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defence must have been a work of supererogation : but, if the supposed
The dry detail of military operations in this little tract is rendered
tions contained in the Second Volume of the Historia Cælestis, and
Of this valuable and useful work, announced to the public by Dr. Herschel on a former occasion, it will be suficient to say that it
* See Phil. Trans. for 1797, Part II. vol. 17. p. 297. or M. R. N. S. vol. 26. p. 50.
does great honour to the judgment and laborious attention of the lady by whom it was compiled ; and we have reason for believing that, in consequence of her accuracy and the pains bestowed on it by her bro. ther, it is as free from errors as the nature and extent of it would allow. The result of it has already been attended with the discovery of between five and six hundred stars observed by Mr. Flamsteed, which had escaped the notice of those who framed the British Cata. logue; and in future times many useful purposes will be answered by referring to the stars observed by an astronomer of such celebrity.
From the annexed notes, it appears that several of the omitted stars have since been observed by other astronomers, such as Mayer and De La Cailli, and some of them before, by HEVELIUS.' Dr. H. adds that « where any of these omitted stars will account for the insertion of stars into the British Catalogre, which neither were observed by FLAMSTEED, nor have any existence, it has been pointed out in these notes, which, on all these accounts, must become of considerable value to astronomers that wish to review the stars of the British Catalogue.'
Astronomers in general will think themselves much indebted to the Royal Society, for the publication of a work to which they may now have easy access, and from which they may derive many considerable advantages. The attention and finances of the Society cannot be more laudably employed than in such methods of encouraging meritorious labours, and promoting useful scicnce.
Answer to these Questions “ IVlat is the best Form of Government ?
Robinsons, &c. 1799
In our xixth vol. N. S. p. 24, and in onr next succeeding vol. p. 220, we noticed the ist and 2d paris of this Politician's Creed, and briefly mentioned the principal subjects and branches of political investigation which were brought forwards by the author :—who, we understand, is the ingenious and active Robert John Thornton, M. 1).
In this additional volume, Dr. T. has laid before the public a considerable variety of striking observations, accompanied with valuable hints and enforcements, on the following important topics : viz. The severity of our penal laws. Penitentiary Houses. Employment of Convicts. Transportation. Prevention of Crimes. _Police. Receivers of stolen Goods. Receiving of base Money. Begging. Public Establishinents for the Poor. The Administration of Justice with respect to the Poor. Slavery, &c. &c.
Whatever imperfections may be discoverable by the severity of citicism, in the composicion of these public-spirited essays, we can not, on the whole, with-hold our recommendation of works which so very, materially regard the good order and welfare of society; and in which so many public and alarming cvils are taken into consider
ation,-with the laudable view of utterly removing them, (if that be possible,] or, at least, of greatly reducing their dangerous enormity. Art. 26. The Origin and insidious Arts of Jacobinism : a warning to
the People of England; extracted from “ A Country Parson's Address to his Flock.” By Francis Wollaston, Rector of Chislehurst, in Kent. 8vo. 2d. Wilkie.
As we gave a pretty full account of the “ Country Parson's Address” in our Rev. for June, we have little to add concerning this extract from it: but we will give a few lines from the prefatory advertisement, which will reflect credit on the writer, as containing an instance of his candour. Our readers will remember that Mr. W. had entertained some distrust regarding the principles and conduct of the Union Sxiety at Greencuich; see Rev. June 1799, p. 238.--The passage which we now select is in the following terins :
• Having many times been desired to make the following Extract, I now feel inclined to coinply with that request : Because, after several weeks' observation of the conduct of the Union Society of Greenwich, against whom I thought it behoved me to caution the Flock committed to my care, it seems but doing justice to that Society, to take this opportunity of declaring thus publicly, that I acquit them of all charge of Sedition. Their behaviour at Chislehurst has not, as far as I hear and believe, had any tendency that way : neither do I understand that any thing of the kind has been proved against them in any place.' Art. 27. An Appeal, Civil and Military, or the Subject of the English
Constitution. By John Cartwright, Esq. Being a Second Edi. tion of Part the First; to which are now added Parts the Second and Third ; containing Strictures on a gross Violation of the Constitution ; a Coustitutional System of Military Defence ; Reflections on the utter Incompatibility of a standing Army with National Freedom, &c. &c. 8vo. pp320. 58.
Printed for and sold by the Author. 1799.
The first part of this interesting appeal was noticed in our 24th vol. N. S. p. 477. Those which are now laid before the public proceed on the same plan, and recommend the same measures of universal suffrage, and of arming the whole people. In the fourteenth section of the third part, and in various other portions of his work, Major Cartwright institutes a comparison between the advantages attending an armed inhabitancy, and the inconveniences and dangers inseparable (in his opinion) from a standing army; and he illustrates this difference by contrasting two remarkable events which have happened in the course of the present war, namely, the recent invasion of Ireland at Killala, and the prior invasion of France at Ostend. He is convinced that an armed inhabitancy is not only the safest and most effectual defence against an invader, but that it also requires inferior supplies from the public purse to support its continuance and animate its exertions ;-being literally "ibe cheap defence of nations ;" and he maintains that it is a strictly constitutional mea. sure, and in direct conformity with the example pursued and the system established by the immortal Alfred. To the borough system
A a 3
Mr. C. is equally hostile, and he considers it as at least equaliy injurions to the cause of English liberty with a standing army:
The book is written in a manner which conveys the idea of the author being fully convinced of the efficacy of the remedies which he recommends, for the removal of evils which he most feelingly de. plores; and every page shows that he is sincerely and patriotically interested in the success of the cause of which he has voluntarily stepped forwards as the advocate. Whatever objections may be made to it by persons of different sentiments, the production is entitled to something more than the praise of honest intention, for it proves much depth of historical and legal research, and is written in an animated and occasionally an eloquent style. We refrain from making extracts, or farther dilating on its contents, for a reason similar to that which has prevented any bookseller's name from assuming the usual station at îhe bottom of the title-page.
The close printing of this work is remarkable :-in the common mode and page, the matter would have filled two large octavo volumes :—it is therefore very ckar that the worthy author could have had no view to pecuniary advantage from the sale of his per. formance.
S.R. Art. 28. Some Objections to " A Method of increasing the Quantily
of circulating Money ; upon a new and solid Principle." By A.H. 8vo. 6d. Arch. 1799.
A method which, withoui adding one penny to our siock of coin, it is pretended shall be capable of increasing the quantity of circulating money,--whatever may be its claim to the merit of novelty, will doubtless be liable to objection on the score of solidity. To create this increose of money, the method proposed was, to issue bank stock notes to such proprietors of stock as should desire them, which notes were io be put in circulation by 100l. stock being made security for every 25 l. of notes su circulated. In the pamphlet before us, the author points out some objections which he thinks may be removed, and observes that the plan might then be of benefit. His rtasons we deem it unnecessary for us to examine. The stockholder, it lie wishes to convert his stock into money, finds no dithculty ; and, whenever it is convenient, he may again with equal facility repurchase stock.
The projector might have given a more honest title to his scheme, by calling it, "A Method of increasing the quan:ity of paper in circulaiion;" for such was the effect liiended.
Capt.B..y Art. 29. The Coneluct of Great Britain vindicated against the Calum.
nics of Foreign Enemies and Domestic Conspirators ; since the Æra of the Commencement of che present War with France. By Charles Tweedie, jun. 8vo. Pp. 33. 55. Boards. Stockdale. 1799.
This is rather a singular subject for a very juvenile pen,' which Mr. Tweedie protesses his to be. Sage reflections must not be expected: but Mr. T. evinces considerable ability, and has exhibited a very animated and flowery declamation in defence of the war, and of all ito abertors,
The work is divided into four sections. In the ist, Mr. T. undertakes to prove that the wanton aggressions of France were produce tive of the war ; in the 2d, he considers the charges of disaster arid disgrace ; in the 3d, he maintains that the attempts at negotiation were frustrated by France; and in the 4th, he offers some gencral reflections.
It is unnecessary for us to follow this young Essayist over ground so frequently trodalen ; and the inquiry how we got into the war is not now so very interesting : the question is how we shall get out of it with safety and honour. Mr. T. labours to prove that it originated with the French; and yet, though he blames our enemies for commencing it, he regards it as a very fortunate.circumstance for this country.
• War (he says) was the skilful hand which amputated the gangrened limb and saved the patient's life,' p. 135. Again, 'though the continuance of the war be a ponderous weight, still when it is considered that it is our only saviour from the horrors either of grinding slavery or of instant dissolution, it is a weight which self-preservation will cheerfully bear.' P. 231.
Does Mr. Tweedie mean to say that, when we cease to fight, we shall cease politically to live ?-He thus describes Holland, which may serve as a short specimen of his style :
• The empire of commerce, so lately flourishing with wealth and splendor, is now dwindled into a nest for vagrants and haunt for villains. The virtuous and august Conclave, the States-General, has been converted into a gang of free-booters and Septembrizers, chosen by France herself, the mother of monsters, out of that hellish crew whose sole qualification is superiority in vice.' P. 139.
We need offer no farther comment. Mr. T. discovers a considerable degree of learning, with the imperfections of a young writer :when his judgment is more matured, he may become a valuable author.
Moo.y. RELIGIOUS, &c. Art. 30. Christ precious to those that believe : a practical Treatise on Faith and Love: by John Fawcett, A. M.
PP. 304. 38. Boards. Willis. 1799.
It is an unquestionable truth that Jesus Christ, the founder of our faith, is highly honourable and estimable in the view of Christians; and it is, as the word tota', 1 Pet. ii. 7. may be supposed to import, an honour to them to be thus connected, and established on a sure foundation. The author now before us illustrates and applies considerations of this kind in a great variety of views : he is a writer of the calvinistical, and what has been generally termed the puritanical strain ; a character which, in former years, appertained very much to preachers, and others, both within and without the pale of the English establishment. To many readers, this strain will prove acceptable, and probably useful :-but let us take heed that while we aim at utility, as doubtless Mr. Fawcett does, our language and our sentiments may be really scriptural; and that we pass not the bounds which Christian truth will clearly admit. In the course of his discussion, which is warm and affectionate, though diffuse, we observe