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• The insects there, which are the most numerous and troublesome, are the flies * Both man and beast are cruelly tormented by them. No idea can be formed of their obstinate rapacity, when they wish to fix on some part of the body. It is in vain to drive them away, they return again the self same moment, and their perseverance wcaries out the most patient spirit. They like to fasten themselves in preference on the corners of the eye, and on the edge of the eye. lid, tender parts towards which a gentle moisture attracts them. I have observed a species, or rather a variety of fies, streaked with gray and dark brown, and resembling the common fly, only much smaller. Their habits also differ, for I did not perceive that they were often on the wing, nor that they incommoded men or animals. They were almost constantly found in houses, fastened on the walls, and,
from preference, on the whitest.
The flies are not the only troublesome insects ; the houses are filled with a vast quantity of bugs, whose bites are cruelly painful. Notwithstanding this, the Egyptians, covered over with these vile insects, sleep profoundly; their skin, hard and thick, renders them impene. trable, whilst the European undergoes, in the same places, a real pu. nishment. The bite of these bugs always occasioned on my body hard swellings, and as big as the end of my finger.
• An insect still more disgusting annoyed us during the whole of our journey through Upper Egypt. The inhabitants, even of the better order, and who appear the most cleanly, are covered with lice, in spite of their frequent bathing and religious ablutions; the bey, the kiaschef, are not free from them. When they feel themselves bitten by any of these insects, they seize it carefully, and put it, withone hurting it, on the same sopha where they are sitting, from whence it is not long of [in] crawling on some other person. Whatever precau. tion I could take to avoid being tormented by them, I was obliged to submit to it, and to endure the envenomed bitings of these insects, which are of an uncommon size and voracity in Egypt.
When my companions were employed in clearing themselves from thein, they used jocularly to call their search hunting à la Turque.'
M. Sonnini was considerably advanced in his passage up the Nile before he saw a crocodile. These hideous animals are here suffered to repose in peace, and are in consequence extremely numerous. They are seen basking in the sun, with their heads above water, their bodies floating down with the current, and enjoying the heat, in which they delight. It is easy to approach them, but very difficult to kill them. The author shot at several : but, whether they were impenetrable by a bullet, or when wounded they retired to the bottom to die, they plunged into the water and disappeared. As he sailed upwards in the neighbourhood of Thebes, his boat was often surrounded by these animals floating on the surface, and she wing neither any signs of fear nor any symptoms of hostility. In fact, they never venture to assail any thing which is raised above the surface in which they swim.
5 * Musca domestica. Lin.'
Aster having returned to Alexandria, M. Sonnini concludes bis work by informing us that he departed thence for Greece and Turkey: the details of which expedition we are taught to expect at a future period.
Of those cities of antient Egypt, of which history has la. boured to immortalize the names, the reader will naturally look for some account in such a work as the present; and he will expect that the traveller should trace their site and describe their ruins. In some instances, the author has gratified this curiosity; in others, the danger of the undertaking has obliged him to disappoint it. Thus we are told that, in the neighbourhood of Gizah, near Cairo, is the site of the antient Memphis : but we find no account of the remains of its former grandeur; nor do we learn, indeed, whether any remains of that celebrated city are yet extant. Near to this place, also, stand those monuments of the former magnificence and power of Egypt, which the world has so long agreed or been compelled to admirethe pyramids :—but even of these M. Sonnini gives no description, nor any details ; either because he deemed the subject trite, or because he had not time to examine them, or could not safely effect the investigation.
At Scheick Abadé, on the eastern bank of the Nile, are yet seen the ruins of the celebrated town of Antinous, built by the Emperor Adrian in honour of the memory of his favourite of that name. The remains of this city speak favourably of the taste of its former inhabitants. Unlike the monuments of Egyptian architecture, which astonish only by the immensity of their size, the ruins of Antinous bear the marks of elegance of design and justness of proportion. It was here that Mr. Bruce was attacked by some of the innumerable robbers, who render these and the other monuments of antiquity in Egypt almost inaccessible.-M. Sonnini, however, and his draftsman, landed here, with an intention of taking some views; and the Jatter had actually completed a drawing of one of the columns (which is given in the plates) of a triumphal arch, when a shot tired by a person who had been placed as centinel warned them of approaching danger. They were obliged to fly to their boat, and happily arrived in time to escape a band of barbarians who pursued them.
In the vicinity of the modern Echmimm, is the site of the ontient Panopolis. Some remains of this city also are yet visible. Among them, M. Sonnini observed one stone seventeen feet long, eight and an half in breadth, and four : ick; on one side of which was a Greek inscription, of which the word
TIBERIO only was legible. Part of this stone is fixed in the ground: but the earth, being dug from the bottom of it at one side, leaves visible some painting, which represents, in the middle, a sphere, with the twelve signs of the Zodiac. The colour which has best withstood the ravages of time is skyblue:- the others are almost invisible.
Of the antient Tentyris, or Tentyra, we find some notices; and, among the plates, some representations of figures which are found in a temple that has hitherto been proof against the joint attacks of time and barbarism. It was consecrated to Isis, who was here adored under the form of a cat; and it is, says M. Sonnini, one of those edifices which antiquity has with most success striven to render immortal. He describes with admiration the durability of the colours which are here apparent, and he minutely gives the dimensions of the edifice:
• It was not in their architecture alone that the Egyptians displayed that affection for posterity, that love of immortality which presides in all their works; they wished also that the painting they employed should be equally durable. The colours of which they made use, the two-edged tool serving to incorporate them closely and for ever with bodies as hard and as solid as stone, are so many proofs of their profound knowledge in the arts, and so many secrets, which our researches have not yet been able to discover. The cieling of the temple of Dendera is painted in fresco, of the brilliant colour of azúre blue, with which the vault of the firmnainent shines in fine weather: the figures in relief strewed along its bottom, are painted of a beauti. ful yellow; and these paintings, at the expiration of some thousands of years, possess still a brilliancy to which our freshest colours do not approach, and they are still as lively as if they had been newly laid
• I have said that the front of this temple, an admirable and but little known work of the genius and the patience which, among the ancient people of Egypt, produced wonders, was an hundred and thirtytwo feet, and some inches in length. I took its other dimensions with the same exactness. The depth of the peristyle is an hundred and fifteen feet three inches, and its breadth sixty feet eleyen inches. The two sides of the edifice are two hundred and fifty-four feet ninc inches and a half in length; finally, the depth is a hundred and tea feet eleven inches. The summit of the temple is flattened, and formed of very large stones, which are laid from one pillar to another, or on two walls of separation. Several of these masses are eighteen feet long and six broad. Rubbish heaped up, and the sand which collects there, have raised the soil to a level with the roof of the building, and you casily ascend it from behind, although the front is still elevated seventy feet above ground. The inhabitants of this canton had availed themselves of this disposition; they had built a village on the very summit of the temple, as on a basis more firm than the inconstant sands or marshy earth, upon which they generally erect their dwellings. When I was at Dendera, this modern village was desolated and
overthrown ; its ruins of hardened mud formed a singular contrast with the magnificent remains of the ancient city of Tentyris. We beheld there with sorrow the most complete proof of the total annis hilation of the arts, in a country which had given birth and such an astonishing perfection to them, and the still more deplorable decline of the human mind.'
We cannot take leave of this work without declaring tlrat, from the perusal of it, we have received considerable pleasure; and much information respecting the manners, habitudes, and principles of the people of Egypt. It has enabled us in some measure to calculate the difficulties which have opposed the late bold attempt of the author's countrymen to over-run it; as well as to appreciate the advantages which would result from its conquest, were it possible to introduce and establish in it such a government as would civilize its people ; and, instead of barbarous superstition, gross ignorance, and savage ferocity, would plant in it useful science, productive industry, and good morals. We have already hinted that, on various points of national manners, customs, &c. M. Sonnini's details are by no means suited to the delicate reader. In a work otherwise adapted for general perusal, and calculated to excite general curiosity, this circumstance is to be regretted ; and it is to be wished that Dr. Hunter had in these instances taken some salutary freedoms with his original : but he has been minutely faithful to his text.
Among the plates, we have a portrait of the author, and a good copy of M. D'Anville's map of Egypt. To the French edition is subjoined a General Index to the three volumes; which useful accompaniment is omitted in the English translation. A table of chapters, with the heads of their subjects, which also occurs in the original, is however given by Dr. Hunter.
Art. XII. A Miscellany ; containing, amidst a Variety of other
Matters, curious and interesting, Remarks on Boswell's Johnson ; with considerable Additions, and some Anecdotes of that extraordinary Character: a Critique on Burger's Leonora ; in which she is clearly proved of English Extraction, from an old Ballad still extant; consequently, in its German Dress, the Subject is neither new nor original ; and an introductory Essay on the Art of Reading and Speaking in Public, in Two Parts. By S. Whyte,
and his son E. A. Whyte. 8vo. Pp. 200. Dublin. 1799. THE principal tendency of this collection is to vindicate the
character of the late Mr. Sheridan, from an attack which Mr. Whyte conceives to have been made on it in Boswell's life of Johnsɔn. This is a topic which would naturally appear 40
303 momentous to Mr. W. from his habits of intimacy with the person aggrieved: but it will perhaps be little interesting to most of our readers ; who, in the rapid succession of events in the literary as well as the political world, may not retain much recollection of Mr. Sheridan as an author. Respecting Dr. Johnson, the curiosity of the public has been amply gratified. That he might be provoked to speak harshly, on a particular occasion, of a man who generally possessed his esteem; and that his biographer might indiscreetly repeat to the public, what was never intended by Johnson to pass the walls within which it was uttered, are points which will be granted, without exciting any commotion in the literary world. Mr. Whyte scems, indeed, to have had something farther in view: by introducing a considerable portion of Mr. Sheridan's private history, he has found an opportunity of relating the services which were done by himself to that gentleman, during the embarrassment of his circumstances. Mr. Wi's conduct on this occasion seems to have been highly meritorious: but the whole is too circumstantially detailed; and the great admixture of the history of the Irish Theatre will rather create ennui, than furnish entertainment to the English reader.
In the original letters of Mr. and Mrs. Sheridan, we meet with nothing particularly interesting; excepting an ode to Patience by thai lady, which we shall extract for the reader's amusement :
ODE TO PATIENCE.
Collected, calm, resign'd;
Say, whence this turn of mind ?
Thy threaten'd fight to stay ;
And rul'd with gentle sway.
My wayward lot has known;
When sorrow weigh'd me down?