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train of all the social vices, ręnder so soon intolerable to the sincere votaries of wisdom *."

M. Pallas thinks that the useful products of Asia Minor, as well as of the soathern parts of Europe, might be made indigenous in these enchanting vallies, to the benefit of the Russian empire ; which nowhere, in its whole extent, possesses so fine a climate as that which is there enjoyed.

Passing over the remainder of the first book, which treats of the natural state of the empire, we shall extract a few remarks from the second, which exhibits an historical view of the nations that constitute the Russian dominions. Besides the Slavonians, to whom the predominance belongs, there are in the Russian empire three main national stems, Finns, Mongoles, and Tartars. The native Russians are of different sta-' ture ; some are very tall, and few much below the usual height; several of them are remarkably strong-limbed ; in general they are lean, but well shaped. Their mouth and eyes are small, the lips thin, the teeth even and beautiful, the nose in general not large nor very aquiline ; the forehead frequently low, and their aspect rather grave; the beard is strong and bushy, their hair lank, brown, faxen, or red, seldom or never entirely black. In gait and action, they are brisk and agile. The complexion of the females is brunette, with a fine skin, and many of them are extremely handsome : they arrive early at maturity, owing to the frequent use of the hot bath : but they as speedily decay, and the abominable practice of painting spoils their complexion.

The general disposition of the people is gay, careless even to levfty, much addicted to sensuality, quick in comprehending whatever is proposed, and not less prompt in its execution ; ingenious in find. ing out means of abridging their work; in all their occupations ready, alert, aud dexterous. Violent in their passions, they easily mistake the golden mean, and not unfrequently rush into the con-' trary extreme. They are attentive, resolute, bold, and enterprizing.' To trade and barter they have an irresistible impulse. They are hospitable and liberal, frequently to their own impoverishment. Anxious

To the generality of readers it may not be a matter of indifference to learn, that the philosopher from whose pen this passage pros? ceeds, resides at present, according to his wish, in the country, the beauties whereof he here paints in such warm and poetical colours. As the health of this famous naturalist rendered his living in a warm climate necessary, on his request to the late Empress, he obtained not only immediate permission to choose for himself a place in her dominions, but also, on his pitching upon Taurida for that purpose, an estate in that province, and to the forming of his establishment a present of ten thousand rubles.' Authar.



solicitudes about the future here cause but few grey pates. In their intercourse with others, they are friendly, jovial, complaisant, very ready to oblige, not envious, slanderous, or censorious, and much given to secrecy. From their natural and simple way of life, their wants are few and those easily satisfied, leaving them leisure for re. creation and repose ; and the constant chearfulness of their temper frees them from troublesome projects, procures them satisfaction in all situations, keeps them healthy and strong, and brings them to an undisquieted, contented, brisk, sometimes a very advanced old age.'

The nation consists chiefly of nobility and peasantry: but the late Empress sedulously raised and encouraged the bura gesses. To these may be added the Kozaks; who form a pare ticular class originating from the peasantry, and live exempo from taxes, on the produce of their fields and pastures, or by the labour of their hands. They neither furnish recruits nor are given away as serfs : but they all serve as light horsemen, as early and as long as they are fit for it ; providing themselves with horses, clothes, and accoutrements; and they receive pay only when they are in actual service.

The proper Russian architecture is the same in towns and villages :

• A mersuage consists of a dwelling-house, a few little store-rooms, stables, and a stew or hot-bath, by which the yard is inclosed. AU. these structures are built of bauks, unhewn, placed on one an. other, and notched into each other at the four corners ; sometimes, though but rarely, on a brick foundation ; these houses are covered with boards, and when the owner can afford it, with oak shingles. The meanest dwelling-houses consist solely of one little room, which therefore has the door to the street. In it is an oven taking up almost one fourth part of the whole space; adjoining to it, of equal height with the oven, is a broad shelf of board. The top of the oven and this shelf are the sleeping places of the family. The light is admitted into these houses through two or three holes in the walls furnished with shutters, or through a little window of Muscovy-glass, or only of bladder, oiled linen or paper. The smoke finds its way out as well as it can through these apertures in the wall.

These rooms, as may well be supposed, are as black as a chimney; and as all the household functions are performed in them, such as baking, cooking, washing, &c. it is hardly possible to keep them clean. They are called, with the utmost propriety of speech, black-rooms. Under the floor of the room is a cellar.'

Paint is essentially necessary to the decoration of a Russian lady; and the fairest or the ruddiest young woman puts on both white and red. In the summer, the inferior classes contentedly lie down for the night in the open air, in the field, or in the yard belonging to the house; and in the winter on the top of the oven, without beds, or merely on a piece of felt, sometimes with and often without any pillow, either under a thin covering or in their clothes. Whenever acquaintance meet together, even among the lowest of the people, they greet one another with great civility. Inferiors kiss their sua periors on the breast; when saluting people considerably ele. vated above them, they kiss the border of their garment; and, when the difference is very material, they fall down and strike their forehead on the shoe of the great personage. It is indecorous to speak lond in the presence of superiors. On the slightest interruption or alteration in the ordinary course of whatever they are about, at eating, drinking, sneezing, at a sudden start, at the sight of a particular place, of a church,


Cc 3

&c. they make the sign of the cross with the finger on the forehead, the stomach, and the shoulders, bowing several times, and adding, with a deep-fetched sigh, • The Lord have mercy!' Intoxication is not disgraceful; and even among people of good condition, if a lady be overtaken in liquor, it is r:0 subject of reproach. They are never quarrelsome, nor scurrilous in their cups, but friendly, jovial, and courteous; they speak in praise of the absent and boast of their friendship. Their mode of bathing is thus described :

• They use the bath very hot, heating the room with large stones made glowing red, and raising a vapour by repeatedly throwing water upon them; the room all the while being so air-tight, that no particles of heat or vapour can transpire. The bather lies extended, naked, on a mat thrown on one of the shelves of the scaffold already described, which the higher le ascends the greater the heat he feels. When he has thus lain perspiring for some time, the waiter of the bath, generally a female, comes and washes his body all over with hot water, scourges and rubs hin with bunches of leafy birch, wipes him with cloths, and then leaves him to lie and sweat as long as he druses. Numbers of them run from the hot bath into the cold water flowing by, and in winter roll themselves in the snow, without deriving any bad consequences from iii'

There is more jovial and uniform singing in Russia than in most cther countries. Every body sings, from the child to the hoary-head of age. The country roads re-echo with the songs of the drivers, the village-streets with the merry notes of the girls, and the drinking-louses are never without a concert, Dancing is also a diversion everywhere follov:ed. Even the common people, who here are not apt to become stiff with work, are excellent performers. They generally dance to the voice. - They are much attached also to gymnastie exercises.- In severe winter-nights, the ladies make steige-parties; in which there is always much vehement singing. Every one, on visit. ing a lying-in woman, kisses her, and privately slips a present in money under her pillow,

• A careless

A careless disposition, and a way of life naturally austere, an exemption from very toilsome labours, and the use of the bath, but especially a bright and clear atmosphere, peculiar to Russia and Siberia, kecp them in constant health, generally to a good old age. Even the sick have seldom recourse to medicine.-Several of their domes. .tic remedies require a patient fortitude truly heroic. A mixture of garlic, onions, and Spanish pepper, with brandy, is an universal medicine for all distempers.' • To build churches is deemed a meritorious act, and hence even the smallest towns abound with them. As the severity of the winters renders it necessary to warm the places of Worship, there are frequently two churches on the same scite, the one for winter and the other for summer. The clergy are greatly honoured, and are extremely tolerant towards all other professions of faith. At Easter, it is the custom, all over the empire, to present each other with an egg, accompanied with a kiss ; at the same time saying: “ Christ is risen!” to which the other replies: “He is risen indeed!" Superstitious noitions are very prevalent among them, as may easily be supposed.

The internal constitution of social order among the Kozaks is certainly singular. Though in complete subordination to the Russian supremacy, to which they are subjects in the strictest sense of the word, it is at once military and democratic. They have no nobility, and consequently no vassals. All are brethren, and may reciprocally command and obey. They elect their superiors, or persons placed in office and authority, from their own body, reduce them again to the common level, and choose others in their stead : the coinmander in chief alone is appointed by the government, whose concurrence is also necessary to his being deposed. All the commanders are in constant pay of the crown, but the privates only when in service. As the quality and colour of their dress are lest to their own choice, they make a motly appearance on mustering days. All carry lances, which, when on horseback, by means of a slip thong, they sling to a rest in the stirrup, on their arm, or on the pummel of the saddle. They are also provided with a whip, with which they make a very sensible impression, on an unarmed enemy. Their horses look miserably, but, being well taught, perform wonders. On their expeditions, the troops are very light, having no artillery, tents, baggage, forage, nor store-waggons. A piece of felt' is their tent, their cloak, and their bed, and the provision is carried by a second horse, each Kozak being obliged to keep two. With regular troops they are not eager to contend: but on such as are less disciplined, they rush with great impetuosity.

We shall close our account of the first volume with the naro rative of a singular festivity among the Livonians. There is an antient wall s:anding near the Vasternois, but in the precincts of Felincastle ; and this dilapidated structure is at present put to a very singular use :

• Every year, nine days before the feast of St. George, or, as they call him, St. Yurgen, in the night, great multitudes of boors, of both sexes and of all ages, from all the adjacent parts, assemble here, sometimes to the amount of several thousands, kindle a fire within the inclosure of the wall, into which they throw offerings of various kinds, such as yarn, flax, wool, bread, money, &c. at the same time depositing all manner of waxen figures in the little apertures that seem to have served for windows. Round the fire sits a circle of beggars, who have the care of keeping it up; and for their trouble partake in the offerings. Of all the sights in the world, this is surely the most ludicrous. All the barren women of the country round, dancing stark naked about these old walls; others eating and drinking with noisy festivity ; many more running in frisky gambols about the wood, and followed by young men, playing all sorts of tricks, and talking all manner of ribaldry. Hitherto it has not been possible to put down this strange licentious meeting ; in the mean time all the circumstances of it seem to shew that it is derived from the days of paganism. The offerings, the fire, the dancing, the licentiousness, are manifest proofs of it.'

The Second Volume begins with a description of the Mon. goles, rendered so famous in history by Tschinghis-khan, that memorable ravager of the world ; who was originally one of their petty princes. In this section, as well as in the following, which treats of the Tartars, we meet with a great variety of learned and interesting observations. The national appellative of Tartar has indiscriminately and inaccurately been applied to all tribes beyond Persia and India, as far as the Eastern Ocean, however differing from each other in regard to their origin, language, manners, religion, and customs : but it is now ascertained that the Tartars in reality compose a distinct nation, which originally belonged to the great Turkish stock. Some of our learned readers will be pleased with the following remark:

• The name of Tartar may either, 1. really originate from a Turkish horde, which bore this denomination, as Abulgasi, the historian of his own nation, affirms, and as from circumstances is very likely, that the Yakutes, among their deities, have a Tatar, who probably enjoys that honour as the patriarch of the nation; or it may also, 2. be derived from the Chinese, who call all their neighbours without distinction, Tata or Tadse; which latter hypothesis acquires some weight from this circumstance, that the Persians and Arabians know nothing of the Tartars under that appellation. It was first brought into general use in Europe after Baaty's incursion into Hungary


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