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sometimes obscure, in struggling for uncommon accuracy. Dr. Jackson, nevertheless, manifests a truly candid and philosóphical mode of thinking; and we regret that the execution of a work, which comprehends so much practical knowlege, should be in any respect unequal to the value of its materials.


Art. VIII. The Travels of Antenor in Greece and Asia : from a

Greek Manuscript found at Herculaneum : including some Ac-
count of Egypt. Translated from the French of E. F. Lantier.
With additional Notes by the English Translator. 3 Vols. 8vo.
18s. Boards. Longman and Rees. 1799.
His work is an imitation of Barthélémy's celebrated Travels

of Anacharsis : but it differs materially from its prototype. The travels of Anacharsis are the produce of an intimate acquaintance with the original Greek writers, and comprize the most instructive details concerning the political, as well as the literary state of that people, during their most brilliant period. The present writer has been contented to display an inferior kind of knowlege, and to exhibit peculiarities over which the delicacy of Barthélémy had studiously drawn a veil. The travels of Antenor are in reality nothing more than a series of novels, not of the most refined nature, connected by the rambles of the hero ; who sails from place to place merely for the

purpose of asking people to relate their adventures. This is a very easy method of composing books; and M. Lantier seems to have taken assistance, on all sides, with very little scruple. The description of Sappho's leap from the Leucadian promontory *, and the story of Phanor and Ariaspe to (or that of the Chevalier Bayard,) are taken from the Spectator; and the consultation of the old lady with the oracle of Æscula. pius I is copied almost verbatim from a jeu d'esprit of Vol. taire, which has been retailed in the periodical publications for twenty or thirty years past. This patch-work, however, is pleasantly put together, and may afford entertainment to those who do not know the secret of the composition : but it cannot convey satisfaction even to moderately-informed scholars; and its numerous love-scenes are too highly coloured to render it altogether proper for young readers of either sex.

We content ourselves with indicating the first instances of plagiarism which occurred to us, in looking through these volumes; as it wuuld not be interesting to the reader to search for more. Plutarch has been largely laid under contribution,

Vol. i. p. 249

+ Vol. iii. p. 33

# Vol. iii. p. 361, 2.


and has furnished almost the only seasoning of M. Lantier's pages. The English translator has followed his author's example; and, when pieces of Greek poetry are supposed to be introduced, he has generally made use of some translation which had already appeared. We have, for example, Phillips's translation of Sappho's Ode ; one of the best-known pieces of English poetry. We are indeed astonished at the gravity with which incidents, familiar to every smatterer in antiquity, are dilated and amplified. The story of Damocles has a whole chapter allotted to it.

Having mentioned the striking imperfections of this work, it is but just that the author should be heard for himself. His manner and style may be appreciated from the following specimen :

· Here Aristippus joined them. He was returning from the country-house of Anaxagoras, where he had gone to inform him of the death of his son. " When I communicated this intelligence," said Aristippus, " he answered coldly, that he knew he had only made him mortal.” Aristippus praised this reply for its stoical fortitude; and Lasthenia censured it for its insensibility. To terminate the dispute, she told him of our conversation on the subject of Plato. “ I knew him well,” replied he: “ he was a very large man, with broad shoulders, and square set. The great extent of his talents, the comprehensiveness of his acquirements, the sweetness of his disposition, and the charms of his couversation, caused him to be loved and respected throughout Greece. It was pretended that he was the son of Apollo, and that his mother Parectonia, sacrificing to the Muses, with her husband Ariston, on Mount Hymettus, laid down her child among some myrtles, where she soon after found him surrounded with a swarm of bees, some hovering around his head, and others depositing their honey on his lips.

c. It is also said that Socrates, in a dream, saw a young swan fly from the altar of love, and place itself on the knees of the child; after which it rose into the air, and fascinated both gods and men with the sweetness of its voice.

“ As to his moral system, Plato followed that of his master So. crates, which, however, I cannot entirely adopt. These philosophers despise pleasure, which I assert to be the sovereign good, when it is enriched with intellectual enjoyment, and pursued with taste and delicacy. In me, the maxims of Zeno and the other professors of ele. vated wisdom cxcite only sensations of pity and compassion. When we are aflicted, they prescribe the study of serious books, full of mo. rality; and attempt to console us hy asserting the necessity of evil, and ihe fatality and wretchedness of human nature; but surely it is a mere mockery to console us under misfortune, by presenting to our rrinds the idca that we are miserable. I once had a friend who were he was unhappy had recourse to agreeable liquors. In my opinion he argucd wisely, and shewed that he was acquainted with the nature of man. The soul, while united to the body, is continuali y enslaved by it ; and if the motion of the blood be too slow, the animal spirits noe sufficiently r fined, or their quantity too small, we become dejected and melancholy : but if we can change this state of the body by what we drink, the soul receives another train of impressions, and thus recovers is usual energy and life. Even the serious Plato knew the value of gaiety and mirth ; for when he died, a book of witticisms was found under his pillow----But I must quit you, for I am going to dine with Xenophanes, who pretends that the moon is inhabited, and that, upon earth, the sum of happiness exceeds the sum of misery ; which, however, is far from being my opinion ; for I am inclined to think the gods had drank rather too much nectar when the whim took them to contrive and arrange this terraqueous globe.” • As soon as he was gone,

- There," said I, " is the most anni. able and the happiest man in 'Athens.”—“ The most amiable, I agree,” said Lasthenia. “ In company with women he is quite en. chanting ; and the more dangerous, as passion never robs him of his presence of mind: but as to his happiness, I think it rather problem. atical. Do you remeinber what he let fall yesterday concerning a young country girl, of whom he said, I completely possessed ber, with. out her completely possessing me?He once said the same of Lais; and, in fact, he never felt a stronger passion than he then described. His heart is in luis head, and he reflects on his pleasures even in his mo. ments of enjoyment. Can this be happiness ? Is it possible to be happy without the sweet illusions of love and friendship? Cool and tranquil in his attachments, he was ever a stranger to the anxieties of jealousy, which are the strongest proof of love. He was told, one day, that Lais did not love hiin. * I do not imagine,' said he, that the fish love me, and yet I eat them with great pleasure.' Another time being secretly informed that she frequently committed infide. lities, “I pay her,' replied he, “not that others may not enjoy her, but to enjoy her my elf.' Diogenes reproaching him for thus living with a courtizan, he answered, • Do you think it absurd that I should in. habit a house where several other tenants have lodged before me?'Neither is he' more ardent in friendship, which he describes as a word destitute of meaning. Fools and idiots, he says, pursue it from motives of interest, and the wise are satisfied with themselves, without being uneasy about others. He treats ihe love of our country with equal levity. According to him, it is an absurdity to risk our happi ness or our life for a moltitude of ignorant, senseless beings. The country of a wise man, says he, is the whole world, not a particular village, town, or city."

M. Lantier luas bestowed a chapter on the Jews, containing à sarcastic account of their government and manners, chiefly compiled from Voltaire. His wit, on this occasion, is neither brilliant nor well directed : witness Phanor's repartee to the person who conducts him through the Temple of Jerusalem :

"Our guide now conducted us to the chamber where the treasures were deposited, particularly the sacred vessels of gold and silver, and the dresses of the priests.' He shewed us the magazines where the oferings appropriated for the food of the priests, Levites, widows,


and orphans are kept. They have other repositories of wine and oil
for the libations, of salt for seasoning the offerings, and of lambs.
for sacrifices. • Two of these,” said he, “ are offered up every
morning and evening, and this we call the continual burnt-offering.
On the Sabbath and other holidays, the sacrifices are greatly multia
plied, independent of the offerings of private individuals.' In this
edifice, continued he, “our great king Solomon sacrificed twenty-
two thousand fatted oxen, and one hundred and twenty thousand
sheep in one day *.”—“ And where,” cried Phanor, “ could they
find vessels enough to dress them?”

It is evident that this performance cannot be placed on the
same shelf with that of Barthélémy; and we must repeat that
it abounds with passages which are improper for the perusal
of young persons.


Art. IX. A general View of the History of Switzerland; with a

particular Account of the Origin and Accomplishment of the late
Swiss Revolution. By John Wood, Master of the Academy
established at Edinburgh by the Honourable the Board of Trustees
for the Improvement of Arts in Scotland. 8vo. pp. 415. 65
Boards. Edinburgh, Hill; London, Cawthorne. 1799.
The recent and most important transactions in Switzerland

have excited so general an interest throughout almost every
part of Europe, that the present publication will be an ac-
ceptable guide to many readers, who wish to form a compe-
tent idea of the history of that country. The author did not
design it for a complete account of the government and laws of
the Helvetic confederacy, but rather as ar: introduction to the
history of Switzerland, and of the late revolution in its affairs.
Besides the French and Swiss authorities from which he drew
up his narrative, he acknowleges himself most indebted to that
judicious traveller, Mr. Coxe. It is also a circumstance
favourable to this performance, that, for a considerable time
before and since the commencement of the present war, Mr.
Wood resided in Switzerland; where he formed an intimacy
with several eminent persons, who made him acquainted with
a number of facts which have operated towards overturning
the government and happiness of the Helvetian republic.

Of the antient history of Switzerland, we know little more than what the Roman authors have recorded. The Helvetians appear to have been descended from the Germans and Gauls, especially the former. The same institutions and customs, which Cæsar and Tacitus have at ributed to the Germans, prevailed in Helvetia, i. e. that part of Switzerland which is

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"* See i Kings, viji. 63.'



situated between the Alps, the Rhine, the Rhone, and mount Jura. They were, also, in conjunction with the Cimbri and Teutones, vanquished by the Romans. The policy and arts of their conquerors had scarcely made an impression on them, when the inroads of the Goths, Vandals, Huns, and other northern tribes, involved them in the same calamities with their masters. Some time after these events, we find the Burgundians and Alemanni in Helvetia. Next succeeded the Franks, who introduced the Feudal System. In the eighth century, when Germany was separated from the empire of the Franks, Helvetia underwent a division. In the eleventh, it acknowleged the sovereignty of Austria.

During the twelfth century, when Helvetia iras subject to the House of Austria, various disputes that arose between them and the Emperor induced several districts, particularly those of Uri, Schweitz, and Underwalden, to enter into a close alliance, in defence of their rights against the unjust attacks of the Emperor's governors. This alliance they were accustomed to renew formally every ten years, until the death of Frederic II. in 1250. After this period com. menced an interregnum, which threw the empire into anarchy and confusion. The nobles and bishops took the opportunity to endeavour to extend their power, and to incroach upon the privlleges of the people. The latter put themselves under the protection of Rodolph Count of Hapsburgh, who was chosen Emperor in 1273. This prince received in return a small revenue from the cantons of Helvetia, and he confirmed or bestowed upon them various privileges.'

Such was the origin of the memorable union between the Helvetic cantons, formed for the mutual defence of their liberties :- but it was much altered during the following centuries. At first, the confederates were not bound in a direct 'manner to each other:- it was only since the convention of Stantz, and the treaty of the eight cantons with Fribourg and Soleuse, that it took the form of a constant, general, and national unión. From this period, the Swiss, in virtue of a prescription of long standing, strengthened by the acknowlegement of several deeds and treaties, became entirely independent of the empire.'

For the purpose of supporting their independence, the Helvetic confederacy had devised a scheme for forming a regular army with the least possible inconvenience to liverty, The youth were diligently trained to martial exercises; the whole people were enrolled and regularly drilled; and a considerable number of well-disciplined troops were employed in foreign service.

· The foreign service of the Swiss has been liighly condemned, and often reprobated as a barbarous policy. But this system, independent of furnishing a body of well-disciplined forces, which could


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