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* we are left by Christianity, under the guidance of good principles, to the exercise of our own discretion.' This, however, may as well be called the doctrine of Christianity respecting the formation
of constitutions, the making of poor-laws, or any other matter. Finding, indeed, that very little could be said on the title prefixed to this discourse, the preacher soon loses sight of it, and proceeds more properly to inquire how far we are sanctioned by the principles of morality and justice, in entering into and prosecuting that arduous contest in which we are at present engaged ; and conceiving that our Constitution, Property, and Religion are at stake, he pleads for the justice and necessity of the war.— The sermon concludes with a sensible and animated address on the occasion.
Moo.y. Art. 58. Preached at the Lent Assizes, holden at Kingston, Sur
rey, March 18, 1799, and published at the unanimous Request of the Gentlemen of the Grand Jury. By John Hayter, A. M. 4to.
Hatchard. The great object of this studied discourse is to extol the justly admired British Constitution. • Political wisdom, or public justice, (it is observed,) is the most extensive, the most useful, the highest talent to which men can attain.' All judicial establishments are said to have been disgraced by one great and essential defect,' a defect which, in the present day, is inherent in the same establishments of
every country, except this.' – This defect, we understand, is partiality and ix. equality, in the attainment and possession of just rights and advantages. What Mr. H. has advanced on this subject seems worthy of attention.
"To the MONTHLY REVIEWERS. « GENTLEMEN, *I* your Review of Dr. Woodville's Reports on the Variola Vaccine,
page 417, August Review, you say, "sthly, The following nice ob servations we think should be repeatedly made before the conclusion be admitted : “If a person has casually received the infection,” &c. &c.
Now, having had very considerable practice both in the natural and inoculated small-pox for upwards of twenty years, I have several times had an opportunity of observing appearances take place in the arms of my patients similar to those described by Dr. Woodville.- I have inoculated several patients who had previously received the infection of the natural small-pox, the puncture on their arms infamed very faintly, stopped increasing as soon as the variolous fever came oui, and afterwards became a simple pustule maturating like the rest. I have also inoculated many patients on one arm, which bas gone on very regularly, and a day or two previous to the eruptive ferer's coming on I have inserted variolous matter into the other arm, and as soon as the fever took place, this last incision inflamed, got un rapidly, and was in a very short time as extensive as the first.
The concurrent testimony of different practitioners must be the most effectual support of Dr. Woodville's observations; for that purpose I have given you mine; and am, Gentlemen, with great respect and esteem, your constant reader and well-wisher,
R.R. N. Colchester, Oct. 19, 1799.' 1. We find that this fact is now well ascertained, but we are obliged to R. R. N. for his communication.
• To the MONTHLY REVIEWERS.
As you have very properly quoted Mr. Sneyd's communication, I
J. C. LETTSOM.'
We have received a letter from Dr. Ferriar, of Manchester, in which we are desired to announce that he has used the infusion of digitalis, as a lotion, with remarkable success, in the inflammatory affection accompanying anasarca of the inferior extremities. As chís species of inflammation has hitherto proved intractable, he wishes to communicate a knowlege of the method of cure without delay, through the medium of our publication.-We are happy in seconding the Doctor's good intention.
Dr. F.’s “ Essay on the medical properties of the Digitalis Purpurea” (just published) is under our perusal, and will very soon be farther noticed in our Review.
The receipt of a second letter from A. B. is acknowleged: but we are prevented from entering into the subject of it, by having unfortunately lost the gentleman to whose remarks it particularly refers. We hope that this circumstance will excuse us from paying that minute attention to this correspondent, which the respectability of his communications would otherwise secure.
We are obliged by the general style and complection of the letter from E. M. of Sunderland, relative to a work published in the year 1795; in reviewing which, E. M. says, we committed a small oversight. If this were the case, we are sorry for it: but it is totally impossible for us, at this distance of time, to ascertain the point, or to remedy the evil, if such it be.
A. Zi's 2d letter is just received.
In the Review for October, p. 146. 1.%. for bright read light, and I. 9. for light read bright'; p. 149. 1. 14. for spred read spread ; p. 217. 1. 7. from bott. dele the quotation comma before
As an instance, &c.; p. 239. 1. 15. for - not were,' read were not.
220.127.116.11.for plan your place, ml.19. for-identity
after hectu rey.
strange, & place it
For DECEMBER, 1799.
Art. I. A View of the Russian Empire, during the Reign of Catherine the Second, and to the Close of the present Century. By William Tooke, F. R. S. Member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, and of the Free Economical Society at St. Petersburg.
3 Vols. 8vo. 1l. 75. Boards. Longman and Rees. 1799. THE he importance of the subject of this work, the authenticity
of the sources from which it appears to be drawn, the ability which it displays in arranging a vast variety of matter, and the circumstances which united to particularly qualify the author for undertaking and executing such a performance, entitle it to more than common notice, and will probably obtain for it more than common approbation.
It was well known to persons acquainted with continental literature, that, for several years past, especially since the accession of Catherine the Second to the throne, the Russian empire had been the subject of many inquiries and foreign publications : but few had an opportunity of perusing them, and others had not heard that they existed. Yet they were so numerous, as we judge from Mr. Tooke's quotations, that, to obtain from them an accurate and distinct view of so extensive an empire, it required a person who not only had made it his object to read and compare the principal of these productions, but whom an actual residence in the country rendered competent to decide on the fidelity of the printed accounts, and, if necessary, to rectify their errors. That Mr. Tɔoke possesses these requisites will not be doubted, when we remind our readers that he is the author of the popular life of Catherine II. published some time since *; and when we inform them that he has passed the greater part of her long reign in Russia ; that he was favoured for many years with the friendship and intimacy of two successive directors of the academy, and with free access to its libraries and collections; and that he was per
* See Rer. N. S. vol. xxvi..p. 266. VOL. XXX.
sonally sonally acquainted with several of the Petersburg academicians who were appointed by the late Empress to travel for the purpose of exploring the natural and moral condition of Russia.
It will be rather difficult to give, within the limits of a miscellaneous periodical publication, an adequate idea of a work abounding with such interesting and various information : but, having attentively perused the whole of the three volumes, we trust that we shall be able to lay before our readers some of the most striking particulars.
In the Introduction, Mr. Tooke enumerates those learned men who, by order of government, travelled into the interior of Russia; among whom the celebrated naturalist Pallas occupies the first rank*. These gentlemen, who were sent out for the express purpose of collecting information on the state of the countries which they were to visit, enjoyed every accommodation that could possibly be procured for facilitating their inquiries; and, much to the honour of the late Empress, after their return, they sat down in perfect ease to commit to paper the result of their inquiries.
The Russian empire, without reckoning the islands, reaches in length above 9200 English miles, and in breadth 2400. In this enormous extent, the temperatures of the atmosphere must naturally be varicus : but, though the weather, in the major part of the provinces, is exceedingly harsh and cold, the present author maintains (against Busching) that it never attacks the brain.
. In sharp biting frosts, (says Mr. Toolae,) if people are but properly clad, and forbear to sit down, especially upon the banks of show, which may often cost them their lives; they find themselves more healthy than in the moist weather of: autumn, though such as live in the country are obliged to expose themselves the whole day long in the open air, to the utmost force of the cold, in forests, on Chills and mountains, in the streets, &c. Any slight cold they may take, or any obstructions of the pores, are soon remedied by the hot rooms in which they are accustomed to sleep, and still more by the frequent use of their universally beloved hot.bath...One sure proof that in general the climate is not prejudicial to health is the great number of persons that in all these parts attain to a very advanced' old age.-From fourscore to ninety is an age thought by no means: extraordinary';, but numbers continue advancing from that period.'
On the other hand, the heat in the southern part of the
*.M. Pallas has recently published an interesting and splendid work, containing his observations during a journey into the southern provinces of Russia; of which we shall give an account in our ensuing Appendix, to be published at the same time with the Review
363 empire is equally intense. In. Astrakhan, the mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer sometimes rises to 1031; and rain is then so rare, that, without artificial irrigation; all vegetation would be withered. Among the finest tracts of the southern districts, are to be reckoned the Caucasian territory, and the mountainous part of the province of Taurida. M. Pallas, in his late publication, gives so delightful a picture of the latter, that the author could not resist the desire of inserting the following translation of it:
« One of the mildest and most fertile regions of the empire is the beautiful semicircular and amphitheatral vale, formed by the Tauridan mountains on their side along the shores of Euxine.
“ These vallies, which are blessed with the climate of Anatolia and the Lesser Asia, where the winter is scarcely sensible, where the primo roses and spring-saffron bloom in February and often in January, and where the oak frequently retains its foliage the whole winter through, are, in regard to botany and rural economy, the noblest tract in Tau. rida, and perhaps in the whole extent of the empire. Here everya where thrive and Aourish in open air the ever-verdant laurel, the oiltree, the fig, the lotus, the pomegranate, and the celtis, which perhaps are the remains of Grecian cultivation ; with the manna bearing ash, the turpentine-tree, the tanbark-tree, the strawberry-tree from Asia Minor, and many others. This last particularly covers, the, steepest clitfs of the shore, and beautifies them in winter by its perpe. tual foliage and the red rind of its thick stem. In these happy vales, the forests consist of fruit-trees of every kind, or rather the forest is only a large orchard left entirely to itself. On the shores of the sea, the caper-bushes propagate themselves spontaneously ; without the assistance of art, the wild or planted vine-stems climb the loftiest trees, and, twining with flowery creepers, form festoons and hedges. The contrast of the orchards and the rich verdure with the bcautiful wilds ness which the adjacent mountains and rocks present, which in some places rise among the clouds, and in others are fallen in ruins; the natural fountains and cascades that agreeably present their rushing waters ; lastly, the near view of the sea, where the sight is lost in the unbounded prospect : all these beauties together form so picturesque and delightful a whole, that even the enraptured muse of the poet or the painter would be unable to conceive any thing more charming. The simple manner of life of the good-humoured Highland Tartars who inhabit these paradisaical vales ; their turf-covered cottages, some hewn in the rock on the mountain's side, others placed amidst the luxuriant foliage of the surrounding orchards; the roving flocks of goats and sheep clinging to the declivities of the solitary rock ; the sound of the pastoral flute, re echoing its plaintive tones among the hills every thing here renews the image of the golden age, its innocence and simplicity; every thing contributes to cherish the propena sity to an artless, retired, and rural life, and we for a second time gain a fondness for the abode of mortals, which the horrors of war, the sordid pursuit of wealth in great cities, and the luxury which fills the сс 2