 2-10ths do. Huntingdon 50,000

240,000 5

do.
Northampton 167,600 582,400 3 1-half do.
Hants
200,000 1,2 12,000

6

do.
West Yorkshire
400,000 1,568,000 4

do.
Devonshire

400,000 1,600,000 4
Somersetshire
350,000 1,000,000 3

do. Dorsetshire 89,000 771,000 8 7-10ths do. 3,674,600. 13,994,100 in the proportion of four

3-10ths acres to i inha

bitant. Middlessex 648,000*

179,200 one acre to 3 6-1 oths in.

habitants. • Population is best promoted by a continuance of peace, and by employing the people in works of agriculture : on the contrary, war, which' takes men from domestic life into the army and navy, unquestionably decreases population. It is a declared enemy to the human race.'

The general agricultural produce of South Britain, Mr. M. estimates at 130 millions sterling. According to him, the consumption of the metropolis in fruits and vegetables is to the valve of upwards of one million of pounds sterling per annum.

On the subject of Planting, Mr. M. is of opinion that the offering premiums for the general increase of wood is going re. trograde, or contributing towards a retroduction of uncultivated nature ; instead of which, this country ought to be in a state of garden-like cultivation. No parts should be in wood, except such as are unfit for the production of grass, corn, or garden crops.'

In the article of Manure, the Middlesex farmers have the advantage of vicinity to the metropolis; where the sweepings of 3000 acres of pavement, in streets and market places, and the dung produced by 30,000 horses, 8000 cows, and 650,000 inhabitants, give a quantity not less than five hundred thousand cart loads : yet, viewing things with the eye of an agriculturist, MT. M. laments that Old Father Thames should run away with so much precious night-soil.

650,000.

Surely

- Surely Mr. Middleton has exceeded in his calculation of the consumption of vegetables, when he says; Of potatoes, carrots; turnips, parsnips, cabbages, savoys, cauliflowers, let. tudes; &c. I suppose each person to consume about one ton per anuum. This is nearly five pounds and a half per day, which appears to us beyond the mark. He is probably more correct when he estimates the average consumption of animal food by each inhabitant at thirty-nine stone, and of wheat at eighs bushets.

The state of the Middlesex Roads, especially near the metropolis, has attracted Mr. M.'s particular notice; and, knowing their condition in winter from the multitude of carriages, of all descriptions, passing and re-passing, he recommends their being well-formed, and coated with granite, broken into pieces about the size of an hen's egg. This is a good idea, but it should if possible go farther; and all the roads, for a certain distance round the metropolis, should be paved with granite : since ng loose materials whatever can sustain the weight and friction without being soon ground to powder in summer, and in the .winter months converted into mud. With regard to watering the roads in summer, Mr. M. recommends, instead of this practice, which is liable to various objections, that the dust a should be scraped off, as the mud is in winter. He offers also some other remarks on this subject, which are deserving of attention.

Having already exceeded our limits, we must now lay down the pen, though reluctantly: but we heartily recommend to our readers a perusal of the volume itself, where they will find a vast variety of important facts and useful hints which we are obliged to pass in total silence.

We understand that Mr. M.'s Report has been honoured with the first gold medal presented by the Board ; and it fully merits the compliment which it has received.

The Appendix contains a number of eurious and valuable communications from enlightened and public-spirited gentlemen. It is pleasing to see men of various talents and situation's in life concurring in works of general utility.

Moo-y. Art. IX. Notice of some Observations made at the Medical Pneumatic

Institution, by Thomas Beddoes, M. D. Svo. 16. 6d. Long.
man and Rees. 1799.
THE
HE principal facts announced in this short paper are of so

extraordinary a nature, that, while they must excite considerable attention, many readers will be inclined to suspend seir opinion cencerning them, till they are farther elucidated.

WO

We shall give a short 'account of the leading circumstances, as they are now stated.

Mr. Davy, assistant to Dr. Beddoes, at the Pneumatic Institution, was induced to respire the gas discovered by Dr. Priestley, and denominated by him the dephlogisticated nitrous gas. After having ascertained that its nature and properties had been mistaken by late experimentalists, he ventured to breathe it pure; and Dr. B. thus relates the consequences :

• The first inspirations of the gas produced giddiness, fulness of the head, and in short, feelings resembling those of incipient intoxi. cation, but unaccompanied by pleasurable sensation. At this next experiment I was present. The quantity was larger, and the gas more pure. The scene exhibited was the most extraordinary I had ever witnessed, except in the case of that epileptic patient, whom I have described Considerations on airs, part iv. p. 13.) as agitated, in consequence of the respiration of oxygen gas, with a long succession of the most violent movements. The two spectacles differed, indeed, essentially in one respect. In the former every thing was alarming: in the latter, after the first moments of surprize, it was impossible not to recognize the expressions of the most extatic pleasåre. I find it entirely out of my power to paint the appearances, such as they exhibited themselves to me. I saw and heard shouting, leaping, running, and other gestures, which may be supposed to be exhibited by a person who gives full loose to feelings, excited by a piece of joyful and unlooked for news. As in the case of the epileptic patient, no weariness or depression follow : so in this case, no 'exhaustion or languor or uneasy feeling took place. The experiment Mr. Davy has very frequently repeated, and generally with the highest pleasurable sensations, and, except under particular circumstances, with considerable' muscular exertions, which have 'not in any instance been succceded by fatigue or sadness.' · The effects of this gas, on several of the author's friends, are detailed in the succeeding pages; we shall select a few of the most remarkable instances :

Mr, J. W. TOBIN (after the first imperfect trials), when the air was pure, experienced sometimes sublime emotions with tranquil gestures, sometimes violent muscular action, with sensations indescribably exquisite ; no subsequent debility-no exhaustion.-His trials have been very numerous. Of late he has felt only sedate pleasure. In Mr. Davy the effect is not diminished.

• Patrick Dwyer has always exhibited a ludicrous struggle between a propensity to laugh, undoubtedly produced by the air, and 'an tager desire to continue the inhalation.

· Rev. Rochemont BARBAULD felt exhilarated, and was compelled to laugh, not by any ludicrous idea, but by an impulse unconnected with thought, and similar to that which is felt by children full of health and spirits- lassitude and languor through the day after.wards, which Mr. B. is disposed to attribute to hot oppressive weather, and a preceding sleepless night.

* Mrs. BARBAULD THE CHILDREN'S FRIEND. At first pleasurable sensations, occasioning involuntary laughter ; some momentary faintness afterwards. We now understand the regulation of the dose, so as perhaps to be able to remove Mr. Barbauld's languor, and to give Mrs. Barbauld the pleasure without the transitory faintness.'

6 Mr. WILLIAM CLAYFIELD has most resisted the effects of the gas. Pretty strong doses produced a transitory intoxication. In two instances, very large doses have excited the violent muscular orgasm, accompanied with exquisite pleasure, and followed by no debility.

• Mr. Robert Southey could not distinguish between the first effecrs, and an apprehension, of which he was unable to divest him, self. His first definite sensations were, a fullness, and dizziness in the head, such as to induce fear of falling. This was succeeded by a laugh, which was involuntary, but highly pleasurable, accompanied with a peculiar thrilling in the extremities - a sensation perfectly new and delightful. For many hours after this experiment, he imagined that his taste and smell were more acute, and is certain that he felt unusually strong and chearful. : In a second experiment, he felt pleasure still superior -and has since poetically remarked, that he sup: poses the atmosphere of the highest of all possible heavens to be com. posed of this gas.

After some time, Dr. Beddoes tried the effects of the gas in his own person; and we shall quote the account of his feelings:

* The first sensations had nothing unpleasant ; the succeeding have been agreeable beyond his conception or belief, even after the rapturous descriptions he had heard, and the eagerness to repeat the inhalation which he had so often witnessed. He seems to himself, at the time, (for why should one fear to use ludicrous terms when they are expressive ?) to be bathed all over with a bucket full of good humour; and a placid feeling pervades his whole frame. The heat of the chest is much greater from a small dose than he ever felt from the largest quantity of oxygen.. A constant fine glow, which affects the sto, mach, led him one day to take an inconvenient portion of food, and to try the air afterwards. It very soon removed the sense of distention, and, he supposes, expedited digestion. He has never tried to bring on the high orgasm; but has generally felt more alacrity at the moment-not one languid, low, crapulary feeling afterwards. It occurred to him that, under a certain administration

of this gas, sleep might possibly be dispensed with—he is sure that from less slecp he derives more refreshment than for many years past. And his morning alertness equals that of a healthy boy.'

In the first case, however, where this gas was inhaled by a patient liable to hysteric fits, the paroxysms were brought on with increased violence, and continued, with some intermission, during several weeks.

Dr. Beddoes proposes to employ the gas in the cure of palsy, and he mentions the following cas: in support of his inten

tion:

• The

The first patient that offered was a man aged twenty.six, who after a course of excessive debauchery, especially with regard to fermented liquors, had been deprived, ten months before, of the power of one side. "Among other things, which will be minutely related here. after, he complained of a pain when he held his head down.

* THIS MAN APPEARS JUST WELL. He has done a good deal of taylor's work within this fortnight. Besides the recovery of his muscular power, his general health has been most strikingly im. proved. We detain him in order to observe whether he will fall off

again.'

Though Dr. B. has not yet given an account of the method employed by him to produce this powerful agent, he inti. mates that it may be considered as oxygen in a more active state. That we may not be accused of mis-statement respect, ing his hopes of its utility, we shall add another quotation from the pamphlet : .We intend to oppose our Nepenthe to the equable decay induced by time and intemperance; and we hope to palliate some of the evils of extreme old age itself.

• We are emboldened by experience to pledge ourselves for the safe employment of the gas. We shall, indeed, be sadly disappointed if it do not sometimes prove the most delicious of luxuries, as well as the most salutary of remedies. In saying this, it may be allowed me to suggest to those, who have not attended to the tenor of my opi. nions, that I now for the first time venture to hold forth these hopes. However urgently I may have recommended the investigation, my language, with regard to its issue, has always been, that I would not answer for the discovery of o gaseous remedy in any denomination whatever of discase. That natural or forced deccy may be repaired, and the faculty of pleasurable sensation renovated, is now no longer a mere conjecture supported by loose analogies--we see the strongest probabilities daily accumulating in favour of the opinion. It must only be remembered that so desirable a change cannot be effected by the agent applied in any manner to any constitution. It must be properly used in proper

• Considering the present abundance of expert chemists, we cannot presume that others will not be able to prepare the gas perfectly with. out our instructions. Nevertheless, those who attempt to use it medicinally should be apprized that the utmost care is necessary in its preparation and employment. A deleterious, instead of a salutary Huid, as the author can attest from his own painful experience, may easily be obtained. Probably neither Dr. Priestley, nor the Dutch chemists, ever procured that which can be respired with safety. The difference, and its causes, will hereafter be pointed out.'

At the conclusion of the Notice, some intended publications are announced, which are designed to forward Dr. Beddoes's plans for the improvement of medicine.

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