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under king Frederick II. Uncertain, however, as this denomination is, it nevertheless seems clear, that the Tartars are of Turkish origin, and that their proper name was Turk or Turkoman, and not Tatar. Not only the learned of their own nation affirm this to be the case, but the Tartarian language is still really nothing but the old Turkish. The modern Ottoman Turks speak even the Tartarian tongue, only in another dialect.'

It is notorious that the population of the Russian empire bears a very small proportion to its extent. The most populous district is the tract of country between the 49th and 58th degrees of north latitude ; though this is not to be compared with other states. In some districts of the Russian empire, the total failure of wood and water for ever defeats all at tempts to render them habitable ; in other provinces, the industry of the people is so little favoured by nature, that the want of provisions is the cause of emigrations. Another obstacle to populousness is the particular species of industry exerted by the inhabitants of the Russian empire ; which is chiefly manifested in raising natural products, an cmployment which does not maintain so many people as the working up of raw materials (II. p. 138). Among several additional causes, which the author mentions as preventing an increase of numbers, the national propensity to the use of inflammatory liquors is probably the most considerable.

The Russian perhaps must yield to the Englishman and the Spaniard in bodily strength, but is far superior to them in the patient suffering of severe hardships. No one can longer bear hunger and thirst, want of comfortable accommodation, and deprivation of rest. This fact is sufficiently proved by the long and toilsome marches of the Russian army, and by the severe corporeal chastisements which they occasionally undergo. Malefactors, after the harshest punishment, are often seen to walk back to prison, without support, and without any visible alteration in their air or gait. Yet to put a weight or burden in motion always requires, in Russia, many more men than are used for such a purpose in other countries. An English sailor will sometimes lift and carry things, which the utmost exertions of three Russians would scarcely move.

The late Empress was very desirous of abolishing vassalage in her dominions : but, meeting with much opposition, she took effectual steps to better the condition of the boors, and to free them from much oppression and from many abuses, by instituting a regular tribunal for that class, entirely chosen out of their own body.

Hutt..r. [To be continued.]

Art.

ART. II. A Piece of Family Biography. 12mo. 3 Vols. sos. 62,

sewed. Bell, Oxford-street. 1799. T! He superfætation of the press, (as Johnson called it,) in

modern times, has been inanifested by no species of lite. sary production more than by that of novels. Amid the torrent which has been poured on us, to meet with only one or two that have any claim to notice might appear a singular instance of ill-fortune, did we not know that to write a good novel requires a rare combination of qualities : diligence of observation, nicety of discernment, and a fund of knowlege of human life extracted from books, and collected by experience. Why the best of our old novels have continued to please and instruct, amid all the fluctuations of fashion, the variations of taste, and the changes of manners, may easily be understood; in them we find just representations of general nature ; no delineation of virtue above the reach of humanity; no caricature of follies which are the short-lived offspring of chance or fashion. Their authors were acquainted with the true principles of genuine passion, and they gave a representation of human life which every reader's observation may verify. They ransacked not their minds for unnatural conceits, recondite knowlege, and marvellous events, but recited natural sen. timents, obvious truths, and probable occurrences, in plain and easy language. That which rests on the stability of nature may justly hope for permanence.

The means of obtaining notice, however, are various; and most of the modern novelists have chosen one which plilosophers have said could never be successfully pursued, except in a state in which knowlege was either in its infancy or in its decline. The plain and easy path of nature has been left, for the sake of following the mazy and mysterious track of wunderous fiction ; instead of copying human life with such exactness, that he who studies the picture may recognize the original in actual converse with mankind, the practice of the novelist is ta pourtray the distorted forms of extravagant fiction, or to swell a common incident to a terrific bulk, by the intervention of twilight, ruined towers, whistling winds, and female fears. Nature has been abandoned, and no advantage has been attained; descriptions have been drawn) which no eye will ever verify; the imagination has been heated, but the warmth of generous feeling has not been excited; the mind has been kept in constant agitation, but no intellectual progress has been made.

The faults with which the last description of novels is chargeable have been avoided by the author of the present work, in which he has neither misrepresented life nor perverted

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sentiment. His plot is simple, yet sufficient to create interest; his remarks are just, without being too obvious; he always endeavours to please, and he not unfrequently instructs. In our commendation of his performance, however, we must make considerable reserve and limitation. Undoubtedly he has some title to wit, but he weakens that title by his constant endeavours to enforce it; if his ambition of humour and pleasantry had been less, we should have laughed more ; if his sprightliness had been less continual, it would have appeared more natural ; his reading or learning is too ostentatiously displayed ; many of the criticisms that affect wit and cleverness are only puerile and quaint ; the language is sometimes incorrect; and the construction of the sentences is often inelegant. As this may appear too much like rigid and illnatured criticism, we would observe that the faults which we have mentioned are over-balanced by striking excellences. We shall therefore dismiss the performance with an honourable judgment, and quote a few passages by which the equity of our decision may be (at least in part) ascertained :

CHARACTERS. Martha Dynevawr, sir David's cousin, was fiftytwo years old. Added to that excellent quality of maturity, she was full of flesh, short, and had a face strongly resembling a full moon with this difference; the colour of the latter is like that of a lilly, while Martha's bore a much nearer analogy to a full-blown rose. Time, therefore, could not be said to have plucked the roses from her cheeks-nor had she, indeed, any thing to fear from him in this respect, as he had also provided her with a greater number of little buds, which promised, in due season, to renew her bloom, and render it perennial. They were, at present, amazingly forward, and seemed not to be of their description that are

« born to blush unseen.• What would many puny, pale-faced young ladies, whom I know, give for a little of the charming tint that overspread without partiality, if I except a prominent feature, the glowing visage of the virgin Martha ? Perhaps some will say, Nothing ! knowing that if such faces do resemble a rose, it is more the damask or purple one than other. But let them recollect that Æneas was not

“ in form and looks majestic as a god,” Pitt. until Venus had breathed over his countenance “ the purple light of youth.” Very likely it will, and it certainly may be said, that purpuream, or purple, in Virgil, is to be taken for beauteous. To which I agree without reserve ; and consequently a purple face and nose must be beautiful. Anarceon also has a godita aos Puçox, a purple Venus ; and such was Martha.

• After this elucidation I know well what will immediately sug. gest itself to many— Believe me, however, that no one ever presumed to say she was in the least addicted to tippling ; but that every

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body in the house and in the village did not think so, I shall not dare to affirm.

Martha, since the age of five-and-twenty, (perilous age for a maid !) had been of almost every religion that had yet any of its order and ceremonies ienaining. But she now bid fair to fix for life, having b:en for two whole years a strong methodist ; in which time she had converted a great number of sir David's tenants, far. mers' wives, and labourers, who constantly attended at a temporary buildir.g, which she had erected, to hear the instructive eloquence of a fellow who had been originally her cousin's gardener ; but who having, as she conceired, imbibed more of the spirit than the rest, was deemed worthy of becoming the pastor of the flock. It was whispered about, indeed, by some apostates from and enemies to this sect, that Martha would, herself, often imbibe the spirit with the preacher until they both got most piously fuddled. “But this is a circumstance which, if true, I shall not condemn as wrong: for, not being a inet hodist, I cannot pretend to say how far inebriation may be necessary to augment the warmth and fervour expected in persons of that persuasion.

• The conventicle was about three quarters of a' mile from sir David's, who would not permit it to be built nearer, nor to have, been built at all, could he have avoided it; but his cousin Martha was 30 set upon it, that the fear of incurring her displeasure obliged him not only to wink at her absurdity, but to scem in some measure to approve of it.

• Lieutenant Llanelthy was a naval officer, who had served during two wars, shared many very hot engagements, and always behaved with the greatest magnanimity and courage. But having little in. icrest, although he had served his country for thirty years, he could never get any higher promotion than that of lieutenant.

It being too late for him, who had been outstripped in the vigour and prime of his days, to think of pursuing fortune at so advanced an age, being now fifty-five, he had come with his wife, and a boy, at present on the seas, to spend the evening of his life m a little cottage which sir David had given him upon his estate. His head was quite bald, except a few white hairs that fell in his Deck. He had lost one leg, and suffered very much, occasionally, from a violent asthma--yet, with all this, was extremely jovial and good humoured. His cottage he was used to call a cabin, which he would often explain in this pleasant way: “I have lieard somewhere or another," said he, « that there was once a philosopher who compared the world to an animal ; its rivers were its veins ; and so on :- now I liken it to a first rate, in which I am sailing to the other world—I bustled about in it a good deal in the early part of my life'; but now my infirmities won't let me visit deck as usual, therefore I have retired to the cabin for the remainder of the voyagt."

The reader may easily guess why sir David invited the lieutenant to be preseat at the attack. He will not be suspected of being much Biassed in favour of Martha on account of her over righteous. ness, against sir David and his good cheer, whom he knew not to

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be in the least partial to her religious pursuits. Moreover, he liked all other persuasions better than the methodists. He thought that if a man was honest, and did his duty, he might go to heaven without canting, and even without ever going on his marrow-bones; a position he had conceived a terrible antipathy to since he had mounted a wooden leg.

“ Mrs. Martha,” the lieutenant would say, "has often boarded me on the religious tack, but I have as often beaten her off. My wife, though, was not so successful: she got to the windward of her, and took her without firing a gun. Dam'me but it is as much as I can do to keep my station between 'em sometimes ! though, spite of me, I can't help laughing when I hear Mrs. Martha talk of making me a new-born babe. She is one, she says; and mayhap she be: but it took a d’d deal of grog to make her so."

• The reverend Mr. Burley was acquainted with sir David's predecessor, and had been educated at Eton, where he had been on the foundation for nine years ; when, a vacancy happening, he became a fellow of King's-college, Cambridge. He had, however, long forfeited his fellowship, on accepting a small benefice at a very short distance from sir David's. This was given to him, with a promise of something much better, by a great man of a certain party called the. Opposition, also Democrats or Jacobins, for whom he had writ. ten several very spirited pamphlets. He had an immoderate thirst for the great world, and longed for nothing so ardently as to leave the country for a living in or near London. But, having no other means of existence, he was at present compelled to live upon his benefice, with the addition of a sum given him by sir David for doing the duty of his church; the living of which he would not part with, as he did not know that he should not marry again hiniself, or how many children his son might have to provide for when married.

• Mr. Burley was tall, thin, and wore his own hair. He was krious; and, though not a proud, yet a very obstinate man in conversation with all except sir David, whom, as they seldom had any literary disquisitions together, and as he perhaps expected the living in case his prospects should fail elsewhere, he never contra-dicted.

• He was very much disliked by Martha, who looked upon hina as a supercilious prelate, existing only to eat up the good things of this world. And in this conclusion she was not entirely mistaken, since few men liked rich dioners, or relished his glass better than Mr. Burley. , Martha, however, always treated him with outward respect, fearing lest he should procure the suppression of her meeting, by re-presenting it to the bishop as disorderly.'

LITERARY CONTROVERSY. · The doctor pretended to prefer Virgil to Homer, contending that his verse was more polished, and that he had very much improved upon his original, whose lines were eked out with expletives, and whose matter often abounded in absurdities. Mr. Burley give it, with great justice, in favour of Homers declaring that the other, had he lived in these days, would have been. considered as little better than a translator, or, at any rate, an enor

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